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(no. 67) has omitted to indicate the parallel linedivisions between the seventh and eighth lines, after the word "Provincial." In no. 68 he has made a similar omission in the imprint, between the second and third lines, after "Bovlenger.'
Apparently, the Rouen printer and dealer worked off a special edition for sale in Paris, with a fresh title-page giving the name of the dealer in the latter city - the home edition being H. 67, and the Paris edition H. 68. That the Rouen edition was the first, is evident from the typographical corrections above noted. Further, in the Rouen example in Lenox, there are numerous "bites" of the frisket, in printing; in the Paris example, in the same library, the impressions are all clear, showing that the frisket had by that time been adjusted.
A note in Lenox Catalogue, after the description of H. 68, says: "In the Bib. du Roi at Paris there was a copy having folio 1 of first part double. The title to Chap. i. was mil six cens trente sept — in the other trente six - the latter no doubt a mistake and intended to be cancelled."
Copies of this Relation are to be found in the Brown (H. 67), Lenox (both issues), Laval University at Quebec (both issues), and Harvard College (H. 67) libraries, and (H. 67) in the British Museum. Copies of the first issue (Rouen) have been sold or priced as follows: O'Callaghan (1882), no. 1216, brought $20, and had cost him $33.75 in gold; Harrassowitz (1882), no. 24, priced at 150 marks; Barlow (1889), no. 1277, sold for $22.50; Dufossé (1892), priced at 300 francs. Copies of the second issue (Rouen et Paris) have been priced as follows: Leclerc (1878), no. 779, 200 francs; Dufossé (1891 and 1893), 225 and 300 francs.
NOTES TO VOL. XI
(Figures in parentheses, following number of note, refer to pages of English text.)
1 (p. 7).—The grain that some call Turkish: Indian corn, or maize (Zea mays, Linn.),—also known at that time as “Turkey wheat" or "Turkey corn" (from a vague notion that it originated in Turkey), and "Indian wheat" (blé d'Inde). The word "maize" is a form of the original Haytian name, mahis or mahiz. The early explorers found this grain under cultivation by the American aborigines, from Canada to Chile; and the Spaniards, soon after the discovery of America, introduced maize into Europe, whence it rapidly spread over the civilized world. There was long a controversy among scientific men over the question whether maize was of American or of Oriental origin: the former theory was advocated notably by Humboldt and De Candolle, and appears most probable. Cartier describes the culture and use of this corn by the natives of Hochelaga, in his Brief Récit (Tross ed., 1863), fol. 23, 24. Champlain saw it everywhere along the North Atlantic coast; he is "the first who has left a record of its cultivation in New England, and of its preservation through the winter." He also noticed that the Indians made successive plantings thereof.-See his Voyages (Prince Soc.), vol. ii., pp. 64-66, 82, 121, 122. Cf. Smith's Generall Historie of Virginia (London, 1629; reprint, Richmond, Va., 1891), vol. i., P. 126.
On the preparation and use of maize as food, see vol. v. of this. series, note 28; Champlain (ut supra), vol. ii., p. 123, and vol. iii.. pp. 162-164; Smith's Virginia (ut supra), vol. i., p. 127; and Charlevoix's Journ. Hist., pp. 331-333. It is estimated that`a larger part of the human race is nourished by this grain than by any other except rice.
Columbus and Oviedo mention that the aborigines of the New World made from maize an intoxicating liquor, called chicha, which was also observed by Pickering in use in Peru (Chron. Hist. of Plants, pp. 610, 859). For further information regarding maize, see Salisbury's History and Chemical Investigation of Maize (Albany, 1849); Lundy's "Zea Maize,” in Phila. Numis. and Antiq. Soc. Proc., 25th anniv. (Phila., 1883), pp. 15-22; Carr's Food of Amer. Inds., and Mounds of Miss. Valley.
2 (p. 17).-Attignenonghac: see vol. viii., note 23.
3 (p. 49).—The Knights Hospitallers of St. John (also called Knights of Rhodes, and Knights of Malta), a religious and military order, had its origin in the hospitals founded at Jerusalem (1048), by certain Italians, for the benefit of pilgrims thither; these hospitals were served by a confraternity, under one Gerard. After the capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, the Hospital brothers were joined by several Knights, one of whom, Raymond du Puy, became the head of the order upon Gerard's death (1118.) To their former duties of hospitality and the care of the sick was now added that of knighthood, in opposition to infidels - which latter soon predominated in the work of the order. Its constitutions, based on the Augustinian rule, were approved by Pope Calixtus II. (1120). During four centuries, this order won great renown and power from its brilliant achievements in the long and bloody struggle between the Christians and Saracens. The island of Rhodes was the headquarters of the Hospitallers, from 1310 until 1522, when they were defeated, after a long siege, and driven from the island. The emperor Charles V. having given them the island of Malta, they established themselves here, rendering Malta one of the strongest fortified places in the world. They held this island until 1798, when it was captured by Bonaparte; since then, the order has had but a nominal existence, its seat having been at Rome since 1834.-See McClintock and Strong's Cyclop. of Bibl. Lit., vol. ix., pp. 246, 247.
4 (P. 49).—This seminary for Indian girls was founded by Madame de la Peltrie. Born at Alençon (1603), of a noble Norman family, Marie Madeleine de Chauvigny married a gentleman named De la Peltrie, but was left a childless widow at the age of twentytwo. Deeply religious and enthusiastic in temperament, she had, in early girlhood, desired to enter a convent; but the opposition of her family prevented such action. After the death of her husband, she engaged in works of piety and benevolence. Upon reading, in Le Jeune's Relation of 1635, his appeal for help in educating Indian girls, she determined to devote herself and her fortune to this cause,-making, during a severe illness, a vow to that effect. Commanded by her father to marry again, under pain of disinheritance, she contracted a nominal marriage with M. de Bernières-Louvigny, royal treasurer at Caen- —a gentleman of wealth and great piety. Her father dying soon afterwards, she fulfilled her vow by sailing to Canada (May, 1639) with three Ursuline nuns, with whom she founded a convent of that order in Quebec. There they maintained a school for girls, in which they received both French and Indian children. Mother Marie of the Incarnation was superior of the convent, from its foundation until her death in 1672. Lands were as
signed to the Ursulines, in the Jesuit seigniory of Notre Dame des Anges; but these were exchanged in 1646 for estates at Longue Pointe and on the Isle of Orleans.
Madame de la Peltrie remained at the Ursuline convent until 1642, when she joined the Montreal colony established in that year. Four years later, she was again in Quebec; the Journ. des Jésuites informs us that, on Nov. 21, 1646, she became a novice in the Ursuline order there. In their convent she died, Nov. 18, 1671; and her biography has been written by a nun of the order (Quebec, 1864, ca.).
5 (p. 49).—Le Jeune here refers to the school founded by René Rohault and his father (vol. vi., note 9; vol. viii., p. 227; vol. ix., note 32).
6 (p. 53).—Madame the Princess: Charlotte, princess of Condé (vol. ii., note 24). The piety of her son (vol. viii., note 13) is eulogized in the Relation of 1636 (vol. viii., p. 225).
7 (p. 59).—Concerning the Ursulines, see vol. v., note 3.
8 (p. 59).—Regarding the Hospital nuns, see vol. viii., note 64. 9 (p. 65). For sketch of Nicolas Adam, see vol. viii., note 55. 10 (p. 69).—Saucisson (Eng. “sausage"): a bag filled with powder, attached to a rocket to increase the noise of its explosion.
11 (p. 69).- Jean Bourdon, a native of Normandy, a surveyor and engineer by occupation, came to Canada in 1634. He was a prominent and public-spirited citizen of his adopted land,— actively participating in its civil affairs, and in its defense against the hostile Iroquois. In Oct.-Nov., 1645, he was commandant at Three Rivers, between Champflour's departure for France and the arrival of the latter's successor. In July, 1647, he was elected procuror-syndic by the colonists; and in September, 1663, was appointed by the Sovereign Council "procuror-general for His Majesty." Later, he was a member of the Council. In 1650, 1660, and 1664 he made voyages to France,-apparently in the interests of the Quebec colony as well as his own. He was one of the commercial company of Tadoussac (vol. ix., note 4). Dying Jan. 12, 1668, he left a widow and six children. Of his four daughters, two became Ursuline and two Hospital nuns; Marguerite was one of the founders of the General Hospital of Quebec (1693), and Anne was a superior of the Ursulines. Mother Marie of the Incarnation writes (1668) in the highest praise of Bourdon's integrity and goodness, and of the piety and charity of his widow; both were warm friends of Mother Marie.
In 1646, Bourdon went with Isaac Jogues (vol. ix., note 41) on an embassy to the Iroquois. May 2, 1657, he undertook an expedition from Quebec, endeavoring to reach Hudson Bay by sea; but at 55° N. lat. he encountered so many icebergs that he could go no farther. His Huron guides were murdered by the Eskimos; and in August of that year he was compelled to return to Quebec. As
early as 1641, he sketched the first map of French Canada (vol. iv., note 38).
Bourdon early became a landed proprietor. In May, 1637, he was granted 50 arpents of woodland — a part of the tract known later as "the plains of Abraham;" this is the first Canadian concession which mentions the Coutume de Paris. Ten years later, he secured another estate, extending a half-league along the St. Lawrence; this and the above grant together constituted the fief Dautray. In March, 1646, the fief St. Francis was also granted to him jointly with Jean Le Sueur de St. Sauveur, a priest, who had come with Bourdon to Canada; this last was augmented (1653) by a part of the common lands formerly granted to the colony of Quebec, "in consideration of the expenditures made by the sieurs Bourdon and St. Sauveur upon their concessions for the protection of Quebec against the inroads of the Iroquois." In 1653, Bourdon obtained still another grant, that of Pointe aux Trembles.
12 (p. 69).-Jacques Gourdeau (born in 1614, says Sulte; but 1624, according to Tanguay), a native of Poitou, France, was in Quebec in March, 1637. In 1652, he there married Eléonore de Grandmaison, widow of sieur de Chavigny, who possessed several estates. Gourdeau and his wife lived in her house on the Isle of Orleans; and there he was assassinated (June 2, 1663) by a servant, who set fire to the house to conceal his crime. Gourdeau left to his widow four children.
13 (p. 87).-Beaupré and Cap de Tourmente are described in vol. ix., note 37. The seigniory of Beaupré was one of those assigned to Laval, first bishop of Canada.
14 (p. 123).— Pierre de la Porte, a native of Paris, was at Quebec in May, 1637-being mentioned, in the document describing Bourdon's first concession, as the possessor of lands between Quebec and Cap Rouge. He seems to have returned to Paris within a few years, for a daughter was there born to him who married, at Quebec (1665), François Génaple.
15 (p. 125). For sketch of the Attikamègues, see vol. ix., note 20. 16 (p. 137).-Charles Raymbault, born Apr. 6, 1602, became a Jesuit novice at Rouen, Aug. 24, 1621. His studies were pursued there and at La Flèche and Bourges; and he gave instruction successively in the colleges of Rennes, Blois, and Amiens. From 1633
to 1637, he acted as procuror for the college of Rouen; in the latter year, being appointed agent for the Canada mission, he soon after departed for Quebec. In 1640, he was laboring with Buteux at Three Rivers; and in the autumn of that year was sent to the Huron country with Claude Pijart, that they might establish missions among the Algonkin tribes north of the Hurons. They began their