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6. the arts with which they were acquainted ; 7. their re. ligious ideas and institutions; 8. such fingular and detached customs as are not reducible to any of the former heads.Under these heads he has collected almost every particular concerning the American tribes, which the reader can form a wish to know. Though he claims not perhaps the merit of being à practised naturalist, he has availed himself with much advantage of the stores amassed by that class of writers, and has formed from them a picture more striking and complete tha'n is to be found in the original authors : We are sorry that this very interesting part of the work, consisting of an infinite variety of particulars, admits no abridgement, by which we might gratify the curiosity of our readers ; we therefore refer them to the History, where they will find their trouble repaid with much pleasure and inftruction.

The inhabitants of Cuba, ambitious to distinguish thema selves by fome enterprize of importance, and guided by the opinion of Columbus, who always maintained that the moft valuable discoveries were to be expected by sailing toward the Weit, had dispatched, at different times, two sinall squadrons ' to explore the regions in the bays of Honduras and Campeachy, before they equipt the armament intended for the conquest of Mexico. These squadrons discovered and failed along a great part of the coast of Yucatan, and returned to Cuba withi such favourable accounts of the country and inhabitants, as inspired Vellaquez, governor of that fettlement, with the most ardent desire to add these territories to the dominions of Spain. He accordingly fitted out, at his own expence and that of the colony, a small fleet; consisting of eleven Tips, the largest of which did not exceed 100 tons; and embarked on board of it 617 men, 508 of whom were soldiers. Thirteen only of these soldiers were armed with muskets; 32 had cross-bows, and the rest, swords and spears. Their artillery consisted of 10 small field pieces, drawn by 16 horses. With this contempo tible armament did Fernando Cortes, on whom Velasquez had conferred the fupreme command, fet fail in order to conquer an empire 500 leagues in length, and zoo in breadth.

Cortes held a' course directly west toward the coast of Yu. catan, and penetrating to the bottom of the bay of Campeachy, landed at St. Juan de Ulua on the third day of April, in the year 1519. Montezuma, emperor of Mexico, had got intelligence of the Spaniards in their former expeditions, and had iffued orders refpeâing the conduct of his governors in that quarter, in case they liould receive any fature visit from these strangers. Accordingly, before Cortes had time to land his troops, the governor of the adjacent province, attended by

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forre fome persons of eminence, came on board, and informed him that they were sent by Montezuma to demand his reasons for visiting their country, and to offer him any affistance which might be necessary for prosecuting his voyage. Cortes assured them that he approached their coasts with the most friendly intentions; that he came as ambassador from don Carlos, king of Castile, the greatest monarch of the East; and was entrusted with proposals of such moment, that he could ime part them to none but Montezuma himself.' . During this interview, some painters in the train of the Mexican chiefs were employed in delineating on cotton cloths, figures of the ships, horses, artillery, and whatever attracted their attention, in order to convey them to the emperor. Cortes, with much ade dress, seized this opportunity of conquering the imaginations of the Mexicans before he should attack them with his forces. He immediately landed his troops. The trumpets founded an alarm; and the soldiers were ordered to perform such exercises as were best adapted to display the effect of their arms. The Mexicans stood silent and motionless with amazement; but when Cortes pointed his artillery towards the thick woods which surrounded his camp, and when they heard the explofions and saw the havoc made by the shot among the trees, they were perfecily confounded; some of them fell to the ground, and all of them considered the Spaniards as a race of beings superior to men, and little inferior to the gods themselves.

After various rencounters with the natives in the course of his march to Mexico, the capital of the empire, in which the latter were always repulfed with great loss, while the Spaniards suffered very little damage, Cortes finally reached that city.

Montezuma received Cortes with much respect, and afforded him every accommodation his capital would fupply. The latter, notwithstanding, soon began to be uneasy in his situation. Every advantage was on the side of the Mexicans, except military discipline, and the use of fire arins, They were extremely numerous, their resources were gréat; and as their reverence for the Spaniards would gradually abate in proportion to their acquaintance with them, it was not to be expe&ed that with such a handful of men, Cortes could long maintain his. ground. In this critical conjuncture he adopted the bold mealure of seizing the emperor in his palace, and of carrying him captive to the Spanish quarters. He wilhed to retain the perfon of Montezuma as a security for the peaceable behaviour of his fubjects, and to disconcert their operations in case they thould attempt any act of violence. He had scarcely projected

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this daring plan, before he executed it without refiftance, and soon after prevailed with his prisoner to acknowledge himself a, vaffal of the king of Caftile.

These repeated indignities at last rouzed the Mexicans to a degree of fury. They pressed the Spaniards so closely on every: side, and regarded so little the dangers to which they were exposed, that Cortes plainly perceived he could not long, repel their attacks. In this situation he had recourse to the au. thority of the emperor. He persuaded that monarch to present himself on the fortifications, drefled in his royal robes, in order to command his subjects to delift from hostilities. At the sight of Montezuma every act of violence ceased, and the people stood silent, with reverence and attention. But when they heard him enjoin forbearance and submislion, their re. fentment kept no bounds. They attacked him with stones. and other mislile weapons, so that all the power and dexterity. of the Spaniards were insufficient to protect him. The wounds he received on this occafion, added to the depresion of mind arising from the desperate state of his affairs, in a few days put a period to his life, in spite of all the efforts of Cortes to console him.

Matters were now advanced to a crisis paft all hope of ac'commodation ; and Cortes determined to conquer Mexico, or die in the attempt. Having therefore received a reinforcement of 180 men and 20 horses, he laid siege to the city. The Mexicans defended their capital seventy-five days, and during that time, exhibited every specimen of courage and conduct which could be expected from men little acquainted with military discipline, and terrified by the dreadful explosion of fire arms. The Spaniards, however, prevailed, and, along with the capital, subjected the empire to the crown of Caftile, without having received aid or encouragement of any sort froin the monarch to whose dominions they made such a valuable addition,

From the time that Nugnez Balboa, governor of Darien, had discovered the Pacific Ocean in the year 1517, no attempt had been made to explore the western coast of America towards the south, and, of course, the extensive and opulent empire of Peru still remained unknown. At length, in the year 1530, Francisco Pizarro, assisted by Diego de Almagro, and Hernando Luque, all inhabitants of Panama, undertook this enterprize ; and their efforts were crowned with success. Before he engaged in this expedition, Pizarro returned to Spain, in order to try what asistance he could procure from the crown towards equipping the armament it reqnired. But though Charles and his ministers were abundantly lavish in their praises


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of the heroic spirit he displayed; and approved in the strongest terms of his design, they would not consent to afford him any aid. All he could obtain was to be appointed governor and captain-general of the country which he should discover ; and though he was to conquer for the benefit of the king of Castile, he was left to find the means of conquest in his own resources.

After expending all his fortune, and stretching to the utmost his own credit and that of his friends, the armament he could procure seemed altogether inadequate to the purpose he had in view. It confisted only of three small ships, in which were embarked 180 soldiers, 36 of whom were horsemen. But fuch was the spirit of enterprize, and the rage of conquest, in the fixteenth century, that even with this most contemptible force, Pizarro did not hesitate to invade an empire usoo miles in length,

This bold adventurer, following the example of his coun. tryman Cortes, in his expedition against Mexico, pretended, on his landing in the Peruvian dominions, that he was ani: mated with the most amicable disposition, had come as am bassador from a great monarch of the East, and was invested with a commission of such importance, that he could commųnicate it only to the emperor himself. Deceived by these arts ful affurances of the perfidious Spaniard, the Peruvians permitted him to march without molcftation through the heart of their country, till he arrived at Caxa Malca, near which the Inca then had pitched his camp. At this place he demanded an interview, and knowing well the advantage which Cortes derived from having in custody the person of Mon!ezuma, he determined, at his first audience, to seize in like manner the person of Atahualpa, emperor of Peru.

• Early in the morning, (of the day of the audience) the Peruvian cainp was all in motion. But as Atahualpa was solicitous to appear with the greatest Splendor and magnificence in his first interview with the strangers, the preparations for this were fo tedious, that the day was far advanced before he began his march. Even then, left the order of the procession thould be deranged, he moved so slowly, that the Spaniards became impatient and apprehensive that some suspicion of their intention might be the cause of thiş delay. In order to remove this, Pizarro dispatched one of his of: ficers with fresh assurances of his friendly difpofition. At length the Inca approached. First of all appeared four hundred men, in an uniform dress, as harbingers to clear the way before him. He himself, fitting on a throne or couch, adorned with plumes of various colours, and almost covered with plates of gold and silver enriched with precious stones, was carried on the shoulders of his principal attendants. Behind him came fome chief officers of his court, carried in the same manner. Several bands of fingers and dancers accompanied this cavalcade ; and the whole plain was



covered with troops, amounting to more than thirty thousand men.

• As the Inca drew near the Spanish quarters, father Vincent Valverde, chaplain to the expedition, advanced with a crucifix in one hand, and a breviary in the other, and in a long discourse explained to him the doctrine of the creation, the fall of Adam, the incarnation, the sufferings and resurrection of Jesus Christ, the ap: pointment of St. Peter as God's vicegerent on earth, the transmif.. son of his apostolic power by succession to the popes, the donation niade to the king of Castile by pope Alexander of all the regions in the new world. In consequence of all this, he required Atahualpa to embrace the Christian faith, to acknowledge the supreme jurisdiction of the pope, and to submit to the king of Castile as bis lawful sovereign; promising, if he complied instantly with this requisition, that the Castilian monarch would protect his dominions, and permit him to continue in the exercise of his royal authority; but if he should impiously refuse to obey this summons, he de. nounced war againit him in his maiter's name, and threatened him with the most dreadful effects of his vengeance.

• This strange harangue, unfolding deep mysteries, and alluding to unknown facts, of which no power of eloquence could have conveyed at once a distinct idea to an American, was lo lamely translated by an unskilful interpreter, little acquainted with the idiom of the Spanish tongue, and incapable of expressing himself with propriety in the language of the Inca, that its general tenor was alto. gether incomprehentible to Atahualpa. Some parts in it, of more obvious meaning, filled him with astonithinent and indignatione His reply, however, was temperate. He began with oblerving, that he was lord of the dominions over which he reigned by hereditary succession, and added, that he could not conceive how a foreign priest should pretend to dispose of territories which did not belong to him; that if such a preposterous grant had been made, he, who was the rightful possessor, refused to contirin it; that he had no inclination to renounce the religious institutions established by his ancestors ; nor would he forfake the service of the Sun, the immortal divinity whom he and his people revered, in order to worship the God of the Spaniards, who was subject to death; that with respect to o her matters contained in his discourse, as he had never heard of them before, and did not now understand their meaning, lie defired to know where he had learned things fo extraordinary. " In this book," answered Valverde, reaching out to him bis breviary. The Inca opened it eagerly, and turning over the leaves, lifted it to his ear: “This," says he, « is filent; it teils me nothing;” and threw it with disdain to the ground. The eraged monk, running lowards his countrymen, cried oui, “ To arms, Christians, to arms; the word of God is infused; avenge this profanation on those impious dogs.”

• Pizarro, who, during this long conference, had with difficulty restrained his foidiërs, eager to seize the rich spoils of which they had now fo near a view, immediately gave the signal of afault. At once the martial music struck up, the cannon and inuskets began to fire, the horse rallied out fiercely to the charge, the iníantry rushed on Sword in hand., The Peruvians, astonished at the lude dennels of an attack which they did not expect, and dismayed with the destructive effects of the fire-arms, and the irresistible impression of the cavalry, fled with universal confternation on every side, without attempting either to annoy the enemy, or to defend themselves,


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