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to make use of them, when the mind of the great man is happily tempered, and when he is well disposed to be undeceived, and to receive information ; the choice of these must be confided to discretion, who best understands these matters, and is the best guide in such cases:

• Sola viri molles auditus, & tempora notas. • In the second place, you should never, in opposition to the opinion of a great man, be ftiff or pofitive in maintaining your own sentiments, because this is difficult to be done with out giving offence. The philosopher' Favorinus, answered wisely to some, who blamed him for giving way in a dispute he had with the emperor Adrian, saying, it was proper and necessary to give way to a man who commanded thirty legions.

• Thirdly, you may sweeten the bitter of truth, with a spe. cies of engaging and modest condescension ; which consists, more in actions than in words, that is, by being obsequious, and expreffing by your gestures, a disposition and desire to please ; and these will have a notable effect in promoting attention to your advice, because they will create an opinion, that the instruction is the offspring of generous fincerity, and not of positive pride. I would not however have it underftood, that the submission Mould be abject, or favour of meanness of spirit; but I had almost faid, that with respect to fuperiors, fubmission is generally defended from the hazard of such an imputation. Dionisius, tyrant of Syracuse, having refused to grant a request which was made to him by Aristippus, of Cyrene, he prostrated himself at his feet and obtained what he asked. Some people reprehended the action, as beneath the dignity of a philosopher, to which Aristippus an-swered; he that would be heard by Dionisius, muft apply his mouth to his feet, for there his ears are placed. The saying was pleasant, and I won't determine, whether or not the submission was excessive,

• I repeat my assurance, that by using these precautions, the open honest politician, will obtain a much higher degree of estimation in the mind of a great man, than the fly contemplative one. When he arrives at convincing the person, who was before persuaded he was able, that he is candid also, he ftands on sure ground. In consequence of his integrity, he may at times experience a few flights, but he will still continue to poffess the confidence he has gained; as it happened 'to the duke of Alva, with Philip II. when he sent the duke to conquer Portugal. The king before he set out, shewed him the flight of refusing to let him wait on him to take his leave, and at the same time confided to his management an enterPrize of such importance. On the contrary, the flatterer, although he in his ordinary conversation and deportment, is always pleasant and entertaining, you will perceive, if his fua perior is a wary man, that such sort of talents, don't introduce him deep into his efteem. Many people make use of flatterers, as men who are feverish use water; and alihough it may seem obnoxious to them, they gargle their throats with it, but don't swallow it. Generally speaking, and to me the conclufion is infallible, that with an equal share of talents, the good, candid, faithful, grateful man, who is a lover of justice and equity, will make a greater fortune, and with more certainty, than him who is void of those qualities, or poffeffed of opposite ones.'

These Discourses are distinguished by a strain of candid and unprejudiced reasoning, occasionally illustrated with apposite anecdotes from history. The author's sentiments concur with the dictates of the most liberal philosophy; and while he directs his arguments towards the refutation of error, he enforces the practice of virtue.

An Account of some of the most romantic Parts of North Wales.

8vo. 25. 6d. Sewed. T. Davies. THE principality of Wales is acknowledged by all who

know the country, to contain many sublime and pi&turesque scenes of nature. Towering mountains and deep-funk valleys, awful precipices and foaming cataracts, seem to vye with each other in attracting the observation, and exciting the astonishment of the spectator ; those are not however the only objects which afford gratification to the traveller. The country is interspersed with a number of beautiful landscapes, of a less magnificent, though not less romantic appearance; ornamented with elegant villas, and in many places enriched with the venerable structures of antiquity,

The author of this agreeable Excursion is Mr. Cradock, a gentleman well known in the republic of letters.--For the entertainment of our readers, we shall present them with a part of his narrative.

Nothing could be more delightful than the ride from Car. narvon to Bangor ; to the right hand were Saowdon Hills, and to the left the River Menai, or more properly speaking, che Strait between the continent and the island of Anglesea.

Bangor lies at the north end of the same Frith, or arm of the sea, which is the passage to Anglesea, where it has a harbour for boats. It was once to large as to be called Bangor the Great, and was defended with a powerful castle, built by Hugh Earl of Chester, which has long since been demolished. The


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town is now of very little note, except for being the fee of * bishop; the palace is neat, but deplorably situated; this is doubly mortifying in a country where every part of the neighbourhood is picturesque and pleasing; his lordlhip however has the happiness of being so much beloved in his diocese, that it would have been almost treason there to have wilhed him a removal.

• Between Bangor and Conway ! passed over the famous mountain called Penmaen Mawr-the road must formerly have been very frightful, but a wall is now built to the sea-side, to which it is said the city of Dublin very largely contributed ;to form this road it has already cost upwards of two thousand pounds, and it can be kept open only at a continual expence, for vaft fragments of rock are frequently falling forty fathom from above, which entirely block it op, till they are forced through the parapet into the sea, which lies perpendicularly full as deep below.

• From hence the country opens opens into a plain, which extends as far as the river Conway, the eastera limit of the county of Carnarvon. It rises out of a lake of the same name, and runs with a north-west course, receiving in the short space of twelve miles more than as many rivers, so that at Aberconó way, where it dischatges its waters into the Irish fea, it is full a mile broad, and capable of bringing fhips of almost any fize up to the town; at present Conway bears only fome melancholy marks of what it once was, and to what a wretched itate, by' a total decay of trade, it is now reduced.

« The castle till remains one of the noblest monuments of antiquity; it is built in the same style with that of Carnarvon, but is far more regular. The outside is the same as in the time of Edward I. except one tower, and that was not demolished with either battering engines or cannons, but by the people of the place taking stones from the foundation of it. Some remains of che principal rooms are still to be seen, the dimensions of which have been accurately given by lord Lyttelton, and an elegant view of them in Antiquities by Mr. Grose; but I had never seen the oatfide of this moft venerable ruin to advantage had f not walked over some polished ground about a quarter of a mile from it, which I believe belongs to a gentleman of Conway; there you see the castle finely sheltered by an oak wood, on one side the chief of Rivers opening into the frish fea, and on the other the mountains surrounding Penmaen, with a distant couns try most beautifully diversified.--Art and nature cannot coinbine to form a more various and more delicious prospect.'

To a lively and agreeable description of the country, the author has occasionally added some pertinent observations relative to British antiquities. He is likewise intitled to approbation for his endeavours to excite, in those who have leisure and convenience for the journey, a desire of visiting this seques tered, and too much neglected part of our island.


The History of America. B, William Robertson, D. D. 2 vols.

410. Il. 165. in boards. Cadell. [Continued from vol. xliii. p. 416.)


HE author having delineated, with much accuracy and

erudition, the causes which led to the discovery of Ame.
rica, and the progress made by Columbus in that great under-
taking, proceeds to present us with a view of all the wonders
of the new world. This is the most splendid and interesting
part of the author's subject, and required a full display of his
eminent abilities to do it justice.

America exhibits a great continent,. remarkable for the gifts of nature with which it is replenished. The altitude of its mountains, the extent of its lakes, the immensity of its rivers, the fertility of its foil, and the richness of its mines, far surpass all productions of a similar kind which are to be found in any other quarter of the globe. But of the many curious spectacles furnished by America at the time of its discovery, the most curious were the fingular situations in which it prefented the human race. Poets had fung, philosophers and politicians had fpeculated, concerning the state of nature, the origin of society, and the source of laws : but these fine theories were the work of imagination, unsupported by experience; it was reserved to the discoverers of America to see those speculations realized. These bold adventurers beheld a great part of mankind, in the infancy of society, 'living on the spontaneous productions of nature, or, like other ravenous animals, procuring subsistence from the spoils of the chace. They observed their first attempts to relinquish that miserable and insecure state in which force decides concerning right and wrong, and their feeble efforts towards political combinations for security and protection. They discovered even different stages of rude, fociety. They found, to their unspeakable surprise, two great empires, the inhabitants of which, though ignorant of many of the most neceffary arts of life, had built cities, framed laws, established courts of jul. tice, and made considerable progress in civilization. To paint these scenes with advantage, demanded a combination of qualities not often' to be found in the possession of any individual.

But the novelty, the variety, and the extent of the subje&t by no means constituted the capital dificulties the author had to furmount. The materials from which he was obliged to ex. tract a great part of his information, were composed by writers who were neither politicians, historians, nor philosophers, They are partial relations, published by the discoverers them, VOL. XLIV. July, 1777.



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selves, or by authors disposed to adopt all their errors and exaggerations. The former, though resolute and enterprising in action, generally poffeffed little capacity for observation, and were besides actuated by motives very different from those which would have prompted them to advance the knowledge of their fpecies. They wished to possess themselves of the gold of America, rather than to amuse or improve their minds by contemplating the characters and rude policy of its inhabitants. They laboured to excite the admiration of their countrymen, and to enhance the merit of their discoveries by exaggerated accounts of the wonders they beheld, rather than to convey truth, and to content themselves with just praise. The latter equally void of discernment with the former, and prompted by national vanity, or a disposition towards the marvellous, commonly adopted their accounts, however incredible, without fcruple or hesitation.---Thus the history of America, the most extraordinary and inportant portion of the history of mankind, became a mass of materials in which no order and little truth were to be difcerned. By careful comparison of these relations with one another, by attentive examination of the intelligence communicated by later and better informed travellers, and by the application of a system of sound political principles, Dr. Robertson has been enabled to form a theory of American manners, confiftent, philosophical, and instructive. He has traced the progress of civil society through its rudest stages, and marked with fagacity the efforts of man to supply his wants when destitute of the articles of life, He has deduced the virtues and vices, the attachments and antipathies of the lavage, from the particular situation which he occupies s and has demonitrated that even the constitution and appearance of his body, and the political institutions of his tribe, are derived from the same fource.

In the four books which furnith the subject of the present article, the author arranges his materials in the following ora der. The first exhibits a pi&ture of the rude and savage tribes which were scattered over the continent and islands of Ame. rica at the time of its discovery; the second contains the history of the conquest of Mexico; the third that of Peru; and the fourth presents us with a view of the civilization, goveroment, manners, and arts of these famous American empires.

In treating of the manners of the favage Americans, Dr. Robertson adopts an arrangement equally simple and luminous. He considers, 1. their bodily constitution ; 2. the qualities of their minds; 3. their domestic state; 4. their political stateand institutions ; 5. their fyftem of war and public security;

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