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represents him to have done; and that, when he was not able to procure any thing to cure his inward heat, he should say, "I beg cold comfort, and you are so ftrait, And fo ungrateful, you deny me that." A& v. 9.

It is impoffible not to fmile, when Moliere makes Harpagus (when he is about to examine upon the rack all his family, fervants, fons and daughters) fay, he would apply the torture to himfelf: " et à moi auffi.”

• Very extravagant likewife is the following fpeech, which Shakespeare puts into the mouth of Ligarius :

"Now bid me run,

And I will strive with things impoffible,
And get the better of them."

Jul. Cæf. ii. 3.

Shakespeare is not fo reprehenfible in this paffage, as our author fuppofes. These words are part of a speech of Ligarius to his friend Brutus. Ligarius was a man of distinguished zeal for the liberty of his country. He lived in great confidence with Brutus, who found him a fit perfon to bear a part in the confpiracy against Cæfar. But happening to be taken ill near the time of its execution, when Brutus, in a vifit to him, began to lament, that he was fallen fick in a very unlucky hour, Ligarius inftantly raising himself upon his elbow, and taking Brutus by the hand, replied, "Yet still, Brutus, if you mean to do any thing, worthy of yourself, I am well." Nor did he disappoint Brutus's opinion of him, for we find him afterwards in the lift of confpirators. See Plutarch's Life of Brutus.

Shakespeare amplifies Ligarius's reply in this manner:

"I am not fick, if Brutus have in hand
Any exploit worthy of the name of honour.
By all the gods the Romans bow before,
I here difcard my fickness. Soul of Rome!
Brave fon, deriv'd from honourable loins!
Thou, like an exorcift, hast conjured up
My mortified fpirit. Now bid me run,
And I will strive with things impoffible,
Yea, get the better of them."

This extravagant proteftation is not unfuitable to the character and fituation of the fpeaker: it is a natural flight of political enthufiafin.


It has been repeatedly obferved, that the English language has an advantage above moit other languages in the poetical and rhetorical ftyle for when nouns naturally neuter are converted into mafculine and feminine, the perfonification is more diftinctly and forcibly marked. Lowth's Gram. p. 44. To account for the ftru&ure of other languages in this instance, our



author conjectures, that the extension of sex, in most fouthern languages, to almost all inanimate things, may have taken its rife from a lively imagination, perfonifying almost every thing.'-Perhaps it may not appear chimerical to fuppose, that this general perfonification was natural to the Greeks and Romans, who deified almost every object in nature; animating hills, woods, feas, fountains, with Oreades, Dryades, Nereides, Naiades, &c. in fhort, filling heaven and earth with gods and goddeffes, of which Herod says, there were Tgioμugioi, thirty thousand. Oper. & Dier. i. 250.

As we have now extended this article as far as the limits of our Review will allow, we fhall only add, that thefe Lectures contain many other valuable remarks; and may be of great service to thofe, who wish to form their ftyle, and their tafte for polite literature.

The Hifiory of the Establishment of Chrifiianity, compiled from Jewish and Heathen Authors only; exhibiting a fubftantial Proof of the Truth of this Religion. Tranflated from the French of Profeffor Bullet, Dean of the University of Befançon, and Fellow of the Royal Academy of Infcriptions and Belles Lettres. By William Salisbury, B. D. 8vo. 5 ferved. Bathurst.


IT T is no no wonder, the Deift may fay, that Chriftianity fhould be fupported by the atteftation of its friends. Every man endeavours to vindicate his own profeffion, and to give a fpecious appearance to his errors and abfurdities. If you would judge impartially, audi alteram partem,' hear what the adverfary has to alledge. He may probably discover what your own party has concealed, fome craft and impofition, which you do not fufpect; or fome defects, which, on account of the prejudices of education, you do not perceive.


The advocate for Chriftianity has no objection to try his caufe upon this ground. He readily fubmits it to a determination upon the evidence of adverfaries only, and from their conceffions he demonftrates the truth of the gospel.,

Mr. Huet, in his Demonftratio Evangelica, and almost all the learned, who, for these two laft centuries, have written in defence of Christianity, have inferted in their works what many heathens have faid to the advantage of our religion. Colonia adding to these several teftimonies what might contribute to the knowledge of the authors, from whom they were taken, has compofed of them an entire treatife, entitled, the Chriftian Religion verified by the Teftimony of Pagans.' This book, fays Mr. Bullet, when ftripped of the ornaments foreign to VOL. LXIV. July, 1777. с


the matter in hand, makes but a small part of that which is here presented to the public.'

In the year 1755, the late Dr. Gregory Sharpe published an excellent tract, which he calls, An Argument in Defence of Christianity, taken from the Conceffions of its ancient Adverfaries, Jews and Pagans.

But the most extenfive and valuable performance on this fubject appeared in 1765, 1766, and 1767, in four volumes quarto, under the title of A large Collection of ancient Jewish and Heathen Teftimonies to the Truth of the Christian religion, by Dr. Lardner *. In this work the indefatigable author has faithfully cited, and accurately examined every paffage, which is to be found in any Jewish or Heathen writer, relative to Chriftian affairs, from the time of our Saviour to the year 550; at the fame time, he has freely exploded thofe teftimonies, which owe their exiftence to what is ufually called, pious fraud.

He informs us, that he took great pains to procure profeffor Bullet's performance, before he published his third volume [in 1766]; that enquiries bad been made for it, at his defire, both at Paris and in Holland; but without fuccefs +.

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The doctor's plan is however very different from that of the profeffor. The former gives us a biographical account of the authors he cites, he fettles their time, he diftinguishes their productions, and then examines thofe detached paffages, which fall within the compass of his defign. The latter forms a conneated hiftory of the establishment of Chriftianity, in the words of Jews and Heathens, without allowing himself to make ufe of any other materials. He recites the calumnies, the fcoffs, the abuses, the edics of profcription; and fhews, in a continued difcourfe, that thofe invectives, thofe profecutions contribute, in a very fingular manner, to the confirmation of the gofpel, and the honour of the Christian church.

The hiftory begins in this manner:

In the reign of Tiberius, (1) a man called Jefus, by nation a Jew (2), born of a poor woman (3), fuppofed to be the fon of a carpenter (4), and himself of the fame occupation (5), of a mean figure and low ftature (6), gathered together in Judea a

Crit. Rev. vols. xix, xx, xxi, xxiii.

it was

The tranflator tells us, that the profeffor's book has been printed about twelve years. Yet, in the fame page, he says, published three years before Lardner's third volume: if 10. it nas been published fourteen years.


(1) Taciti Annal. 15. §44.

(2), (3), (4) Celfus in Orig. lib. i. n. 28; lib. ii. n. 32.

(5) Celfus in Orig. lib. i. n. 28; lib. vi. n. 34. (5) Celfus in Orig, lib. vi. n. 75.


company of fishermen, illiterate, unpolished, ignorant perfons, and infamous according to the account of the Heathens for their diforderly lives (7). He gave himself out for the Meffiah promifed to the Jews, for the Chrift, the meffenger of heaven, the Son of God (8). He taught a doctrine fo fublime, that reafon could not comprehend it (9); and a morality fo pure, that his enemies have been forced to admire its perfection, or constrained to cenfure it as impracticable (10). He gave command to his difciples to travel into all parts of the world, to cause his doctrine and his precepts to be embraced (11), and to establish his religion upon the ruins of Judaism and idolatry. The Jews looked upon him as an impoftor, and imputed the miracles he performed to the power of the devil (12). Pilate, at their intigation, put him to an ignontinious death upon the crofs (13). Some days after, his body was not to be found in the fepulchre, wherein it had been laid. His difciples maintained, that he was rifen (14). The Jews, on the contrary, gave out, that his body had been taken away in the night time, to make it believed, that he was again alive. They declared afterwards, that he was raised by the power of necromancy (15). At laft, they published in their writings, that the body of Jefus had been taken and concealed by Judas, who fhewed it to the people, when the apostles preached his refurrection (16), &c '

Our author continues this narrative to the death of Julian, which happened in the year 363, and concludes with that event, not only because the teftimonies of later ages are lefs important, but because that was the period in which idolatry fell, and Christianity triumphed over all oppofition.

At that crifis, the univerfe changes its God, its worship, laws, maxims, rules, opinions, fentiments, inclinations, manners, prejudices, cuftoms, practices. In order to give the reader a juft idea of this astonishing revolution, the profeffor, in a difcourfe fubjoined to his narrative, goes back to the first

́ (7) Celfus in Orig. lib. i. n. 26. lib. iii. n. 68. Porphyry in Jerom on Pfal. xci. &c.

' (8) Celfus in Orig. lib. iii. n. 1, &c. Pliny to Trajan. Cyril, lib. vi. (9) Celfus in Orig. lib. iii. n. 73. lib. i. n. 9. Trypho in Juftin Mart. Dial. p. 164. Lucian in Philop, Gaten. lib. ii. cap. 4. Pliny to Trajan, &c.


(10) Trypho in Juft. p. 3. Min. Felix, p. 31. Cyril, lib. vi.
(11) Toledoth Jefehu.


(12) Wagenfeil's Tela ignea. Tertul. contra Jud. c. 9. Celfus in Orig Jut. Mart. Apol. &c.


(13) Tacitus, Celfus in Orig. Min. Felix, Arnob. Cyril, lib. 5, 6. (14) Orig. lib. ii. n. 59. Juft. Dial. n. 108.

(15) Acta S. Pionii, c. 3. in Bollandus.

(16) Toled. Jefehu.'--For other proofs, on which the author grounds his affertions, we must refer our readers to Mr. Salisbury's tranflation.

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publication of the gospel, and confiders the nature of the undertaking, the extent of it, the time fixed upon for it, the authors chofen, the means made ufe of, the obftacles to be furmounted, and the fuccefs to be expected.

1. The undertaking is to overthrow idolatry, to abolish Judaifm, and to eftablish Chriftianity on their ruins.

At the time the apoftles made their appearance, the whole world, Judea excepted, was overwhelmed in idolatry. This religion fuited the inclinations, and flattered the propenfities of mankind...Every thing in it pleafed the fenfe, every thing in it was agreeable to the imagination. Its fyllem is fo pleasant, that it conftitutes, even to this day, the charms of our poetry and theatrical entertainments.

The Jews were the peculiar people of God. God had given them his law. He had worked most aftonishing miracles in their favour. He dwelt among them in a magnificent temple. They were the fole depofitories of his religion and worship. Proud of thefe advantages, they looked with contempt on all other nations, whom they believed unworthy of the favours of the Supreme Being. They expected at that time a Meffiah, who was to break the yoke of the Romans, restore the throne of David and Solomon to its priftine glory, and, by a feries of victories and conquefts, bring all the world under fubjection to his laws.

The Chriftianity, which was to be fubftituted in the room of Judaifm and idolatry, was much more fitted to fright men than to allure them...The Chriftians told the Jews, they vainly flattered themselves that the law, which they received from God was to continue for ever; that their worship and ceremonies were abolished; that they were no longer the cleft people; but that all nations were equally invited into covenant with the Lord; that the indulgences granted by Mofes to the hardness of their hearts were revoked. In the room of a victorious master of the world, whom they expected for their Meffiah, they prefented to them a poor handycraftfman, who died upon a


• The Chriftian morality thwarted all the paffions, restrained all the inclinations of men. Believers renounced all pleafures: they led a ftrict and fevere life...their watchings and long faftings made them pale and meagre. They despised the cruellelt punishments, and ran to meet death with joy for the defence of their faith.


All kind of prejudices were moreover obftacles to the eftablishment of Christianity. It was a religion but juft fprung up, and which the degrading punishment of its author had impreffed with a character of ignominy; a religion preached by a few poor, unbred, ignorant men, whom the Greeks and Romans

Here our author exaggerates.


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