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books on the subject being chiefly copies from one or two of the earliest writers. The object in the present undertaking was that of making a purely practical work: one that might meet every exigence of the printer whilst in the exercise of his art, and one that would serve as a book of reference to the author, the librarian, and, in fact, to every one interested in books or their production.

It will be observed that Moxon's book has been frequently referred to, and in many instances quoted from. This I was induced to do in consequence of the quantity of useful matter it contains, and more especially in order to point out and contrast the then method of printing with the present. (Where the letter M is used it refers to this author.) The intermediate stages, where improvements or alterations have occurred, are also noticed; so that the practical history of the art is complete from the year 1683, when Moxon published, to the present time.

The Statutes at Large I have carefully gone through from their commencement; all the acts of parliament that in any way refer to printing, and unrepealed, I have introduced: so that the Printer has here all the Statute Law in existence for his guidance in conducting his business.

The List of Abbreviations will be found extensive, and, I trust, valuable, as until now there has been no printed list of many of them. The interpretations have been obtained by comparing the writings of contemporary authors, and by consulting those of my friends who have made the early writers their study.

All the alphabets are taken from the best grammars in each language, in preference to the more easy, but less correct method, of copying the letters from any indifferent book printed in the characters of the respective languages. I have confined myself to those languages of which the characters are in the British founderies.

Whether my views are right or wrong respecting the orthography, punctuation, and the capital letters of the Bible, rests with the public to determine. I cannot consent to give an opinion in favour of the changes that fashion, prejudice, or even the rules of grammar have introduced, which are now adopted in general writing, until we have another authorized version of the Bible, but think the more literally we copy the present the better, otherwise the discrepancies will soon be notorious.

The article on Imposing is of considerable length; yet I could not, in justice to the work, curtail it: the tables might even have been still more numerous, and yet serviceable, had the limits of the book permitted; as it is, they are much more extensive than any tables hitherto published. Men from the country having been but little used to bookwork, find themselves at a loss on entering a town-house in this part of their business.

In printing topographical works, copies of early acts of parliament, state papers of the middle ages, or books published soon after the introduction of printing, when there were no general rules for either writing or spelling, the list of characters and abbreviations under the head of

Records will be found invaluable. My kind friend Mr. Fehon has spent many years of his life in investigating this subject, and has here condensed most of what will be valuable to the Printer.

Electrotype, although quite in its infancy, promises to be of great utility in the arts, and not the least so in that of printing. I have therefore thought it right to give some account of it, together with specimens, amongst which will be found an electrotype copy of a page of types: it is imperfect, but I believe it is the first that has been published.

No detailed account of the process of producing fine presswork has before appeared. This circumstance I cannot otherwise explain than by supposing it to arise from the jealous feeling that exists in the bosoms of many of those who are masters of the practice. On speaking to them of the value a detailed statement would be, I have been told that there were already a sufficiency of men who knew it, and that there was no necessity to deprive them of their advantages. Having paid particular attention to this department, and having produced works of this character that have been highly applauded, I have given a detailed account of all the minutiae of so valuable a branch of the business.

Printing from engravings on wood is also a subject that has particularly interested me, the practice of which I have given at length: the result of my experience confirms the opinion that the press is infinitely superior to the machine for this description of work.

Having prepared the bulk of the matter prior to going to press, I thought it might be safely stated that the whole would be comprised in fourteen numbers. Yet, on revising, I found that some important articles had not been touched upon, and that others perfectly new (electrotype, &c.) had sprung up during the progress of printing; so that either the book must have been left incomplete (had the first arrangement been adhered to), or three more numbers must be added, and thus every branch that pertained to the practice be embraced. I trust none will regret that the latter plan has been adopted. With regard to the style of writing-I am now an old man, and perhaps may be, in some degree, wedded to the writings as well as the customs of my youth; therefore the quaintness of expression, which my friends have noticed, may possibly be more marked than I am aware of; yet the manner is not wholly unintentional. To some persons simple language may not have the attractions that are presented by the writings of many authors of the present day, whose chief study is elegance of expression; but do we not, by adopting this flowery style, lose in clearness, in strength, in conciseness? Yes, and, I think, even in beauty; and when it is considered that it was the intention to make the book one of practical instruction, and that it was written with the hope that it might be placed in the hands of each printer's boy on entering the business, I trust this sin of inelegance may be pardoned. No one but the compiler of a dictionary can conceive the unwearied labour that is requisite for its completion. Having possessed greater opportunities than most men for the present undertaking, yet have I been upwards of half a century in collecting the materials; not, perhaps, having entertained the idea of pub

lishing during the whole of this period, still never neglecting to amass every species of information that might be made available. On going over such an extent of ground much has been culled that would either never have been known to me, or, if known, would have been forgotten, had the book been more hastily got up; and all those subjects, a knowledge of which, at first, may appear irrelevant or useless, will in practice be found highly necessary, there having been no dictionary or book of reference kept in the printing offices to which the workmen could apply. Should the work prove less useful than I could wish it, the fault is in myself, and not in the subject; but if on its perusal the young be instructed, the knowledge of the more mature workman be refreshed and confirmed, and the general reader find its utility as a book of reference, then have I nothing to regret, but much to be grateful for. Lord Bacon says, "Every man is a debtor to his profession, from the which, as men do of course seek to receive countenance and profit, so ought they of duty to endeavour themselves by way of amends to be a help thereunto."





"ABBREVIATIONS are characters, or else marks on letters, to signify either a word or syllable. & is the character for and, ye is the abbreviated, yt is that abbreviated; and several other such. Straight strokes over any of the vowels abbreviate m or n. They have been much used by printers in old times, to shorten or get in matter; but now are wholly left off as obsolete.". Moxon. In reprints of old books, where the original is closely followed, we occasionally meet with q as an abbreviation of que: this mark of contraction for ue was attached to the q, and was originally used solely for that purpose; for the convenience of using the q without it, the abbreviation was afterwards cast separate, and by degrees it was adopted as a point or stop to divide a sentence, becoming the semicolon, the next in order to the comma.

Some few authors yet retain the; after a q, for the termination ue, which appears to be the proper mark.

Abbreviations occur very frequently, and are often the occasion of perplexity to readers less familiarly acquainted with them, in the earlyprinted books. These also originated from the idea which the first Printers entertained of making their books as much as possible resemble manuscripts. That they should perpetually occur in manuscripts is natural enough; for the librarii, or writers of manuscripts, necessarily had recourse to them to shorten their labours. These abbreviations, in the infancy of Printing, were perhaps to be excused; but it seems they multiplied to so preposterous an extent that it was found necessary to publish a book, both in the Gothic and Roman character, to explain their meaning." -Beloe's Anecdotes of Literature, &c. See DOMESDAY BOOK. RECORDS. SIGLA.

A.- Aulus.

A. B. Artium Baccalaureus. Bachelor of Arts.

Abp. Archbishop.
A. C.. - Ante Christum. Before the Birth
of Christ.

A. D. Anno Domini.
our Lord.

A. D.-Ante Diem.
A. D.-Arch-Duke.

In the Year of

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D. D.- Dono dedit. Gave as a Present.
D. D. D.- Dat, Dicat, Dedicat. He gives,
he devotes, he makes sure, or, consecrates.
D.F. - Dean of Faculty (Scotland).
D. G. Deo gratias. Thanks to God.
D. G.-Dei gratiâ. By the Grace of God.
Dict. - Dictator.

D. M. S. Diis Manibus Sacrum. Sacred to the Gods of the dead.

Dn. - Dominus.
Do. . Ditto.

The same.

D. O. M.-Deo Optimo Maximo.
God the best, the greatest.

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Doctor in

e. g. e. g.

Exempli gratiâ. As for example. -Ex grege. Among the rest (literally from the Flock). Ep. - Epistola. Eps.-Episcopus. Erg. Ergo. Esq.-Esquire. Et. Etiam. Eur.-Europa. Exch.-Exchequer. Ex. g. Ex. gr. f ample. Exon. D.-Exeter Domesday Book. Exor.Executor.

Exempli gratiâ. As for ex

Ex S. C.-Ex Senatûs consulto.
Ex V. Ex Voto.




Fraternitatis Antiquariorum F.A.S. Socius. Fellow of the Society F.S. A. of Antiquaries. F.D. - Fidei Defensor. Defender of the Faith.

F. E. S.-Fellow of the Entomological

F.G.S.Fellow of the Geological Society.
F. H.S.-Fellow of the Horticultural
Fi. B. Fide bonâ.
Fid. - Fides.
fi, fa.. . Fieri facias.

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