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Umbilicate, having a depression in the
middle.

Umbonate, having a boss or elevated point
in the middle.
Undulated, wavy.

Unguiculate, furnished with a claw, or
short stalk.

Urceolate, shaped like a pitcher.
Utricle, a small bladder.

Vagina, the sheath formed by the convo-
lution of a flat petiole round a stem.
Valve, one of the parts into which any
dehiscent body divides.

Vascular, containing vessels; that is, spiral
vessels or ducts.
Ventricose, inflated.

Vernation, the manner in which the young leaves are arranged in their leaf-bud. Verrucose, covered with warts.

Versatile, swinging lightly upon a sort of pivot.

Verticellate, arranged in a whorl.

Vexillum, same as Standard.

Villous, covered with long, soft, shaggy hair.
Virgate, having long, slender rodlike shoots.
Vitellus, a fleshy bag, interposed between

the embryo and albumen in some seeds. Vittate, striped, as distinguished from fasciate or banded.

Whorl, an arrangement of more leaves than two around a common centre upon the same plane.

BOTCH. A piece of bad workmanship; or where improper materials are used and do not answer well.

BOTTLE ARSED. An epithet applied to letter, when, either through a fault in casting, or dressing, it is wider at the bottom of the shank than it is at the top.

This is an old term, and as such I have inserted it; but, owing to the superior skill, or the greater care, of the present letter founders, such a thing now never occurs.

BOTTOM LINE. The last line in the page, except that in which the signature, or the catch word or direction word, is inserted.

BOTTOM NOTES. The notes at the bottom or foot of a page. They are usually composed in a type two sizes smaller than that used for the body of the work: thus, if the work be printed with a Pica type, the notes will be composed in Long Primer; if with English, the notes will be Small Pica. They are also termed Foot Notes.

BOURGEOIS. The name of a type, a size larger than Brevier, and smaller than Long Primer. It is not enumerated in Moxon's list of the sizes of types. See TYPES.

BOWL. A small wooden bowl, which it is usual to have in composing rooms, in which to carry water to different parts for the purpose of wetting matter.

BOWL OF THE BALL STOCK. The hollow part of the ball stock, in the crown of which the handle is inserted; it is filled with wool, and the pelt, or canvass, is nailed to it. An old one is generally used for a paste bowl in the press-room.

BOW THE LETTER. When compositors pick a bad letter out of a form in correcting, it is usual to rub the face of it on the stone and to bend the shank, if it be not a thick letter; this is done to prevent such letters being distributed and used again; in Moxon's time it was styled bowing a letter. After the form is locked-up and the stone cleared, these bowed (or bent) letters are thrown into the shoe.

BOWYER. Extract from the Will of Mr. William Bowyer, Printer, who died on the 18th of November, 1777, when he had nearly completed his 78th year.

"And now I hope I may be allowed to leave somewhat for the benefit of printing. To this end, I give to the master and keepers, or wardens and commonalty, of the mistery or art of a Stationer of the city of London, such a sum of money as will purchase Two Thousand Pounds, three per cent. Reduced Bank Annuities, upon trust, to pay the dividends and yearly produce thereof, to be divided for ever equally amongst three printers, compositors or pressmen, to be elected from time to time by the master, wardens, and assistants, of the said company, and who at the time of such election shall be sixty-three years old or upwards, for their respective lives, to be paid half yearly;

hoping that such as shall be most deserving will be preferred. AND WHEREAS I have herein before given to my son the sum of Three Thousand Pounds four per cent. Consolidated Annuities, in case he marries with the consent of my executors: now, I do hereby GIVE AND BEQUEATH the dividends and interest of that sum, till such marriage takes place, to the said Company of Stationers, to be divided equally between six other printers, compositors or pressmen, as aforesaid, in manner as aforesaid; and, if my said son shall die unmarried, or married without such consent as aforesaid, then I GIVE AND BEQUEATH the said capital sum of Three Thousand Pounds to the said Company of Stationers, the dividends and yearly produce thereof to be divided for ever equally amongst six other such old printers, compositors or pressmen, for their respective lives, to be qualified, chosen, and paid, in manner as aforesaid.—It has long been to me matter of concern, that such numbers are put apprentices, as compositors, without any share of school-learning, who ought to have the greatest: in hopes of remedying this, I GIVE AND BEQUEATH to the said Company of Stationers such a sum of money as will purchase One Thousand Pounds three per cent. Reduced Bank Annuities, for the use of one journeyman compositor, such as shall hereafter be described, with this special trust, that the master, wardens, and assistants, shall pay the dividends and produce thereof halfyearly to such compositor: the said master, wardens, and assistants, of the said company, shall nominate for this purpose a compositor who is a man of good life and conversation, who shall usually frequent some place of public worship every Sunday, unless prevented by sickness, and shall not have worked on a newspaper or magazine for four years at least before such nomination, nor shall ever afterwards whilst he holds this annuity, which may be for life if he continues a journeyman: he shall be able to read and construe Latin, and at least to read Greek fluently with accents; of which he shall bring a testimonial from the rector of St. Martin's, Ludgate, for the time being: I could wish that he shall have been brought up piously and virtuously, if it be possible, at Merchant Taylor's, or some other public school, from seven years of age till he is full seventeen, and then to serve seven years faithfully as a compositor, and work seven years more as a journeyman, as I would not have this annuity bestowed on any one under thirty-one years of age: if, after he is chosen, he should behave ill, let him be turned out, and another be chosen in his stead. AND WHEREAS it may be many years before a compositor may be found that shall exactly answer the above description, and it may at some time happen that such a one cannot be found; I would have the dividends in the meantime applied to such person as the master, wardens, and assistants, shall think approaches nearest to what I have described. AND WHEREAS the above trusts will occasion some trouble; I GIVE to the said Company, in case they think proper to accept the trusts, two hundred and fifty pounds."— Extracted from Anecdotes, Literary and Biographical, of Mr. Bowyer, by J. N. [John Nichols?] in Gent. Mag. Dec. 1778, p. 570.

6,000l. stock was immediately transferred by the executors of Mr. Bowyer, and now stands in the name of the Company; the yearly dividend is 1807.- Hansard's Typographia, p. 280. Note.

BOX. The divisions of a case, in which the letters lie, are termed Boxes; as the a box, the e box, the i box, &c.

Box. The female screw in the head of a press, in which the spindle works. It is made of brass, and is usually cast on the screw of the spindle, round on the outside with a projecting part of about half an inch on the whole length of each opposite side, to keep it firm in the head, and prevent it turning round. It is fitted tightly into the head, and kept in its place by two bolts, driven into the under side, with return heads which project over the bottom of the box. It is also called the Nut of the Spindle.

BOXWOOD. The best boxwood used in engraving is of a good yellow colour, of a fine close grain, that has been of a slow growth, clear of knots and any imperfections, such as cracks or flaws; the finest lines may be engraved on this wood, as it is both hard and tough, and, with care in printing, the number of impressions that may be taken from an engraving on it would appear incredible. Papillon, in his History of Engraving on Wood, gives a specimen, from which, he states, there had been upwards of three hundred and seventy thousand impressions previously printed; and if the block had been carefully cleaned, and well printed, it would still have produced respectable impressions. Boxwood of a dull bad yellow colour, and of an open coarse grain, is not fit for engraving on, nei

ther is wood that is of a blackish colour at the heart; for, in these cases, it has begun to decay, is brittle and tender, and if engraved on, the lines would not stand, but would fail in printing. Our principal supply of boxwood comes from the Levant, and is called Turkey box.

BRACE. A character cast in metal thus marked

The compositor is to have these cast of several breadths, viz. to several number of lines of a designed body (most commonly of Pica body) that they may hook in or brace so many lines as his copy may show him.-M.

It is used in poetry at the end of a triplet, or three lines which have the same rhyme.

Braces are also used to connect a number of words with one common term, and are introduced to prevent a repetition in writing or printing.— Murray.

Braces are cast to different bodies as high as English; and braces on Long Primer are now cast from three to eight ems in length, which look much neater than the old fashion of middles and corners, filled up with metal rules.

The founders in casting long Braces always make the swell in the face of them proportionably thick to their length, so that in using them with small letter they look heavy and clumsy; I would recommend that long Braces should be cast to a small body, not larger than Brevier, and the faces of all the lengths uniform, so that when there happens to be a range of them of different lengths in a page they might harmonize, and not make such an incongruous appearance as they .now do. When Braces are wanted longer than those already cast, I would not use middles and corners, but make them of Brass Rule in one continued piece, which has a better appearance than when they are joined, and which may be made with a file in a neat manner by any clever compositor.

BRACKET. See CROTCHET.

BRAMAH'S PRESS. See HYDROSTATIC PRESS.

BRANCHING-OUT. Opening or extending the matter in title-pages, heads of pages, or other parts, and also in jobs, with quadrats, leads, reglet, or other proper materials.

BRASS RULES. Pieces of brass of different thicknesses made letter high, to print with.-M. They are made in lengths of fourteen inches, but of late years lengths half as long again have been made; one of the edges is bevilled so as to print a fine line, and when a thicker line is required the bottom edge is placed uppermost, which is the full thickness of the brass; by this means lines of different thicknesses are obtained, and also double lines, a thick one and a fine one when required. They are used for column lines in table work; to separate matter that requires to be distinct; and to be placed round pages.

I have found in practice that the best way of forming a good joining at the corners with brass rule, is to cut the rules a little longer than the precise length wanted, and to let one piece project a little at each corner; to push the other piece close up, and, when the form is locked up, then to file the projecting parts away, which makes the corners equal, as shown below.

Wherever two rules join, the end of that which abuts on the other should be cut with a little bevil, so that the upper side should project a

little to form a junction with the face of the other; this also prevents the rule binding at bottom.

An ingenious compositor will make many things out of brass rules, such as neat long braces, instead of using middles, corners, and metal rules, which rarely join well, swell rules of different varieties, and many fancy rules, as occasion may require.

In cases where diagrams are required, and there is no engraver within reach, they may be formed by a clever workman, with brass rule. There have been of late years many ingenious and elaborate performances with this article in imitation of architectural drawings of buildings, with pillars, &c.; and I believe no one has displayed more ingenuity and skill in the production of such works than Mr. Ebenezer Parkes, of Fetter Lane.

BRAYER. A round wooden rubber with an upright handle, almost of the fashion of a ball stock, but solid and flat at the bottom, and not above three inches in diameter. It is used on the ink block, to bray or rub out ink with so as to spread it out in such a manner that a small quantity may be taken up when the ball is pressed upon the block, tolerably diffused upon the surface, and not in a mass, which causes the ink to be more expeditiously distributed, with less risk of making monks and friars.

BREAD, SALE OF, IRELAND. 1 & 2 Vict. c. 28. "An Act to repeal the several Acts now in force relating to Bread to be sold in Ireland, and to provide other Regulations for the making and Sale of Bread, and for preventing the Adulteration of Meal, Flour, and Bread, in that Part of the United Kingdom called Ireland."

s. 7.

"And be it enacted, That no Baker or other Person who shall make Bread for Sale in Ireland, nor any Journeyman or other Servant of any such Baker or other Person, shall, at any Time or Times, in the making of Bread for sale in Ireland, use any Mixture or Ingredient whatever in the making of such Bread other than and except as herein-before mentioned, on any Account or under any Colour or Pretence whatsoever in the making of such Bread, upon pain that every such Person, whether Master or Journeyman, Servant or other Person, who shall offend in the Premises, and shall be convicted of any such Offence by the Oath, or in case of a Quaker by Affirmation, of One or more credible Witness or Witnesses, or by his, her, or their own Confession, shall for every such Offence forfeit and pay any Sum not exceeding Five Pounds nor less than Fifty Shillings, or in default thereof shall, by Warrant under the Hands and Seals of the Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices before whom such Offender shall be convicted, be apprehended and committed to the House of Correction, or some Prison of the City, County, Borough, or Place where the Offence shall have been committed, or the Offender or Offenders apprehended, there to remain for any Time not exceeding Three Calendar Months, with or without hard Labour, from the Time of such Commitment, unless the Penalty shall be sooner paid, as any such Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices shall think fit to order; and it shall be lawful for the Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices before whom any such Offender or Offenders shall be convicted to cause the Offender's Name, Place of Abode, and Offence to be published in some Newspaper or Newspapers which shall be printed or published in or near the City, County, Borough, or Place where the Offence shall have been committed; and the Proprietor and Proprietors, Printer and Printers, and every other Person or Persons concerned therein, are hereby authorized to print and publish the same when he, she, or they is or are required so to do by or by the Order of such Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices; and he, she, or they is and are hereby indemnified from any Prosecution or Prosecutions for printing and publishing the same or causing the same to be printed and published in such Newspaper or Newspapers by or from any Person or Persons whomsoever, any Law, Statute, or Usage to the contrary thereof in anywise notwithstanding; and the Costs and Charges of such printing and publishing shall be paid out of such last-mentioned Penalty or Forfeiture, in case any shall be so forfeited, paid, or recovered."

s. 11. And be it enacted, That every Miller, Mealman, Flour Factor, or Baker in Ireland, in whose House, Mill, Shop, Stall, Bakehouse, Bolting-house, Pastry Warehouse, Outhouse, Ground or Possession any Ingredient or Mixture shall be found which shall, after due Examination, be adjudged by any Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices of the Peace to have been deposited there for the Purpose of being

used in adulterating Meal, Flour, Dough, or Bread, shall, upon being convicted of any such Offence, either by his, her, or their Confession, or by the Oath, or in case of a Quaker by Affirmation, of One or more credible Witness or Witnesses, forfeit and pay on every such Conviction any Sum not exceeding Ten Pounds nor less than Forty Shillings for the First Offence, Five Pounds for the Second Offence, and Ten Pounds for every subsequent Offence, or in default of Payment thereof shall, by Warrant under the Hand and Seal or Hands and Seals of the Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices before whom such Offender shall be convicted, be apprehended and committed to the House of Correction or some Prison of the City, County, or Place where the Offence shall have been committed, or the Offender or Offenders shall be, there to remain for any Time not exceeding Three Calendar Months, with or without hard Labour, from the Time of such Commitment, (unless the Penalty be sooner paid,) as any such Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices shall think fit and order; and it shall be lawful for the Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices before whom any such Offender shall be convicted to cause the Offender's Name, Place of Abode, and Offence to be published in some Newspaper or Newspapers which shall be printed or published in or near the City, County, Borough, or Place where the Offence shall have been committed; and the Proprietor or Proprietors, Printer or Printers, and every other Person and Persons concerned therein, are hereby authorized to print and publish the same when he, she, or they is or are required so to do by or by the Order of such Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices; and he, she, or they is and are hereby indemnified from any Prosecution or Prosecutions for printing and publishing the same or causing the same to be printed and published in such Newspaper or Newspapers by or from any Person or Persons whomsoever, any Law, Statute, or Usage to the contrary notwithstanding; and the Costs and Charges of such printing and publishing shall be paid out of such last-mentioned Penalty or Forfeiture, if any such shall be so forfeited and paid or recovered."

BREAK. A piece of a line.-M. The last line of a paragraph. BREVE. See ACCENTED LETTERS.

BREVIER. The name of a type, a size smaller than Bourgeois, and larger than Minion. In Moxon's time 112 Brevier bodies measured a foot. See TYPES.

BRING-UP. To bring-up a form of types is to place overlays over those parts on which the pressure is deficient in order to increase it and to equalize it over the whole surface of the form.

With wood-cuts, in which an equal pressure over the whole surface is not wanted, it is to place underlays on the bottom of the block, under those parts which require to come stronger than the rest, these are the dark parts and the foreground, and to cut away the tympan sheet over the light parts and the distances when requisite, and to overlay those parts which require to be firm, with smooth thin paper. I have always found India paper the best, but the minute hard particles and all the extraneous substances, should be taken out by scraping it carefully with a knife, so as to render it quite smooth and even, otherwise the engraving will be injured.

In order to produce the finest impression possible, it is necessary that it should be the impression of the surface of the types and the engraving, and the surface only; therefore it is requisite to have very little blanket in the tympans, and that of the finest kerseymere or woollen cloth, or paper alone, so that it shall not be pressed in between the lines, which, when the pressman neglects this precaution, produces rough coarse lines; of course the overlays should be as few as possible and of very thin paper. See FINE PRESSWORK, MAKING READY, OVERLAY, UNDERLAY.

BROAD. The technical name of a piece of furniture equal in width to a broad quotation.

BROADSIDE. A form of one full page, printed on one side of a whole sheet of paper, whatever size the paper may be of: thus, we have demy broadsides royal broadsides double crown broadsides, &c. BROKEN LETTER. By broken letter is not meant the breaking of

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