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hath come to this Realm sithen the making of the same, a marvellous Number of < printed Books, and daily doth; and the Cause of the making of the same Provision 'seemeth to be, for that there were but few Books, and few Printers within this Realm at that Time, which could well exercise and occupy the said Science and Craft of Printing; nevertheless, sithen the making of the said Provision, many of this Realm, being the King's natural Subjects, have given them so diligently to learn and 'exercise the said Craft of Printing, that at this Day there be within this Realm a great Number cunning and expert in the said Science or Craft of Printing, as able to 'exercise the said Craft in all Points, as any Stranger in any other Realm or Country: (3) And furthermore, where there be a great Number of the King's Subjects within this Realm, which live by the Craft and Mystery of Binding of Books, and that there be a great Multitude well expert in the same, yet all this notwithstanding, there are divers Persons that bring from beyond the Sea great Plenty of printed Books, not only in the Latin Tongue, but also in our maternal English Tongue, some 'bound in Boards, some in Leather, and some in Parchment, and them sell by retail, whereby many of the King's Subjects, being Binders of Books, and having no other Faculty wherewith to get their Living, be destitute of Work, and like to 'be undone, except some Reformation herein be had: Be it therefore enacted by the King our Sovereign Lord, the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and the Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by Authority of the same, That the said Proviso, made in the first Year of the said King Richard the Third, from the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord God next coming, shall be void and of none Effect.

s. 4. "Provided alway, and be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That if any of the said Printers or Sellers of printed Books, inhabited within this Realm, at any Time hereafter happen in such wise to inhance or increase the Prices of any such printed Books, in Sale or Binding, at too high and unreasonable Prices, in such wise as Complaint be made thereof unto the King's Highness, or unto the Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer, or any of the Chief Justices of the one Bench or of the other; that then the same Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer, and two Chief Justices, or two of any of them, shall have Power and Authority to enquire thereof, as well by the Oaths of twelve honest and discreet Persons, as otherwise by due Examination by their Discretions. (2) And after the same inhancing and increasing of the said Prices of the said Books and Binding shall be so found by the said twelve Men, or otherwise by Examination of the said Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer and Justices, or two of them; that then the same Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer and Justices, or two of them at the least, from Time to Time shall have Power and Authority to reform and redress such inhancing of the Prices of printed Books from Time to Time by their Discretions, and to limit Prices as well of the Books as for the Binding of them; (3) and over that the Offender or Offenders thereof being convict by the Examination of the same Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer and two Justices, or two of them, or otherwise, shall lose and forfeit for every Book by them sold, whereof the Price shall be inhanced for the Book or Binding thereof, three Shillings four Pence; the one Half thereof shall be to the King's Highness, and the other Half to the Parties grieved that will complain upon the same in Manner and Form before rehearsed." (Sections 2. & 3. Repealed by 3 Geo. 4. c. 41. 8. 2.)

By the Act 3 & 4 Will. 4. c. 52. s. 58. Books are absolutely prohibited to be imported for Sale, being "first composed or written or printed in the United Kingdom, and printed or reprinted in any other Country, except Books not reprinted in the United Kingdom within Twenty Years; or being Parts of Collections the greater parts of which had been composed or written abroad."

By the "Table of New Duties, 1834," in 4 & 5 Will. 4. c. 89., the Customs Duties Inwards are for " Books in the Foreign living Languages, being of Editions printed in or since the Year One thousand eight hundred and one, bound or unbound, the cwt. 21. 10s."

2 & 3 Vict. c. 23. s. 1. Drawbacks on Excise Duty. "For every Pound Weight Avoirdupois of printed Books in perfect and complete Sets, or, if periodical Publications, in perfect Parts or Numbers, and of blank, plain, or ruled Account Books, whether bound or unbound, made of or printed or ruled on Paper made and charged with Duty in the United Kingdom, and which shall be exported as Merchandize, a Drawback of One Penny Halfpenny." See PAPER.

Books. (Ireland. ) 4 Geo. 4. c. 72. "An Act to repeal the several Duties and Drawbacks of Customs, chargeable and allowable in Ireland, on the Importation and Exportation of certain Foreign and Colonial Goods, Wares, and Merchandize, and to grant other Duties and Drawbacks in lieu thereof, equal to the Duties and Drawbacks chargeable and allowable thereon in Great Britain.”

Duties of Customs on Goods, &c. imported into Ireland.

Books, printed, or Manuscripts, viz.

- half-bound, or in any way bound, the Cwt.
unbound, the Cwt.

No Drawback.

Duty. £ s. d.

- 6 10 0

5 0 0

The same Duties from the East Indies. BOOKING. The act of putting the different gatherings of a work together, in the warehouse, so as to make complete books. This is done by laying the gatherings in order upon a table, and, commencing with the first, taking them up in order; by adopting this method they are gathered under hand, as it may be termed, the succession being placed at the bottom as the person proceeds. The reverse of this method, is, however, to be preferred; to commence at the end of the work, and as the gathering is held in the hand, and rests on the arm, to lay the others upon it as they are taken up, so that in this way the commencement of the book will be the last to be gathered.

BOTANICAL AUTHORITIES, with the Abbreviations by which they are generally referred to.

A. & S. Albertini and Schweinitz, Writers upon Fungi.

Ab. China. - Abel (C.). A Voyage to China. 4to.

Ab. Ins. - Abbott's Natural History of the Insects of Carolina. fol.

Ac. Boh. Abhandlungen einer Gesellschaft in Boehmen, zur Aufnahme der Mathematik, der Vaterländischen Geschichte und der Naturgeschichte. 8vo.

-1789.

Praga, 1775 Ac. Bon. - De Bononiense Scientiarum et Artium Instituto, Commentarii. 4to. Bononia. 7 vols. 1748-1791.

Ach.

- Acharius.

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A Swedish professor, and writer upon Lichens.
Commentarii Societatis Regiæ Scientiarum Goettingensis.

1754. 1769. 1816.

4to. 1751.

Ac. Haf.
Acta Literaria Universitatis Hafniensis. 1 vol. 4to. Hafnia, 1778.
Ac. Hel.. Acta Helvetica Physico-mathematico-botanico-medica. 8 vols. 4to.
silea, 1757-1777.

Ac. Hol.-Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar. 8vo. 1739-1816.

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Stockholm,

Ac. Par. Actes de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. fol. Paris, 1792. Ac. Pet. Commentarii Academiæ Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanæ. 14 vols. 4to. Petropoli, 1728-1751.

Ac. St.-Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar. 8vo. Stockholm, 1739. Ac. Tou. - Histoire et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, &c., de Toulouse. 3 vols. 4to. Toulouse, 1782. 1784. 1788.

-

Ac. Up. Acta Literaria et Scientiarum Upsaliæ publicata. 8vo. 1720-1816.
Adams. -F. Adams. A Russian botanist, who travelled through Arctic and Eastern
Siberia.

Adan. Adanson. A French systematic botanist.

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Agardh. A Swedish professor, and writer upon Algæ, &c.

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Aghardt, in Svensk Botanik. 9 vols. 8vo. 1804 to the present time.
Andrews (Henry). Coloured Engravings of Heaths, with

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botanical descriptions. 3 vols. fol. London, 1802-1809.

Ait. Aiton. The superintendent of the King's garden at Kew.

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- Aiton's (William) Hortus Kewensis; or a Catalogue

of the Plants in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew. 5 vols.

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Al. Au. · Allioni (Carolus). Auctuarium ad Floram Pedemontanam. 1 fasc. 8vo. Taurini, 1789.

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Alb. & Schw. -Albertini (J. B. de) and Schweinitz (L. D. de) Conspectus Fungorum in Lusatia Superioris Agro Niskiensi crescentium. 8vo. Lipsia, 1805.

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Allioni (Carolus). Flora Pedemontana. 3 vols. fol. Taurini, 1785.
Allioni (Carolus). Miscellanea Philosophico-mathematica Societatis

privatæ Taurinensis.

Alp. Eg. Alp. Ex. Am. Ac.

Alpinus (Prosper). De Plantis Ægypti liber. 4to. Venetiis, 1592. Alpinus (Prosper). De Plantis Exoticis libri duo. 4to. Venetiis, 1629. - Linnæi Amanitates Academicæ, seu Dissertationes antehac seorsim editæ. 10 vols. 8vo. Holmiæ et Lipsia, 1749, et seq.

Am. Rut. Ammann (Johan.). Stirpium rariorum in Imperio Rutheno sponte provenientium Icones et Descriptiones. 4to. Petrop. 1739.

Amans S. 1 vol.

- Amans. Obs. in Recueil des Travaux de la Société d'Agriculture d'Agens.

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An old Russian botanist.

Annals of Botany, by C. König and J. Sims. 2 vols. 8vo.

London, 1805

An. Mu.. - Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. 24 vols. 4to. Paris, 1802 to the present time. An. Wett. Annalen der Wetteranischen Gesellschaft für die gesammte Naturkunde. And, Ger. Andrews (Henry). Coloured Engravings of Geraniums. fol. London. And. Heaths. Andrews (Henry). Coloured Engravings of Heaths, with botanical descriptions. vols. fol. London, 1802-1809.

And. Rep.

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Andrews (Henry). The Botanist's Repository for new and rare Plants. 10 vols. 4to. London, 1797, et seq.

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Anderson. A London merchant; published a paper on Pæonies.

Andr. Andrews. A famous botanical draughtsman.

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- Arduini (Pietro), in Saggi dell' Accad. de Padova. 2 vols.

Arduini (Pietro). Animadversionum Botanicarum Specimen. 4to. Patavii, 1759.

As. Res. – Asiatic Researches, or the Transactions of the Society instituted in Bengal. Calcutta, 1788, &c.

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De Asso (Ignatius). Synopsis Stirpium indigenarum Arragoniæ. 4to. Marsillia, 1779.

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Aub. Gui.— Aublet (Fusée). Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Française. 4 vols.

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Botanical Magazine. By Curtis, Sims, &c.

Bartling, M. D. and Wendland, of Göttingen, botanists.
Botanical Register. By Ker and Lindley.

Bacle. A German botanist?

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Bart. - Barton, M. D. Formerly a professor at Philadelphia.

Bartr.

- Bartram. Formerly a nurseryman at Philadelphia.

Bartr. It. Bartram (Will.). Travels through South and North Carolina. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1791.

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Bastard or Bâtard. A writer upon the Flora of France.
- Bastard (T.), in Schrader's Journal für die Botanik?

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Batarra (John Ant.). Fungorum Agri Ariminensis Historia. 4to. ventiæ, 1759.

Fa

Batsch. - Batsch. A writer upon Fungi.

Batsch Fun.- Batsch (Aug. Joh. Georg Carl). Elenchus Fungorum. 4to. Hala, 1783-1789.

Batt. - Battarra. Published a History of Fungi, 1789.

Bau. His.- Bauhin (Johannes). Historia Plantarum universalis. fol. 1651.
Bau. Pin.- Bauhin (Caspar). Pinax Theatri Botanici. 4to. Basilea, 1623.

Bau. Pr.- Bauhin (Caspar). Prodromus Theatri Botanici, in quo plantæ supra 600 proponuntur. 4to. Franc. Mon. 1620.

Bauer N. H.-Bauer (Ferdin.). Illustrationes Flora Nova Hollandiæ. fol. 1813.
Baug.-J. C. Baumgarten, M. D. of Schasburgh, in Transylvania. A botanist.
Bauh.
Bauhin, brothers; professors of medicine, published 1620, 1650.
Baum.-J. C. Baumgarten, M. D. of Schasburgh, in Transylvania. A botanist.
Beau. Ow. Allioni. Palisot de Beauvois. Flore des Royaumes d'Oware et de
Benin. 2 vols. fol. Paris, 1805.

Beaup.-Beaupret. A French botanist, mentioned in Dec. Systema.

Beaut. Palisot de Beauvois. A French traveller and botanist.

Beauv. Gr. Allioni. Palisot de Beauvois. Essai d'une nouvelle Agrostographie. 8vo. Paris, 1812.

Beauv. In. Ac. Am. Allioni. Palisot de Beauvois.

Transactions of the American

Philosophical Society. 4to. 3 vols. Philadelphia, 1774–1793.
Bedf.- Duke of Bedford. A great promoter of botany.
Bel-Bellardi. An Italian botanist.

Bel. Tau.

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Bellardi (Ludovico). Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences de Turin. 4to. 1782.

Benth. Bentham. An English botanist, secretary to the Horticultural Society,

London.

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Berg. C. Bergius (Peter Jonas). Descriptiones Plantarum ex Capite Bonæ Spei. 8vo. Stockholm, 1767.

Berg. Ho.- Bergius (Peter Jonas), in Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar. 8vo. Stockholm, 1739.

Berger.-J. Bergeret, M. D. A French botanist.

Berg, Ph.

Bergeret. Phytonomatotechnie universelle. 3 vols. fol. Paris. Ber. Mag.. Martini (Fried. Henr. Wilh.). Berlinisches Magazin, oder gesammelte Schriften. 4 bänd. 8vo. Berlin, 1765-1767.

Ber. Ph. Tr. - Bergius (P. J.), in Philosophical Transactions, vol. for 1772. London. Bernh. - Bernhardi. A German botanist.

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A Russian professor, resident in the Crimea.

Bes. Eys. Besler (Basilius). Hortus Eystettensis. 2 vols. fol. Nuremberg, 1612. Bib. It. Memorie di Matematica e Fisica della Societa Italiana. 4to.

and 1816.

Bieb. Bieberstein. A Russian botanist of great note.

Verona, 1782

Bieb. Cen. Bieberstein (Marschall von). Centuria Plantarum rariorum Rossiæ Meridionalis.

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Biv. Cen. Bivona Bernardi (Antonin.). Sicularum Plantarum Centuria prima. 8vo. Panormi, 1806.

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A curious Herbal, containing 600 cuts of the useful London, 1737.

- Blume, M. D. A Dutch botanist.

- Boccone (Paolo). Museo di Piante rare della Sicilia, Malta, Corsica, Italia, Piemonte, e Germania. 4to. Venetia, 1697.

Boc. Sic. Boccone (Paolo). Icones et Descriptiones rariorum Plantarum Siciliæ, Melita, Galliæ, et Italiæ. 4to. Londini, 1674.

Boer. Boerhaave. An old Dutch botanist.

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- Boissieu la Martinière, who accompanied La Peyrouse. Boj. Bojer. A professor of botany in the Isle of France.

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Bolt. Fil. Bolton (James). Filices Britanniæ. 4to. London, 1785-1790.

Bolt. Pil.Bolton (James). Geschichte der merkwürdigsten Pilze. Berlin, 1795. Bon. Mon. Bonpland (Aimé). Monographie des Melastomes et Rhexes et autres Plantes de cet Ordre. fol. Paris, 1809.

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Bon. Rhex.

Bonpland (Aimé).

Description des Plantes rares cultivés à Malmaison

Monographie des Melastomes et Rhexes et autres

Plantes de cet Ordre. fol. Paris, 1809.
Bonp. Bonpland. A French traveller in South America, and botanist.
Borc. Borckhausen. A writer upon the Flora of Hesse Darmstadt.
Bonam. Bonamy (Franc.). Flora Nannetensis Prodromus. 12mo.
Bory. Bory de St. Vincent. A French traveller and botanist.
Bosc. Bosc. A French botanist, and traveller in North America.
Bot. Cab..

Nantes, 1782.

The Botanical Cabinet. By Conrad Loddiges and Sons. 14 vols. 12mo. and 4to, published monthly.

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The Botanical Magazine. 8vo. 55 vols. London, 1787-1830. Bot. Mis. - Hooker (Will. Jackson). Botanical Miscellany. 2 parts, 8vo. London,

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The Botanical Register. 8vo. 14 vols. London, 1815-1830. Bot. Rep.-The Botanist's Repository for new and rare plants. 10 vols. 4to. London, 1797, et seqq.

Bouch.-Boucher.

A writer upon the French Flora.
Bouché.-F. A. G. Boucher. A French botanist.
A collector of plants for Kew Gardens.

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The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica. fol. London,

Br. Rem. — Brown (Robert). General Remarks, Geographical and Systematical, on the Botany of Terra Australis. 4to. 1814.

Bra, Sal. De Braune (Franz Ant.). Salzburgische Flora. 8vo. 1791.

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An old English writer upon succulent plants.

Brad. Suc.- Bradley (Richard). Historia Plantarum Succulentarum. 4to. London, 1716-1727.

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Brew. Jour. Brewster's Philosophical Journal. Edinburgh, published every three

months.

Brey. C.-Breynius (Jacobus). Exoticarum Plantarum Centuria. fol. Gedani,

1678.

Brey. Pr. Breynius (Jacobus). Prodromus Fasciculi rariorum Plantarum in Hortis Hollandiæ observatarum. 2 vols. 4to. Gedani, 1680-1689.

Brid. - Bridel. A German writer upon Mosses.

Brid. Mus.-Bridel (Samuel Elias). Muscologia. 4to. Gotha et Parisiis, 1797

1803.

Brig.-J. Brignoli. Professor at Verona.

Brm.- Burmann. A Dutch editor of other people's works.

Broeg. - Broegelmann. A German botanist.

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Brong. A. Brongniart. A French botanist.

Brot.- Brotero, A Portuguese botanist.

Brot. Lus. - Brotero (Felix Avellar). Flora Lusitanica. 2 vols. 8vo.

Brot. Ph.

1801.

Olyssip. 1801.

- Brotero (Felix Avellar). Phytographia Lusitaniæ selectior. fol. Olyssip.

Brou. Broussonet.

A French botanist, and traveller in Barbary.

Bruce Tr.- Bruce (James). Travels to discover the Source of the Nile.

Edinburgh, 1790.

5 vols. 4to.

Bry. Hist. Bryant (Charles). Flora Dietetica, or History of Esculent Plants. 8vo.
London, 1783.

Buc.- Buchanan. An English physician, and traveller in Nepal.
Buch.-Buchoz (Pierre Joseph). Collection des Fleurs. fol. Paris.

Bul.- Bulliard. A French writer upon Fungi.

Bul. Her.- Bulliard. Herbier de la France. fol. 1780, &c.

Bul. Ph.-Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris. 1791-1816. Bur. Af.- Burmann (Johannes). Rariorum Africanarum Plantarum Decades 10. 4to. Amstelodami, 1738-1739.

Bur. Am. - Burmann (Johannes). Plantæ Americanæ à C. Plumier detectæ et à J.
Burmanno editæ. fol. Amstelod. 1755.

Bur. In. - Burmann (Johannes). Flora Indica. 4to. Lugd. Bat. 1768.
Bur. Zey.-Burmann (Johannes). Thesaurus Zeylanicus. 4to. Amst. 1737.
Burc.- Burchell. An English botanist, and traveller at the Cape of Good Hope.

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