Imágenes de páginas

In respect to the Bengalese types with which Halhed's grammar is printed, he thus observes, "The public curiosity must be strongly excited by the beautiful characters which are displayed in the following work: and although my attempt may be deemed incompleat or unworthy of notice, the book itself will always bear an intrinsic value, from its containing as extraordinary an instance of mechanic abilities as has perhaps ever appeared. That the Bengal letter is very difficult to be imitated in steel will readily be allowed by every person who shall examine the intricacies of the strokes, the unequal length and size of the characters, and the variety of their positions and combinations. It was no easy task to procure a writer accurate enough to prepare an alphabet of a similar and proportionate body throughout, and with that symmetrical exactness which is necessary to the regularity and neatness of a fount. Mr. Bolts (who is supposed to be well versed in this language) attempted to fabricate a set of types for it, with the assistance of the ablest artists in London. But as he has egregiously failed in executing even the easiest part, or primary alphabet, of which he has published a specimen, there is no reason to suppose that his project, when compleated, would have advanced beyond the usual state of imperfection to which new inventions are constantly exposed.

"The advice and even sollicitation of the Governor General prevailed upon Mr. Wilkins, a gentleman who has been some years in the India Company's civil service in Bengal, to undertake a set of Bengal types. He did, and his success has exceeded every expectation. In a country so remote from all connexion with European artists, he has been obliged to charge himself with all the various occupations of the Metallurgist, the Engraver, the Founder, and the Printer. To the merit of invention he was compelled to add the application of personal labour. With a rapidity unknown in Europe, he surmounted all the obstacles which necessarily clog the first rudiments of a difficult art, as well as the disadvantages of solitary experiment; and has thus singly on the first effort exhibited his work in a state of perfection which in every part of the world has appeared to require the united improvements of different projectors, and the gradual polish of successive ages."

The gentleman here spoken of was Charles Wilkins, Esq., a descendant of the learned Bishop Wilkins, and one of the founders of the Asiatic Society. He was afterwards created Doctor of Laws, and appointed Librarian to the East-India Company at their establishment in Leadenhall Street. He was reputed to be the best Shanscrit scholar in Europe.

BENVENUE. Half a crown paid by a new workman to the Chapel when he commences, which is always spent. If a journeyman wrought formerly in the same printing house, and comes again to work in it, he pays but half a benvenue. If a journeyman smout more or less on another printing house, he pays half a benvenue. M. See ANCIENT


This custom is still retained in printing offices, and the amount generally paid is the same as it was in the seventeenth century, though the value of half a crown then was considerably more than it is now. Under particular circumstances the Chapel sometimes takes less; and the workmen always add something each, so as to be able to provide bread and cheese and a draught of porter to welcome the new comer. The word is now pronounced Bevénue; it is evidently a corruption of the Fr. bien venu or welcome.


BIBLE ORTHOGRAPHY. Many religious works are printed with numerous extracts from the Holy Scriptures without any reference to the Book, Chapter, or Verse, and as they are frequently made from memory, they are generally inaccurate. I am clearly of opinion that wherever a quotation is made, it should be given literally as it appears in the work from which it is taken, otherwise it is worse than useless, for it misleads. With regard to extracts from the Bible, I hold it indispensable that they should be given without the slightest variation from the original; but as many words in the Bible vary in their orthography from Johnson's Dictionary, which is the book of reference generally in use, and as the authorized editions of the Scriptures differ in this respect from each other in many instances, I have collated the King's Printers, the Oxford, the Cambridge, and the Edinburgh editions with Johnson's Dictionary and with each other, for the purpose of enabling the printer to preserve uniformity in orthography with little trouble to himself in reprints of the Bible, and in extracts occurring in religious works, according as the author may prefer any of these editions.

These variations from each other do not extend to words but are confined to the orthography, and to the difference of the same expression being given in one word, in two words, or in being made a compound word; thus in the Cambridge and the Edinburgh Bibles there are a great number of compound words, while in the King's Printers and Oxford Bibles the same words are given either joined together as one word or made into two words; and we find very few compound words, except proper names. I have also given the Bible orthography where Johnson gives two ways of spelling a word. The result will be seen in the following Table; which also shows the variations, to a certain degree, that have taken place in the language during the last two hundred years.

The late Mr. Thomas Bensley, who was printer to the University of Oxford, told me, about the year 1805, that they had a sealed copy there, as a standard to read from; if this be the case, it is difficult to account for their copies of late years having numerous variations from the earlier editions. I think it very desirable that there should be a standard edition that we could refer to, as a pure text; and it would also be desirable to know on what authority these variations are made in the holy Scriptures, for every word, every point, nay every capital letter, I believe, was carefully considered before it was adopted in the first edition of the authorized version in 1611, and this too by a considerable number of the most learned men of the kingdom, who had the direction of the work.

With regard to the words in the Bible printed in Italic characters, Dr. Myles Smyth, one of the two appointed Revisers of the authorized version, in the Preface to the first edition, published in 1611, gives the following reason for their use :—

"Moreouer, whereas the necessitie of the sentence required any thing to be added (for such is the grace and proprietie of the Ebrewe and Greeke tongues that it cannot, but either by circumlocution, or by adding the verbe or some word, be vnderstood of them that are not well practised therein), wee haue put it in the text with an other kinde of letter, that it may easily bee discerned from the common letter."

The Preface was written and affixed by the King's command. The first Edition of the Bible was printed in Black Letter, and the "other kinde of letter" was roman; when the Black Letter was disused, and the Roman character substituted, the "other kinde of letter" was changed to Italic. Dr. Smyth was afterwards Bishop of Gloucester.

King's Printers.





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Gen. x. 27.
Gal. iv. 24.
Gen. xvi. 1.
Matt. xxvi. 7.
2 Chr. ii. 8.
Job viii. Head.
Acts xvii. 3.
Rev. xix. 1.

Eccl. xi. 5.

1 Kings x. 11.
Acts i. 13.
Luke xiv. 32.
Acts iil. 7.
Mark xiv. 31.
Joel i. 12.
Mark xv. 43.
1 Sam. xiv. 7.
Rev. vii. 6.
Gen. xxx. 13.
Judg. x. 4.
Gen. viii. 1.
Exod. xxi. 6.
1 Sam. xiii. 20.
Luke iii. 9.
1 Kings vii. 32.

Gen. xl. 17.
Rev. ii. 14.
Num. xxii. 2.
So. of Sol. ii. 4.
Judg. vii. 13.
Ezek. iv. 12.
Ruth ii. 23.
John vi. 9.
Num. v. 15.

Lev. xxvii. 16.
Mark x. 46.
Exod. xii. 22.
Jer. li. 20.

Zech. x. 4.

Exod. xxii. Head.

Acts iii. 10.

2 Sam. iv. 7.

Deut. xxxi. 17.

Mark v. 16.

Jos. xx. 5.
Num. xxii. 5.
2 Pet. ii. 15.
Ezek. x. 9.
Gen. xl. 20.
Gen. xxv. 31.
Ps. li. 14.
Prov. xxix. 10.
Gal. iv. 22.
Rev. vi. 15.
Lev. xxv. 39.
1 Kings ix. 21.
Gen. xxi. 10.
2 Pet. ii. 15.
Num. xxii. 5.
Gen. xxi. 16.
Isa. xli. 19.
Luke vi. 44.
Exod. xxxviii. 4.

Isa. xxviii. 28.
Exod. xxv. 7.
Heb. vi. 8.
Isa. xxvii. 4.

2 Sam. xii. 31.

Matt. ix. 15.
Lev. xxi. 19.

Lev. xxi. 19.

Luke iv. 18.
Exod. v. 4.
Gen. viii. 20.
Exod. xxx. 9.
Gen. xxiii. 4.
1 Pet. iv. 15.
Deut. xxviii. 37.

Ezek. xxvii. 9. So. of Sol. i. 14.

Gen. xi. 31.

Acts vii. 11.

Joel i. 4.

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Lev. xi. 25. Isa. v. 18. 1 Cor. ix. 27. 1 Kings viii. 37. Isa. xxxiii. 4. 1 Kings vi. 36. 1 Kings vii. 2. 2 Sam. v. 11. Lev. xiv. 6. Matt. xxii. 21. Matt. xvi. 13. Acts vii. 4. Isa. xxvii. 9. Acts vii. 11. Gen. xi. 31. Amos vi. 5. 2 Chr. xviii. 33. Exod. xiv. 25. 1 Kings vii. 17. Ps. iii. 7. Prov. xv.13. Exod. xxv. 18. Ezek. xxxi. 8. 1 Tim. ii. 15. Matt. xiii. 22. Deut. vii. 7. Jer. xxii. 14. 1 Kings vi. 15. Acts xiii. 21. 1 Sam. ix. 1. John xv. 22. Lev. xi. 3. Mark xiii. 35. Prov. xxx. 26. Num. xi. 7. Luke vi. 1. Hos. ix. 1. Job xxxviii. 6. Ezek. xxv. 5. 2 Chr. xxii. 3. Exod. xxxviii. 31. Rom. i. 31.

Isa. iii. 22.
Lev. xxi. 20.
Obad. 14.

1 Kings xvii. 12.
Lev. xi. 16.
Neh. i. 11.

Gen. xi. 31. Job ix. 33. Luke i. 78. 2 Pet. i. 19. Num. xiv. 14. Job v. 14. Isa. xliii. 20. Ezek. ix. 1. Acts vii. 28. Ezek. xxiii. 47. Exod. xxi. 6. Jam. i. 8. 1 Tim. iii. 8. Ps. cxxxix. 2. Neh. ii. 13. Matt. xv. 17. Matt. xiii. Head.

Gen. xxxv. 14.

Neh. iii. 14.

1 Sam ii. 8.
Dan. iii. 29.
Neh. ii. 13.
Matt. xiii. 21.

Lev. xxv. 29.
1 Kings viii. 30.
Ezek. vi. 6.
Exod. xxxix. 34.

Gen. xxiv. 22.
Luke i. 5.

Luke iv. 27.
1 Kings xix. 16.
Acts ix. 33.

Isa. lvii. 5.

Gen. xxiv. 57.

1 Pet. v. 3.

King's Printers.





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feast days feedingplace felloes

fellow citizens
fellow heirs
fellow helper
fellow soldier
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fiery flying
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fig tree

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fish gate

fish spears

five and twentieth


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forty five


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Matt. iii. 3.
Isa. i. 1.
Isa. xvii. 14.
Gen. xxiv. 63.
Acts xiv. 2.
1 Pet. ii. 12.
1 Pet. iii. 16.
Deut. xvii. 1.
Gen. xxi. 28.
Ezra vi. 4.
Lev. xiv. 9.
Prov. iv. 25.
Eph. vi. 6.

2 Sam. xxii. 25. 2 Pet. i. Head. Luke i. 2.

Isa. vii. 4.
Deut. xiv. 5.
Acts xviii. 21.
Eccles. viii. 17.
Gen. xli. 18.

Gen. xxxviii. 13.
Joel iii. 13.
Hos. ii. 11.

Nah. ii. 11.
1 Kings vii. 33.
Eph. ii. 19.
John xi. 16.
Eph. iii. 6.
2 Cor. viii. 23.

Philip. iv. 3.
Col. iv. 10.
Matt. xviii. 29.
Matt. xviii. 31.
Philip. ii. 25.
Col. iv. 11.
2 Sam. xix. 18.
Gen. xviii. 7.
Isa. xxx. 6.
Gen. iii. 7.
1 Kings iv. 25.
1 Kings v. 10.
2 Sam. vi. 5.
Judg. xv. 4.
Exod. xxvii. 3.
Rev. i. 5.
Gen. x. 15.
Exod. xxiii. 16.

Num. xiii. 20.

Nah. iii. 12.

2 Chr. xxxiii. 14.
Amos iv. 2.

So. of Sol. vii. 4.
Job xli. 7.
Isa. xxviii. 25.
Jer. lii. 31.
Exod. xxvii. 3.
Exod. xvi. 3.

2 Cor. iii. 3.

2 Chr. ii. 16.

Matt. xxi. 5.
Gen. xxxii. 15.
Eph. v. 4.

Exod. xxviii. 37.
1 Kings vi. 20.

2 Kings xxiii. Head.

2 Cor. xiii. 2.
1 Kings vii. 3.
Neh. xii. 37.
Acts xi. 6.
Rev. vi. 15.
Exod. xxxvi. 3.
Num. xv. 3.
Lev. xxii. 18.

Gal. iv. 22.
Gen. 1. 11.
Lev. vii. 9.

Mark xiv. 70. Nah. iii. 6. Heb. xi. 32. Judg. vi. 11. Lev. xi. 18.

Deut. xiv. 13.

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