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each sheet is placed behind this tongue, which supports it while turning down the tympan. See DUCK'S BILL.

In proceeding with the work the balls should be well cleaned, that no dirt or extraneous matter may be on their surface. They should not be too moist, which would prevent the ink distributing equally on them, and would also prevent it lying equally on the surface of the types or engraving; nor should they be too dry, as in that case they will not dispose of the ink so smoothly as to produce a fine impression; neither will they retain particles of dirt on their surface, but part with them to the form, which will cause picks. The moisture ought to be just so much as to make the pelt or composition soft, when the ink will distribute kindly and equally, which will be perceived by their lugging; they will also part with it to the form equally where they touch, so that the impression will be sharp and clear.

The ink ought to be rubbed out thin and regular on the ink block, so that in taking ink it shall at the very first be diffused tolerably smooth on the surface of the balls, which causes a greater probability of producing good impressions. It is likewise advisable to keep rubbing the ink out on the block with the brayer, as also to be almost constantly distributing the balls; the consequent friction produces a small degree of warmth, which is of advantage, particularly in cold weather.

As uniformity of colour is requisite for beauty in printing, I would recommend that the pressman should take ink for every impression where the form is large; this I am aware will be thought too troublesome, but I am decidedly of opinion that it is advantageous in producing regularity of colour: it is unpleasant to the eye to see in a splendid book two pages that face each other, the one of a full black, rather surcharged with ink, the other rather deficient in quantity and of a grey colour; yet this must happen when, as is frequently the case, three or four sheets are printed with one taking of ink.

Beating for fine work should not by any means be slighted. The form ought to be gone over two or three times, not with heavy thumps, but slowly and regularly with a firm hand, just raising the balls each time completely clear of the types, and advancing but a little way, so that in fact each part will be beat five or six times over, or more; the face of the type will then be completely covered with ink: but the pressman should be careful not to beat too far over the edges of the pages, nor, if the margin be wide, to let the balls scrape against the edges of another page, as in both cases ink or extraneous matter will be scraped from the balls, and accumulate about the types at the extremities, and thus cause picks and rough lines.

In splendid books, and particularly where the paper is large and heavy and the type large, set-off sheets are used to interleave the whole impression while working, and are continued in it till the printed paper is taken down from the poles, when they are removed by the warehouseman. These set-off sheets are put in when the white paper is working, and moved from one heap to the other during the working of the reiteration. They prevent the ink from setting off from one sheet to another while they are newly printed, which it would otherwise do from the weight of the paper, and also from fine printing being usually worked of a full colour.

For the uniformity of impression I would advise that the pull should be adjusted in the first instance so as to cause a proper degree of pressure on the form to produce a good impression when the bar is pulled home, and then invariably to cheek the bar, and allow it to rest in that position

during a short pause; this is easily done in the Stanhope, the Ruthven, the Columbian, and Sherwin and Cope's presses, as the increased power is obtained by a compound lever, which is generally so adjusted as that the lever shall come a small portion beyond the centre of the circle it partially describes when the bar is pulled home, and as it has then reached a point beyond its maximum power, it is easily retained in this position to rest on the pull the same observation applies to all other presses having, what is usually termed, the increased power, which is the application of a compound lever to a press on the common construction; but in a one pull wooden press, instead of this application, which I must acknowledge I never knew to answer well when applied to these presses, I would recommend when fine work is doing a simple contrivance that I adopted in two presses, which answered the purpose uncommonly well, and enabled the pressmen to rest on the pull uniformly, without too much effort to keep the bar to the cheek, which with a heavy form and a large platen becomes very fatiguing to continue through a number of impressions, if not impossible, with the unaided exertion of the arm. See CATCH OF THE BAR. It will thus be perceived, that to produce presswork of a highly superior character, great expense and much time are required; and that it is requisite to have a good press, and that press to be in good condition; to have new types, or types the faces of which are not rounded by wear; to have good balls, and those balls in good condition; the ink should be strong, of a full black colour, the oil well boiled, to prevent it separating from the colouring matter and tinging the paper, and it should be ground so fine as to be impalpable; the paper should be of the best quality, made of linen rags, and not bleached by means of an acid which has a tendency to decompose the ink; the beating should be carefully and well done, not in a hurried manner, the face of the type should be completely covered with ink, without any superfluity, so as to produce a full colour; and the pull should be so regulated as to have a slow and great pressure, and to pause at its maximum in order to fix the ink firmly upon the paper; these particulars observed, with paper only in the tympans, perfect impressions of the face of the type only will be obtained in the most superior manner, and a splendid book will thus be produced in the best style of printing.

FIRE EATER. Compositors who are expeditious workmen are styled Fire Eaters, and also Swifts.

FIRST. The pressman who has wrought the longest at that press, except an apprentice, for he must allow any journeyman, though new come, that style, is distinguished by the name of First, the other his Second, these call one another companions: generally the master printer reposes the greatest trust upon the care and curiosity for good work of the First; although both are equally liable to perform it. All the privilege that the First has above the Second is, that the First takes his choice to pull or beat the agreed stint first: and that the Second knocks up the balls, washes the forms, teazes wool, and does the other more servile work, while the First is employed about making register, ordering the tympan, frisket, and points, &c., or otherwise making ready the form, &c.-M.

At the present day there is no such distinction; both the pressmen are equal, are equally responsible for the work, and take all the respective parts without any distinction; unless one of them be an acknowledged superior workman, and then he will, as a matter of course, take the lead in making ready, but in nothing else.

FIRST FORM. The form the white paper is printed on, which

generally by rule ought to have the first page of the sheet in it.— M. This is the reverse of the present custom, which is invariably to lay on the inner form first, viz. the one that has the second page in it; except it is directed to the contrary, for some particular reason. See LAY ON.

FIRST PAGE. First page of the sheet, which is always placed to the left hand in the first or outer form on the stone, when imposing.-M. In Hebrew works it is placed to the right hand, as in books printed in that language the order of the pages is reversed.

FIRST PROOF. The first impression of any matter after it is composed, for the purpose of comparing it with the copy; it is usually printed on a cheap hard sized paper, that will bear writing ink well, to mark the literal errors, and any variations from the copy that may have occurred, in order to their correction in the metal.

FIRST PULL. In a two pull press of the common construction, the platen only covers half a full form, and to obtain an impression of the whole, the carriage is run in at twice; the first pull prints one half, and the second pull the other half.

FLARING BALLS. When pelt balls are too soft, from having imbibed too much moisture, and are wanted for immediate use, they are flared; that is, the pressman will take a sheet of waste paper, and having rolled it up slightly, will light it, and holding the face of one of the balls downwards, will pass it backwards and forwards over the flame, and then treat the other ball in a similar manner: this not only evaporates the moisture, but also communicates a small degree of warmth to the balls, which causes them both to take ink and to distribute it better than before the operation.

Composition balls are liable to crack, both in distributing, and also when separating them after they have been left in the rack upon each other, particularly when they are new and soft; to remedy this, they are flared, which, when it is judiciously done, melts the surface of the composition and fills up the cracks. They are also flared when the face begins to fail, which melts the composition, and forms a new and smooth surface.

FLARING A FORM. In working by candle light, when imposing, correcting, or laying a form on the press, it sometimes happens that melted tallow will be spilt on the pages and choke up the letter. To get rid of this tallow, and clean the form again, the compositor lights a piece of paper and puts it on the grease, to melt it; he then brushes it with the letter brush, and, if necessary, repeats the operation.

FLOWERS. Types with ornaments cast on their face instead of letters. They are used for borders round jobs, cards, pages, and wrappers of books; and for other embellishments.

Luckombe, in his work on printing, gave many specimens of borders, head pieces, &c. composed of flowers by Mr. Hazard, of Bath; and lately, Mr. Johnson and Mr. Nichols have produced some large and elaborate pieces with this material, by combining an immense number of pieces of different patterns and sizes, to represent pillars and arches ; but after all the ingenuity they have displayed, and the patience they have exerted, their productions are inferior to the effect of an engraving; and only tend to prove, in my opinion, that ingenuity and patience are misapplied.

Flowers are cast on bodies from a Pearl up to a Four Line Pica, and of a great variety of patterns. Of late years our letter founders have greatly improved their specimens by the addition of many new designs.

The practice formerly was to cut the pattern perfect on each piece,

and many patterns had a line at the foot of each, so that when a border was formed, there was a continual line round the inside. I pointed out to the late Mr. Catherwood, of the firm of Caslon and Catherwood, the inconvenience of both these modes of cutting flowers: in the first case, when the pattern had a solid ground, the flowers joined in that solid part, and, after being used a few times, the angle became rounded, and always showed a separation between each piece; I recommended that the junction should be in the most open part of the design, so that a little rounding of the angle would not be so perceptible: and in the second case, the same cause produced the same effect; for after being used a few times, the angles became rounded, and instead of a continued line, it became a series of short lines, separated from each other by intervals to remedy this, I suggested to him to discard the line, and that a piece of brass rule should be substituted by the printer, which, being in one piece, would form a continued line, and not be liable to injury from the same cause. He adopted both these plans, and the junction of the flowers that have been subsequently cut has been much improved; but the abolishing of the line has not produced the neat effect I anticipated, for it rarely happens that the printer will take the trouble of placing a rule within the flowers; in consequence, many of the designs present, when printed, a meagre and unfinished appearance.

FLY. See DEVIL.-M. A boy who takes the printed sheets off the tympan as soon as the pressman turns it up, for the sake of despatch: it was most frequently done with newspapers, as they are always pressed for time, and are obliged to work with the greatest expedition. These boys are not now called devils, as in the time of Moxon, but Flies, or Fly Boys.

FLYING FRISKET. In working at press, the act of turning down the frisket and the tympan upon the form by the same motion, for despatch; it is always done in the regular way of working, but not in very superior work where the paper is heavy.

FOLDING. In the warehouse. As the person who collates the books turns them, the gatherings lie ready to be folded, and as they are pushed a little over each other they are readily taken up separately; they are knocked up at the ends and sides, and evenly folded in the back, which is rubbed down with a folder; after this, from a dozen to twenty-five gatherings in thickness are knocked up together and put into the press, which is thus filled and screwed down. After lying a sufficient time in the press, they are taken out and are ready for booking.

Books are never folded across a page; of course some require to be folded the shortest way of the paper, and some the longest way.

FOLIO. The running number of the pages of a work. When there is no running title, the folios are placed in the middle of the head-line, in Arabic figures, sometimes enclosed in brackets, sometimes in parentheses, but more frequently now without either; when there is a running title, the folios are placed at the outside corners of the pages. The prefatory matter has the folios generally set in Roman lower case numerals, and sometimes the folios of an appendix are done in a similar

manner.

A sheet of paper folded in two leaves, is also termed folio; as folio post, folio demy, &c.; but when the size of a book is spoken of, it is styled a post folio, demy folio, &c.

FOLLOW. See if it follows, is a term used as well by the corrector, as by the compositor and pressman. It is used by the corrector and

compositor when they examine how the beginning matter of a succeeding page agrees with the ending matter of a precedent page: and how the folios of those pages properly and numerically follow and succeed one another, lest the pages should be transposed. But the pressman only examines that the folio and beginning word of the second page, and signature of the first and third page (when the reiteration is on the press) follow the folio and direction of the first page, and the signature of the third page follows the signature of the first page, orderly according to the volume, lest the form should be laid wrong on the press. M. FOOT NOTES. See BOTTOM NOTES.

FOOT OF THE LETTER. The break end of the shank of a letter.-M.

FOOT OF A PAGE. The bottom or end of a page.-M.

FOOTSTEP, is a board nailed upon a piece of timber seven or eight inches high, and is bevelled away on its upper side, as is also the board on its under side at its hither end, that the board may stand aslope on the floor. It is placed fast on the floor under the carriage of the press.-M. It is made of elm; and gives the pressman great advantage in pulling when he has a heavy form on the press.

FOOTSTICK. Footsticks are placed against the foot or bottom of the page: the outer sides of these footsticks are bevelled or sloped from the further to the hither end, which allows the quoins to wedge up the pages within the chase.-M. They, as well as sidesticks, which are precisely the same, and used indiscriminately for each other where the length suits, are made of oak; their width is in proportion to their length; for a form of demy octavo the broad end will be about an inch wide, and the narrow end about half an inch; but where a chase is small in proportion to the size of the pages, they are made narrower to allow of quoin room. Their height is the same as that of the other furniture; the outer angle at each end is bevelled off. A careful compositor, when he is making up furniture from the drawer, will cut off the bruised broad end from the old side and footsticks that will suit as to length, and thus economise the furniture, which for jobs and pamphlets will answer every purpose of new.

FORE EDGE. The fore edge, in making margin, is that edge of a sheet of paper, which, when folded to the proper size of the book, forms its outer edge.

FOREIGN BILLS or NOTES. See FORgery.

FORESTAY. An upright support to the fore end of the frame and long ribs on which the carriage runs. It is fastened to the floor, and screwed to the frame.

FORGERY. 1 Geo. 4. c. 92. "An Act for the further Prevention of forging and counterfeiting of Bank Notes."

"Whereas the Forgery of Bank Notes hath of late very much increased in this Kingdom; and as well for the Prevention thereof, as to facilitate the Detection of the same, the Governor and Company of the Bank of England have, after great Consideration, Labour and Expence, formed a new Plan for printing Bank Notes, in which the Groundwork of each Bank Note will be Black or Coloured, or Black and Coloured Line Work, and the Words " Bank of England" will be placed at the Top of each Bank Note, in White Letters upon a Black, Sable, or Dark Ground, such Ground containing White Lines intersecting each other, and the numerical Amount or Sum of each Bank Note in the Body of the Note, will be printed in Black and Red Register Work, and the Back of each Note will distinctly show the whole Contents thereof, except the Number and Date in a reversed Impression : Therefore, for the better Prevention of the Forgery of Bank Notes, and for the Security of the Public; be it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in

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