Imágenes de páginas

might seem to require; but as I am not aware that any preceding writer has explained a chapel, I have been led to do so, that the knowledge of old customs might not be entirely lost. See RULES.

CHAPEL LAWS. The regulations adopted by the men in chapel assembled, for preserving good order in the office, are called chapel laws. paper with great pages.

CHARGE, is to fill

a page with long and many lines.
a line with many letters. — M.

This term is not in general use: we are more in the custom of saying a full sheet, a full page, a full line.


CHASE. An iron frame to fasten types in to print with.-M. A great revolution has taken place with respect to chases. They were formerly made thin and narrow, but are now made thicker, which gives more safety to a form in quoining; and they are made much broader, both in the rim and the crosses, which adds to their strength and durability.

It is customary to dovetail the crosses into the rim of wrought iron chases, and to have mortises for duodecimos and eighteens, so as to move the crosses according to the size of the work for which the chase is wanted. This plan is convenient in many instances, but it is in many others inconvenient and wasteful.

It is necessary to have chases in an office with the crosses loose, to a limited extent, as they could not well be dispensed with on many occasions; but I would have as few as possible; for the mortises in the rim cut the quoins to pieces, and the loose crosses are frequently used for pokers, and for tightening quoins in forms when they get slack. By these means they are bent and destroyed, and the chases to which they belong are rendered nearly useless. The loose crosses have also another disadvantage: they frequently get mislaid or lost when taken out for folios, or broadsides, and when the chase is wanted for any other size, the cross cannot be found, and the compositor, or person who has the care of the furniture, is obliged to take such a cross as he can meet with, and which he can drive into the mortises with a mallet; this cross is sometimes of a different thickness from the right one, and affects the register of the pages in working, particularly if the furniture and the chase be transposed, as too frequently occurs through carelessness.

There is less waste and destruction when the crosses are rivetted into the rim; for the chases are then always ready for use-the crosses can never be mislaid nor destroyed-and the whole implement is much more durable than when the parts are separate.

Cast iron chases are now coming greatly into use, and answer the purpose very well. The crosses are fast, the whole chase being cast in one piece, so that there must be chases for each size, viz. folios, quartos, and duodecimos; the crosses fixed for these sizes will answer every other, except broadsides. They are cast from a card chase to the largest size; and stand locking up and the usual wear, without breaking. These chases are much cheaper than those made of wrought iron.

There are some chases now made with the inside of the rim bevelled off from the cross to the angle, to answer the purpose of sidesticks and footsticks; a piece of broad, or narrow, being used at the sides and feet of the pages. This plan appears to be economical with regard to furniture. The usual practice in cutting chases for 18mo. is to place the long cross about one third of the width from one of the sides of the chase, and two thirds from the other, for the purpose of making it fall in one

of the backs; by this mode one of the quarters in the offcut has only two pages in it, so as hardly to admit of quoin room, the other has four; and the remainder of the form is also divided unequally, one side of the long cross having four pages, and the other eight pages. This method of imposing an 18mo. is inconvenient, and the large quarter is in danger of falling out. The plan appears to have been adopted merely to cause the long cross to fall in one of the backs, which is of no consequence whatever. I have always imposed eighteens in chases cut for 12mo. which I prefer; for the quarters being more equal, make the locking up more secure, and the only difference in the imposition is, that the long cross falls in a gutter, instead of a back.

Mr. T. C. Hansard took out a patent for "Improvements on, and Additions to, Printing Presses, and various Processes relative to Printing." Among the different articles are chases, which Mr. Hansard thus describes :-"The Demi- (or half) -Chases are made so as to contain the pages imposed within a less measure of square than usual. One side of the rim is made particularly straight, and rather less in breadth than the other three sides: this narrow side forms the part to lie in the middle' of the Table of the Press: by turning a pair of chases so made on contrary faces, the two narrow sides will join and form as one chase. The pages are not in these chases, as in others for all sizes above Folios, locked-up by having side sticks and quoins on all four sides, but only on one side, and at each end. The inner Forme being locked up on the right side only, and at each end, and the outer Forme on the left side only, and at each end; and the margin being made when the two demichases are laid together on the Imposing Stone, as if the same were one large chase of double dimensions, the pages will require no more margin in the centre of the double sheet, than a fair equal proportion for the division of margin. The chases must be made in proportion to the size of the work intended to be executed."

CHEEKS. The upright sides of a printing press.-M.

CHEEK THE BAR. Pulling the bar of the press till it touches the near cheek. In good work I would always have the pull so justified that when the bar was pulled home, or cheeked, it should occasion the proper degree of pressure of the platen upon the form; this would in some degree assist in procuring equal impressions through all the copiest printed; but in heavy or large forms it would be too great an exertion for the pressman to continue doing without some assistance, as such work requires to rest on the pull. I adopted a catch for the bar when cheeked, in some presses, which completely answered the purpose, and enabled the pressman to rest on his pull as long as was necessary, without overstraining his arms. See CATCH OF THE BAR.

CHEMISTRY. See ELEMENTARY SUBSTANCES. FORMULE, CHEMICAL. CHOKE. If a form be not washed in due time, the ink will get into the hollows of the face of the letter: and that getting in of the ink is called Choking of the Letter, or Choking of the Form.-M. It is also said, the letter is choked with ink, or the form is choked with ink, when too much is used.




CLAW of a sheep's foot. The end to draw the ball nails out of the ball stocks.-M.

CLAWS, for Stereotype Risers. See RISERS.

CLEAN PROOF. When a proof has but few faults in it, it is called

a Clean Proof.-M. It is also called a clean proof when it is printed after being corrected, to be sent out, or to be read for press that is, the pressmen take more care in printing it, and keep the margins clean. CLEAN SHEETS. Authors and publishers have generally one copy of each sheet of a work sent to them as it is printed, for the purpose of reference, and to see the progress of the work; these copies are called clean sheets. See Tops.

CLEARING AWAY. When a work is completed, clearing away is the distributing of headlines, chapters, lines of small capitals, and other useful sorts, taking the lines of quadrats away, and tying up the remainder of the matter in moderate sized pieces with old page cord, so as to be ready to be papered up; and tying the furniture, reglets, and leads up, and delivering them to the proper person, who takes charge of them. The compositor, after laying up the form to be cleared away and washing it well — and matter ought never to be cleared away without undergoing this process-takes a page into a galley-an old one generally

and picks out the leads, if it be leaded matter; he will then push the matter up from the foot and put another page on his galley, and take the leads out of it also; he will then take the headlines away, and put them on another galley; then take the lines of quadrats and reglets out, and put them on a paper under his frame, then the chapters, contents of chapters, any lines with words of Greek, or other useful sorts, and, after pushing the matter close up together, he will tie it firmly up, in pieces rather longer than a full sized octavo page, and if a short line happens to fall at the bottom, put it in some other situation, so that the top and the bottom shall be full lines. He will thus proceed, till his sheet or other quantity be all tied up, taking care to make his pieces of equal lengths, for the convenience of piling them up in the letter closet.

If the work should be in very small pages, so that two in width would not be wider than a large octavo page, he will put two together, side by side, to prevent papering the matter up in long narrow slips.

Having tied all the matter up for papering, he will either place it on a board in a rack, or put it in some other place where cleared away matter is usually deposited till papered up; he will then distribute his headlines, chapters, contents, and other useful sorts into their proper places; and if there be not room in the cases for the quadrats, he will put them into the proper drawers in which the surplus quadrats are kept.

If the work be in folio or quarto, he will tie it up in proportionally sized pieces.

He will then tie up his leads; and if there be any of different thicknesses, he will, of course, assort them, and tie them up separately: he takes a moderate quantity, if they be octavo leads, rather more than the length of a page of matter, and places a piece of reglet at each end of it, to guard the outside leads from injury by the tightening of the cord, and making a slip knot at one end of a piece of old page cord, he places the leads in the noose, and draws it as tight as the cord will bear, then turns the leads over upon the spare cord and draws it tight; he thus proceeds turning the leads over upon the spare cord, and drawing it tight, till he has got turns sufficient round the leads to secure them, and tucks in the end of the cord under the turns two or three times, drawing it tight; he knocks up the ends of the leads upon the imposing stone, gently, not to injure them, and when he has thus tied them all up, he puts them along with his matter.

He ties his reglets up in the same manner, and puts them with the leads. He puts the quoins into the quoin drawer.

. He inquires of the proper person whether the furniture is to be tied up, or put into the drawers; if the latter, he assorts it side and foot sticks, gutters, broads, narrows, reglets, and scale boards, and puts each into its separate drawer; if it be to be tied up, he puts the scale board into its proper drawer, and arranges the others neatly and ties them firmly together with old page cord, and delivers them and the chases to the proper person, who may be either the overseer, or some person appointed to take care of the materials.

CLEARING PIE. To separate from each other in the confused mass, and assort the different kinds and sizes of types, and to distribute them into their respective cases; if there be a large quantity of any particular fount, or founts, it is usual to compose them into pages, and, if the letter be not wanted, to paper it up; when that fount is brought into use, a proportionate quantity of pie is given to each compositor to distribute.

This is generally the work of the apprentices during any slackness of business. A quantity of pie is placed on the imposing stone, or, if that cannot be spared for the purpose, on a letter board upon a bulk, and each fount is separated from the other; they are then composed into lines, and either distributed or papered up: although it may appear a roundabout way to compose it, it in reality saves time, as the composed matter is distributed with greater facility. In large establishments the reading boys assort pie at their leisure time.

CLEARING STONE. It is a general rule that every person shall, under a penalty, after imposing or correcting, leave a clear stone; that is, the mallet, shooting-stick, furniture, quoins, saw, sawblock, and shears, are to be put in their proper places; any good letters that may be scattered about, distributed; and the bad letters put into the shoe, so that there shall be no impediment to the next person using it. Any of the articles used, or two letters, left on it will render him liable to the fine.

CLICKER. The compositor who, in a companionship, receives the copy from the overseer or other person, gives it out to compose, receives the matter back when composed, keeps an account of what each person does, sets the head and direction lines, and the notes if any, makes up the pages, lays them down on the imposing stone, and makes out the account, apportioning to each his proper share; his own share of the bill being always equal with the highest: this refers to working on lines. In other companionships he receives the copy from the overseer, distributes it to his companions, and receives instructions how the work is to be done.

CLOSE MATTER. Matter with few breaks or whites. M. The term is now understood of works that are not leaded. See BAD Work. CLOSE SPACING. This term is used when only a middling space is put between words, and sometimes a thin space; for some authors will not allow words to have much space between them, but only just enough to separate them from each other, in which case a thick space is never exceeded.


CLYMER'S PRESS. Mr. George Clymer, of Philadelphia, first began to turn his attention to the improvement of the printing press in the year 1797. Having completed his object, he came to England in 1817, and introduced his improved press under the name of the Columbian Press: he established a manufactory in London, and the first press he constructed here was completed in 1818, and I believe went to Russia. It is an iron press; there is no screw; the head is a large and powerful lever, which is

acted on by other levers to which the bar is attached, and produces the pressure; the platen is attached to the head by a square bar of iron, and the descent is preserved steadily and regularly by two projecting guides, one from each cheek; the platen is raised from the form by a lever with a weight

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at one end, attached to and above the head, which acts when the pull is eased and the bar flies back. The power of this press is very great, and I have not heard of any failing or breaking, which is an important fact in its favour. It ranks in the opinion of practical men, generally, as the next in estimation to the Stanhope press. The only objection I have

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