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are (could you think it?) both Americans, viz. Mr. Sayre, the New Yorker, and Mr. W. Lee, brother to Dr. Lee. I am glad you stand so well with Lord Dartmouth. I am likewise well with him; but he never spoke to me of augmenting your salary. He is truly a good man, and wishes sincerely a good understanding with the colonies, but does not seem to have strength equal to his wishes. Between you and me, the late measures have been, I suspect, very much the king's own, and he has in some cases a great share of what his friends call firmness. Yet, by some pains-taking and proper management, the wrong impressions he has received may be removed, which is perhaps the only chance America has for obtaining soon the redresses she aims at. This entirely to yourself.

And now we are among great folks, let me tell you a little of Lord Hillsborough. I went down to Oxford with and at the instance of Lord Le Despencer, who is, on all occasions, very good to me, and seems of late very desirous of my company. Mr. Todd, too, was there, who has some attachment to Lord H., and in a walk we were taking told me, as a secret, that Lord H. was much chagrined at being out of place, and could never forgive me for writing that pamphlet against his report about the Ohio. I assured him, said Mr. T., that I knew you did not write it; and the consequence is, that he thinks I know the contrary, and wanted to impose upon him in your favor; and so I find he is now displeased with me, and for no other cause in the world. His friend Bamber Gascoin too, says that they well knew it was written by Dr. F., who was one of the most mischievous men in England." That same day

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Lord H. called upon Lord Le D., whose chamber and mine were together in Queen's College. I was in the inner room shifting, and heard his voice, but did not see him, as he went down stairs immediately with Lord Le D., who, mentioning that I was above, he returned directly, and came to me in the pleasantest manner imaginable. "Dr. F.," said he, "I did not know till this minute that you were here, and I am come back to make you my bow. I am glad to see you at Oxford, and that you look so well," &c. In return for this extravagance I complimented him on his son's performance on the theatre, though indeed it was but indifferent; so that account was settled. For as people say when they are angry, if he strikes me, I'll strike him again, I think sometimes it may be right to say, if he flatters me, I'll flatter him again. This is lex talionis, returning offences in kind. His son, however, (Lord Fairford) is a valuable young man, and his daughters, Ladies Mary and Charlotte, most amiable young women. My quarrel is only with him, who of all the men I ever met with is surely the most unequal in his treatment of people, the most insincere, and the most wrong-headed; witness, besides his various behavior to me, his duplicity in encouraging us to ask for more land: ask for enough to make a province, (when we at first asked only for 2,500,000 acres,) were his words; pretending to befriend our application, then doing every thing to defeat it, and reconciling the first to the last by saying to a friend, that he meant to defeat it from the beginning; and that his putting us upon asking so much was with that very view, supposing it too much to be granted. Thus by the way, his mortification becomes double. He has served us by

the very means he meant to destroy us, and tript up his own heels into the bargain. Your affectionate father, B. FRANKLIN.

DEAR SIR,

TO MR. WINTHROP, BOSTON.

London, July 25, 1773. I am glad to see that you are elected into the council, and are about to take part in our public affairs. Your abilities, integrity, and sober attachment to the liberties of our country, will be of great use in this tempestuous time, in conducting our little bark into safe harbor. By the Boston newspapers, there seems to be among us some violent spirits, who are for an immediate rupture. But I trust the general prudence of our countrymen will see, that by our growing strength we advance fast to a situation in which our claims must be allowed; that by a premature struggle we may be crippled and kept down another age; that as between friends every affront is not worth a duel, between nations every injury is not worth a war, so between the governed and governing every mistake in government, every encroachment on right is not worth a rebellion. It is in my opinion sufficient for the present that we hold them forth on all occasions, not giving up any of them, using at the same time every means to make them generally understood and valued by the people; cultivating a harmony among the colonies, that their union in the same sentiments may give them greater weight; remembering withal, that this protestant country, (our mother, though lately an unkind one) is worth preserving, and that her weight in the scale of Europe, and her safety in a great degree may depend on our union with her. Thus conducting, I am con

fident we may in a few years obtain every allowance of, and every security for, our inestimable privileges, that we can wish or desire. With great and sincere esteem, I am, B. FRANKLIN.

SIR,

TO THE HON. THOMAS CUSHING, ESQ.

London, July 25, 1773.

I am favored with yours of June 14 and 16, containing some copies of the resolves of the committee upon the letters.* I see by your account of the transaction, that you could not well prevent what was done. As to the report of other copies being come from England, I know that could not be. It was expedient to disengage the house. I hope the possession of the originals, and the proceedings upon them, will be attended with salutary effects to the province, and then I shall be well pleased.

I observe that you mention that no person besides Dr. Cooper and one of the committee knew they came from me. I did not accompany them with any request of being myself concealed; for believing what I did to be in the way of my duty as agent, though I had no doubt of its giving offence, not only to the parties exposed, but to administration here, I was regardless of the consequences. However, since the letters themselves are now copied and printed, contrary to the promise I made, I am glad my name has not been heard on the occasion; and as I do not see it could be of any use to the public, I now wish it may continue unknown; though I hardly expect it. As to yours, you may rely on my never mentioning it, except that I may be obliged to show your letter in my own vindication to the per

* Governor Hutchinson's.

son only who might otherwise think he had reason to blame me for breach of engagement. It must surely be seen here, that after such a detection of their duplicity in pretending a regard and affection to the province while they were undermining its privileges, it is impossible for the crown to make any good use of their services, and that it can never be for its interest to employ servants who are under such universal odium. The consequence one would think should be their removal. But perhaps it may be to titles or to pensions-if your revenue can pay them.

I am, with great esteem, sir, your most obedient humble servant, B. FRANKLIN.

DEAR SIR,

TO DR. COOPER, BOSTON.

London, July 25, 1773.

I am glad to know your opinion that those letters came seasonably, and may be of public utility. I accompanied them with no restriction relating to myself; my duty to the province as their agent, I thought required the communication of them, as far as I could I was sensible I should make enemies there, and perhaps might offend government here; but those apprehensions I disregarded. I did not expect, that my sending them could be kept a secret: but since it is such hitherto, I now wish it may continue so, because the publication of the letters contrary to my engagement, has changed the circumstances. they serve to diminish the influence and demolish the power of the parties whose correspondence has been, and probably would have continued to be, so mischievous to the interest and rights of the province, I shall on that account be more easy under any in

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