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should imagine English goods landed there may he subject to confiscation. But if your ship only arrives in port, and remains without breaking bulk, till the commerce is legally opened, or a permission to land and store them obtained, I should suppose they would be safe, though I have not the law before me, therefore cannot speak positively. It is probable your parliament will immediately take off the restraint on your part, and considering the act made for that purpose, in the same ship with your goods may facilitate and expedite the taking them off on our part. I enclose a recommendatory letter to our minister for foreign affairs, which I hope, if there should be occasion, may be of service. But no passport from me would secure your goods against the operation of positive laws still remaining in force.

I lament the distraction in your public counsels: it lowers the nation in the general esteem of Europe, and gives a degree of uncertainty and hazard to all proposed connexions with it. I am, with great and sincere esteem, dear sir, your most obedient and most humble servant, B. FRANKLIN.



Passy, January 27, 1783. The departure of my dearest friend, which I learn from your last letter, greatly affects me. To meet with her once more in this life was one of the principal motives of my proposing to visit England again before my return to America. The last year

* Widow of the eminent anatomist of the name, and formerly MISS STEVENSON, to whom several of Dr. Franklin's letters on philosophical subjects are addressed.

+ Refers to Mrs. Hewson's mother.

carried off my friends Dr. Pringle and Dr. Fothergill, and Lord Kaimes and Lord Le Despencer; this has begun to take away the rest, and strikes the hardest. Thus the ties I had to that country, and indeed to the world in general, are loosened one by one; and I shall soon have no attachment left to make me unwilling to follow.

I intended writing when I sent the eleven books, but lost the time in looking for the first. I wrote with that; and hope it came to hand. I therein asked your counsel about my coming to England: on reflection, I think I can, from my knowledge of your prudence, foresee what it will be; viz. not to come too soon, lest it should seem braving and insulting some who ought to be respected. I shall therefore omit that journey till I am near going to America, and then just step over to take leave of my friends, and spend a few days with you. I purpose bringing Ben* with me, and perhaps may leave him under your care.

At length we are in peace, God be praised; and long, very long may it continue. All wars are follies, very expensive and very mischievous ones: when will mankind be convinced of this, and agree to settle their differences by arbitration? were they to do it even by the cast of a dye, it would be better than by fighting and destroying each other.

Spring is coming on, when travelling will be delightful. Can you not, when your children are all at school, make a little party and take a trip hither? I have now a large house, delightfully situated, in

* Benjamin Franklin Bache, a grandson of Dr. Franklin, by his daughter.

which I could accommodate you and two or three friends; and I am but half an hour's drive from Paris.

In looking forward, twenty-five years seem a long period; but in looking back, how short! could you imagine that it is now full a quarter of a century since we were first acquainted? it was in 1757. During the greatest part of the time I lived in the same house with my dear deceased friend your mother; of course you and I saw and conversed with each other much and often. It is to all our honors, that in all that time we never had among us the smallest misunderstanding. Our friendship has been all clear sunshine, without any the least clouds in its hemisphere. Let me conclude by saying to you, what I have had too frequent occasions to say to my other remaining old friends, the fewer we become, the more let us love one another. Adieu, &c.




Passy, March 17, 1783.

I received the letter your Lordship did me the honor of writing to me, and am obliged by your kind congratulations on the return of peace, which I hope will be lasting.

With regard to the terms on which lands may be acquired in America, and the manner of beginning new settlements on them, I cannot give better information than may be found in a book lately printed in London, under some such title as Letters from a Pennsylvanian Farmer, by Hector St. John. The only encouragements we hold out to strangers are, a good climate, fertile soil, wholesome air and water,

plenty of provisions and fuel, good pay for labor, kind neighbors, good laws, liberty, and a hearty welcome: the rest depends on a man's own industry and virtue. Lands are cheap, but they must be bought. All settlements are undertaken at private expense the public contributes nothing but defence and justice. I should not however expect much emigration from a country so much drained of men as yours must have been by the late war; since the more have left it, the more room and the more encouragement remains for those who staid at home. But this you can best judge of; and I have long observed of your people that their sobriety, frugality, industry, and honesty, seldom fail of success in America, and of procuring them a good establishment among us.

I do not recollect the circumstance you are pleased to mention of my having saved a citizen at St. Andrews, by giving a turn to his disorder; and I am curious to know what the disorder was, and what the advice I gave which proved so salutary. With great regard I have the honor to be, my Lord, your Lordship's most obedient and most humble servant, B. FRANKLIN.



Passy, March 17, 1783.

I duly received your obliging letter of November 15. You will have since learnt how much I was

* Scotland.

+ It was a fever in which the Earl of Buchan, then Lord Cadross, lay sick at St. Andrews; and the advice was, not to blister, according to the old practice and the opinion of the learned Dr. Simson, brother of the celebrated geometrician at Glasgow.

Afterwards Sir William Jones.

then, and have been continually engaged in public affairs; and your goodness will excuse my not having answered sooner. You announced your intended marriage with my much respected friend, Miss Anna Maria, which I assure you gave me great pleasure, as I cannot conceive a match more likely to be happy, from the amiable qualities each of you possess so plentifully. You mention its taking place as soon as a prudent attention to worldly interests would permit. I just now learn from Mr. Hodgson, that you are appointed to an honorable and profitable place in the Indies; so I expect now soon to hear of the wedding, and to receive the profile. With the good bishop's permission, I will join my blessing with his; adding my wishes that you may return from that corrupting country with a great deal of money honestly acquired, and with full as much virtue as you carry out with you.

The engraving of my medal, which you know was projected before the peace, is but just finished. None are yet struck in hard metal, but will be in a few days in the mean time, having this good opportunity by Mr. Penn, I send you one of the epreuves. You will see that I have profited of some of your ideas, and adopted the mottos you were so kind as to furnish.

I am at present quite recovered from my late illness, and flatter myself that I may, in the ensuing year, be able to undertake the trip to England, for the pleasure of seeing once more my dear friends there, among whom the bishop and his family stand foremost in my estimation and affection.

I thank you much for your good wishes respecting


Mine for your welfare and prosperity are not

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