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THE

INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SERIES.

VOL. XXXIII.

Recent Volumes in the International Scientific Series.

GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY OF MUSCLES AND NERVES:

By Dr. I. ROSENTHAL. With 75 Illustrations. Second Edition,

Crown 8vo. cloth, price 58. THE NATURAL CONDITIONS OF EXISTENCE AS

THEY AFFECT ANIMAL LIFE. By KARL SEMPER. With 2 Maps

and 106 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. cloth, price 5s. THE ATOMIC THEORY. By Prof. Ad. WURTZ. Translated

by E. CLEMINSHAW, F.C.S. Crown 8vo. cloth, price 5s.

THE BRAIN AS AN ORGAN OF MIND. By H. CHARLTON

BASTIAN, M.D. With 184 Illustrations. Second Edition. Crown

8vo. cloth, price 5s. THE CRAYFISH : an Introduction to the Study of Zoology.

By Prof. T. H. HUXLEY. Second Edition. With eighty-two Illus

trations. Crown 8vo. cloth, price 5s. MODERN CHROMATICS. With Applications to Art and

Industry. By OGDEN N. ROOD. With 130 Original Illustrations.

Crown 8vo. cloth, price 5s. THE HUMAN SPECIES. By Prof. A. DE QUATREFAGES.

Second Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth, price 58. EDUCATION AS A SCIENCE. By ALEXANDER BAIN,

LL.D. Third Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth, price 5s. A HISTORY OF THE GROWTH OF THE STEAM

ENGINE. By Prof. R. H. THURSTON. With 162 Illustrations.

Second Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth, price 6s. 60. STUDIES IN SPECTRUM ANALYSIS. By J. NORMAN

LOCKYER, F.R.S. With six Photographic Illustrations of Spectra, and numerous Engravings on Wood. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth, price 6s. 6d.

London : C. KEGAN PAUL & CO., 1 Paternoster Square.

SIGHT:

AN EXPOSITION OF THE PRINCIPLES

OF

MONOCULAR AND BINOCULAR VISION.

BY

JOSEPH LE CONTE, LL.D.

AUTHOR OF “ ELEMENTS OF GEOLOGY," "RELIGION AND SCIENCE,” AND PROFESSOR OF

GEOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS.

THECA

EIBL.

JUN 1881
GONFIAN

LONDON:

C. KEGAN PAUL & CO., 1 PATERNOSTER SQUARE.

1881.

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(The rights of translation and of reproduction are reserved) PREFACE.

In writing this treatise I have tried to make a book that would be intelligible and interesting to the thoughtful general reader, and at the same time profitable to even the most advanced specialist in this department. I find justification for the attempt in the fact that there is not, to my knowledge, any work covering the same ground in the English language. Vision has been treated either as a branch of optics or else as a branch of physiology of the nervous system. Helmholtz’s great work on “Physiological Optics," of which there exist both a German and a French edition, is doubtless accessible to scientists, but this work is so technical that it is practically closed to all but the specialist. I believe, therefore, that the work which I now offer meets a real want, and fills a real gap in scientific literature.

The form in which the subject is here presented has been developed entirely independently, and as the result of a conscientious endeavor to make it clear to students under my instruction. As evidence of this, I would draw attention to the fact that, out of one hundred and thirty illustrations, only about twelve have

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