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power to do his country any farther service. | Boston, when I hope to have the pleasure of I speak this now, not upon my own account, paying my respects to you. I shall then give being about to decline all public business, but every information in my power, and offer for your consideration with regard to future every advice relating to our affairs, (not so agents.

convenient to be written) that my situation “ And now we speak of agents, I must here for so many years may enable me to sugmention my concern that I should fall under gest for the benefit of our country. Some so severe a censure of the house, as that of time before my departure, I shall put your neglect in their business. I have submitted papers into the hands of Mr. Lee, and assist to the reproof without reply in my public him with my counsel while I stay, where letter, out of pure respect. It is not decent to there may be any occasion for it. He is a dispute a father's admonitions. But to you in gentleman of parts and ability, and though he private, permit me to observe, that as to the cannot exceed me in sincere zeal for the intwo things I am blamed for not giving the terest and prosperity of the province, his earliest notice of, viz. the clause in the act youth will easily enable him to serve it with relating to dock yards, and the appointment more activity.

B. FRANKLIN." of salaries for the governor and judges; the first only seems to have some foundation. I

To the same. did not know, but perhaps I ought to have known, that such a clause was intended.

“ LONDON, July 7, 1773. And yet in a parliament, that during the “SIR,--The parliament is at length prowhole session refused admission to strangers, rogued, without meddling with the state of wherein near two hundred acts were passed, America. Their time was much employed it is not so easy a matter to come at the in the East India business: and perhaps it knowledge of every clause in every act, and was not thought prudent to lay before them to give opposition to what may affect one's con- the advices from New England, though some stituents; especially when it is not uncommon threatening intimations had been given of to smuggle clauses into a bill whose title shall such an intention. The king's firm answer give no suspicion, when an opposition to such as it is called) to our petitions, and remonclauses is apprehended. I say this is no easy strances, has probably been judged sufficient matter. But had I known of this clause, it is for the present. I forwarded that answer to not likely I could have prevented its passing you by the last packet, and sent a copy of it in the present disposition of government to by a Boston ship the beginning of last month. wards America, nor do I see that my giving Therein we are told that his majesty has earlier notice of its having passed could have well weighed the subject matter, and the exbeen of much service. As to the other, con- pressions contained in those petitions; and cerning the governor and judges, I should that as he will ever attend to the humble pehardly have thought of sending the house an titions of his subjects, and be forward to reaccount of it

, if the minister had meptioned dress every real grievance, so he is deterit to me, as I understood from their first letter mined to support the constitution, and resist to me,

that they had already the best intelli- with firmness every attempt to derogate from gence “ of its being determined by adminis- the authority of the supreme legislature.' tration to bestow large salaries on the attor- ** By this it seems that some exception is ney-general, judges, and governor of the pro taken to the expressions of the petitions, as vince.” I could not therefore possibly "give not sufficiently humble, that the grievances the first notice of this impending evil.” I an- complained of are not thought real grievances, swered however that there was no doubt of that parliament is deemed the supreme legisthe intention of making governors, and some lature, and its authority over the colonies other officers, independent of the people for supposed to be the constitution. Indeed the their support, and that this purpose will be last idea is expressed more fully in the next persisted in, if the American revenue is found paragraph, where the words of the act are sufficient to defray the salaries.” This cen- used, declaring the right of the crown, with sure, though grievous, does not so much sur- the advice of parliament, to make laws of sufprise me, as I apprehended all along from the ficient force and validity to bind its subjects beginning, that between the friends of an old in America in all cases whatsoever. agent, my predecessor, who thought himself “ When one considers the king's situation, hardly used in his dismission, and those of a surrounded by ministers, counsellors, and young one impatient for the succession, my judges, learned in the law, who are all of this situation was likely to be a very comfortable opinion, and reflect how necessary it is for one, as my faults could scarce pass unob- him to be well with his parliament, from served.

whose yearly grants his fleets and armies are “ I think of leaving England in Septem- to be supported, and the deficiencies of his ber. As soon as possible after my arrival in civil list supplied, it is not to be wondered at, America, I purpose (God willing) to visit that he should be firm in an opinion establish

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ed, as far as an act of parliament could esta- to conclude that similar effects will probably wela blish it, by even the friends of America at the be produced by similar circumstances. time they repealed the stamp act; and which * But as the strength of an empire depends albe is so generally thought right, by his lords and not only on the union of its parts

, but on their commons, that any act of his, countenancing readiness for united exertion of their common in the contrary, would hazard his embroiling force; and as the discussion of rights may apple himself with those powerful bodies. And seem unseasonable in the commencement from hence it seems hardly to be expected of actual war, and the delay it might occasion from him, that he should take any step of that be prejudicial to the common welfare: as kind. The grievous instructions indeed might likewise the refusal of one or a few colonies, be withdrawn without their observing it, if would not be so much regarded if the others his majesty thought fit so to do; but under granted liberally, which perhaps by various the present prejudices of all about him, it artifices and motives they might be prevailed at seems that this is not yet likely to be ad-on to do; and as this want of concert would vised.

defeat the expectation of general redress that “The question then arises, how are we to ob- otherwise might be justly formed; perhaps it tain redress? If we look back into the parlia- would be best and fairest, for the colonies in mentary history of this country, we shall find, a general congress now in peace to be as we that in similar situations of the subjects here, sembled, or by means of the correspondence redress would seldom be obtained but by lately proposed, after a full and solemn asserwithholding aids when the sovereign was in tion and declaration of their rights, to engage distress, till the grievances were removed. firmly with each other, that they will never upp Hence the rooted custom of the commons to grant aids to the crown in any general war, keep money bills in their own disposition, not till those rights are recognized by the king suffering even the lords to meddle in grants, and both houses of parliament; communieither as to quantity, manner of raising, or cating at the same time to the crown this even in the smallest circumstance. This their resolution. Such a step I imagine will country pretends to be collectively our sove- bring the dispute to a crisis: and whether our reign. It is now deeply in debt. Its funds demands are immediately complied with, or do are far short of recovering their par since the compulsory measures thought of to make us last war: another would distress. it still more. rescind them, our ends will finally be ob Its people diminish, as well as its credit. tained, for even the odium accompanying to Men will be wanted as well as money. The such compulsory attempts will contribute to colonies are rapidly increasing in wealth and unite and strengthen us, and in the meant numbers. In the last war they maintained an time all the world will allow that our proarmy of twenty-five thousand. A country ceeding has been honourable. able to do that, is no contemptible ally. In “No one doubts the advantage of a strict another war they may perhaps do twice as union between the mother-country and the much with equal ease. Whenever a war colonies, if it may be obtained and preserved happens our aid will be wished for, our friend on equitable terms. In every fair connexion ship desired and cultivated, our good will each party should find its own interest. Bricourted: then is the time to say, redress our tain will find hers in our joining with her in grievances. You take money from us by every war she makes, to the greater annos. force, and now you ask it of voluntary grant. ance and terror of her enemies; in our emYou cannot have it both ways. If you choose ployment of her manufactures, and enriching to have it without our consent, you must go her merchants by our commerce; and her go la on taking it that way, and be content with vernment will feel some additional strengthwhat little you can so obtain. If you would ening of its hands, by the disposition of our have our free gifts, desist from your compul- profitable posts and places. On our side, we sive methods, and acknowledge our rights

, have to expect the protection she can afford and secure our future enjoyment of them. us, and the advantage of a common umpire Our claims will then be attended to, and our in our disputes, thereby preventing wars we complaints regarded. By what I perceived might otherwise have with each other, so that not long since, when a war was apprehended we can without interruption go on with our with Spain, the different countenance put on improvements, and increase our numbers. We by some great men here, towards those who ask no more of her, and she should not think were thought to have a little influence in of forcing more from us. By the exercise of America, and the language, that began to be prudent moderation on her part, mixed with a held with regard to the then minister for the little kindness; and by a decent behaviour on colonies, I am confident that if that war had ours, excusing where we can excuse from a taken place he would have been immediately consideration of circumstances, and bearing dismissed, all his measures reversed, and every little with the infirmities of her government, step taken to recover our affection and pro- as we would with those of an aged parent, cure our assistance. Thence I think it fair though firmly asserting our privileges, and

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declaring that we mean at a proper time to though it should be unsuccessfully, I am convindicate them, this advantageous union may fident they will always have it in their instill be long continued. We wish it, and we clination, and some time or other in their may endeavour it, but God will order it as to power, to make their grants effectual. his wisdom shall seem most suitable. The “A gentleman of our province, captain friends of liberty here wish we may long pre- Calef, is come hither as an agent for some serve it on our side the water, that they may of the eastern townships, to obtain a confirmfind it there, if adverse events should destroy ation of their lands. Sir Francis Bernard it here. They are therefore anxious and seems inclined to make use of this person's afraid lest we should hazard it by premature application for promoting a separation of that attempts in its favour. They think we may country from your province, and making it a risk much by violent measures, and that the distinct government; to which purpose he risk is unnecessary, since a little time must prepared a draft of a memorial for Calef to infallibly bring us all we demand or desire, present, setting forth not only the hardship and bring it us in peace and safety. I do not of being without security in the property of presume to advise. There are many wiser their improvements, but also of the distress men among you, and I hope you will be di- of the people there for want of government; rected by a still superior wisdom.

that they were at too great a distance from With regard to the sentiments of people the seat of government in the Massachusetts, in general here, concerning America, I must to be capable of receiving the benefits of say, that we have among them many friends, government from thence, and expressing and well-wishers. The dissenters are all for their willingness to be separated and formed 15, and many of the merchants and manufac- into a new province, &c. With this draft turers. There seems to be, even among the sir Francis and Mr. Calef came to me to have sountry gentlemen, a general sense of our my opinion. I read it, and observed to them, {Towing importance, a disapprobation of the that though I wished the people quieted in harsh measures with which we have been their possessions, and would do any thing I reated, and a wish that some means may be could to assist in obtaining the assurance of bund of perfect reconciliation. A few mem- their property, yet as I knew the province of Jers of parliament in both houses, and perhaps Massachusetts had a right to that country, of ome in high office, have in a degree the same which they were justly tenacious, I must opdeas

, but none of these seem willing as yet pose that part of the memorial, if it should be o be active in our favour, lest adversaries presented. Sir Francis allowed the right, hould take advantage and charge it upon but proposed that a great tract of land behem as a betraying the interests of this na- tween Merrimack and Connecticut rivers, ion. In this state of things no endeavour of which had been allotted to New Hampshire, nine or our other friends here to obtain a might be restored to our province, by order epeal of the acts so oppressive to the colo- of the crown, as a compensation. This he lists, or the orders of the crown so destructive said would be of more value to us than that of the charter rights of our province in parti- eastern country, as being nearer home, &c. I cular, can expect a sudden success.' By de- said I would mention it in my letters, but [rees, and a judicious improvement of events, must in the mean time oppose any step taken we may work a change in minds and mea- in the affair before the sentiments of the geures, but otherwise such great alterations neral court should be known, as to such an tre hardly to be looked for.

exchange, if it were offered. Mr. Calef him"I am thankful to the house for their kind self did not seem fond of the draft, and I have Attention, in repeating their grant to me for not seen him, or heard any thing farther of it six hundred pounds. Whether the instruction since, but I shall watch it. restraining the governor's assent is withdrawn “Be pleased to present my dutiful respects I not, or is likely to be, I cannot tell, having to the house, and believe me with sincere never solicited or even once mentioned it to and great esteem, sir, your most obedient and lord Dartmouth, being resolved to owe no ob- most humble servant, igation to the favour of any minister. If

“ B. FRANKLIN.” from a sense of right, that instruction should be recalled, and the general principle on which it was founded is given up, all will be

“ Mr. Mather, Boston. very well: but you can never think it worth while to employ an agent here, if his being

" LONDON, July 4, 1773. said or not is to depend on the breath of a “ REVEREND SIR,—The remarks you have minister, and I should think it a situation too added on the late proceedings against Amesuspicious, and therefore too dishonourable for rica, are very just and judicious: and I canne to remain in a single hour. Living fru- not see any impropriety in your making them, gally, I am under no immediate necessity, though a minister of the gospel.

This kingund if I serve my constituents faithfully, dom is a good deal indebted for its liberties to


the public spirit of its ancient clergy, who council and assembly on the other hand have, joined with the barons in obtaining Magna by the coolness, clearness, and force of their Charta, and joined heartily in forming the answers, gained great reputation. curses of excommunication against the in- “ The unanimity of our towns, in their senfringers of it. There is no doubt but the claim timents of liberty, gives me great pleasure, as of parliament, of authority to make laws bind- it shows the generally enlightened state of ing on the colonies in all cases whatsoever, our people's minds, and the falsehood of the includes an authority to change our religious opinion, much cultivated here by the partizans constitution, and establish popery or Mahom- of arbitrary power in America, that only a edanism, if they please, in its stead; but, as small faction among us were discontented you intimate, power does not infer right ; and with the late measures. If that unanimity as the right is nothing, and the power (by can be discovered in all the colonies, it will our increase) continually diminishing, the one give much greater weight to our future re will soon be as insignificant as the other. You monstrances. I heartily wish with you, that seem only to have made a small mistake, in some line could be drawn, some bill of rights supposing they modestly avoided to declare established for America, that might secure they had a right, the words of the act being, peace between the two countries, so neces" that they have and of right ought to have sary for the prosperity of both. But I think full power, &c.'

little attention is like to be afforded by our “ Your suspicion that sundry others besides ministers to that salutary work, till the breach governor Bernard • had written hither their becomes greater and more alarming, and then opinions and councils, encouraging the late the difficulty of repairing it will be greater in measures to the prejudice of our country, a tenfold proportion. which have been too much heeded and fol- • You mention the surprise of a gentleman lowed,' is, I apprehend, but too well founded. to whom those letters have been communicatYou call them traitorous individuals,' whence ed, at the restrictions with which they were I collect, that you suppose them of our own accompanied, and which they suppose render country. There was among the twelve Apos- them incapable of answering any important tles one traitor, who betrayed with a kiss. end. One great reason of forbidding their It should be no wonder therefore, if among so publication, was an apprehension that it might many thousand true patriots, as New England put all the possessors of such correspondence contains, there should be found even twelve here upon their guard, and so prevent the obJudases, ready to betray their country for a taining more of it

. And it was imagined that few paltry pieces of silver. Their ends as showing the originals to so many as were well as their views ought to be similar. But named, and to a few such others as they might all the oppressions evidently work for our think fit, would be sufficient to establish the good. Providence seems by every means in- authenticity, and to spread through the protent on making us a great people. May our vince so just an estimation of the writers, as virtues public and private grow with us, and to strip them of all their deluded friends, and be durable, that liberty, civil and religious, demolish effectually their interest and influmay be secured to our posterity, and to all ence. The letters might be shown even to from every part of the old world that take re- some of the governor's and lieutenant-goverfuge among us.

nor's partizans, and spoken of to every body; "With great esteem, and my best wishes for there was no restraint proposed to talking for a long continuance of your usefulness, I of them, but only to copying. However the am, reverend sir, your most obedient humble terms given with them could only be those servant, B. FRANKLIN." with which they were received.

" The great defect here is in all sorts of people a want of attention to what passes in

such remote countries as America, an unwil“ Dr. Cooper, Boston.

lingness to read any thing about them if it

appears a little lengthy; and a disposition to "LONDON, July 7, 1773.

postpone the consideration even of the things “DEAR SIR, - I received your very valuable they know they must at last consider, that so favours of March 15 and April 23. It rejoices they may have time for what more immedime to find your health so far restored that ately concerns them, and withal enjoy their your friends can again be benefited by your amusements, and be undisturbed in the unicorrespondence.

versal dissipation. In other respects, though " The governor was certainly out in his some of the great regard us with a jealous politics, if he hoped to recommend himself eye, and some are angry with us, the majority there, by entering upon that dispute with the of the nation rather wish us well, and have no assembly. His imprudence in bringing it at desire to infringe our liberties. And many all upon the tapis, and his bad management console themselves under the apprehension of of it, are almost equally censured. The declining liberty here, that they or their pos

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terity shall be able to find her safe and vi- cases a great share of what his friends call gorous in America.

firmness. Yet by some pains-taking and * With sincere and great esteem, I am, &c. proper management, the wrong impressions “ B. FRANKLIN." he has received may be removed, which is

perhaps the only chance America has for ob

taining soon the redress she aims at. This * Governor Franklin.

entirely to yourself.

“And now we are among great folks, let “London, July 14, 1773.

me tell you a little of lord Hillsborough. I “ DEAR SON, I am glad to find by yours went down to Oxford with and at the instance of May 4, that you have been able to assist of lord Le Despencer, who is on all occasions Josiah Davenport a little; but vexed that he very good to me, and seems of_late very deand you should think of putting me upon a sirous of my company. Mr. Todd toổ was solicitation which it is impossible for me to there, who has some attachment to lord H., engage in. I am not upon terms with lord and in a walk we were taking, told me as a North to ask any such favour from him. Dis- secret that lord H. was much chagrined at pleased with something he said relating to being out of place, and could never forgive America, I have never been at his levees, me for writing that pamphlet against his resince the first. Perhaps he has taken that port about the Ohio. I assured him, says amiss. For last week we met occasionally at Mr. T., that I knew you did not write it; and lord Le Despencer's in our return from Ox- the consequence is, that he thinks I know the ford, where I had been to attend the solemnity contrary, and wanted to impose upon him in of his installation, and he seemed studiously your favour; and so I find he is now disto avoid speaking to me. I ought to be asham- pleased with me, and for no other cause in ed to say, that on such occasions I feel my- the world. His friend Bamber Gascoign too, self to be as proud as any body. His lady indeed says that they well know it was written by was more gracious. She came and sat down Dr. F., who was one of the most mischievous by me on the same sopha, and condescended men in England. That same day lord H. to enter into a conversation with me agreea- called upon lord Le D., whose chamber and bly enough, as if to make some amends. Their mine were together in Queen's college. I son and daughter were with them. They was in the inner room shifting, and heard his staid all night, so that we dined, supped, and voice, but did not see him, as he went down breakfasted together, without exchanging stairs immediately with lord Le D., who menthree sentences. But had he ever so great a tioning that I was above, he returned directly, regard for me, I could not ask that office, and came to me in the pleasantest manner trifling as it is, for any relation of mine. And imaginable. “ Dr. F.” said he, “I did not detesting as I do the whole system of American know till this minute that you were here, and customs, believing they will one day bring on I am come back to make you my bow. I am a breach, through the indiscretion and inso- glad to see you at Oxford, and that you

look lence of those concerned in the collection, I so well, &c.” In return for this extravagance, should never wish to see one so near to me in I complimented him on his son's performance that business. If you think him capable of in the theatre, though indeed it was but inacting as deputy secretary, I imagine you different, so that account was settled. For as might easily obtain that for him of Mr. Mor- people say, when they are angry, if he strike gan. He has lately been with me, is always me, I'll strike him again; I think sometimes it very complaisant, and understanding I was may be right to say, if he flatters me, ru about returning to America, requested my in- flatter him again. This is lex talionis, reterest to obtain for him the agency for your turning offences in kind. His son, however, province. His friend, sir Watkin Lewes, (lord Fairford) is a valuable young man, and who was formerly candidate for the same his daughters, ladies Mary and Charlotte, great place, is now high sheriff of London, most amiable young women. My quarrel is and in the way of being lord mayor. The only with him, who of all the men I ever met new sheriff's elect, are (could you think it?) with is surely the most unequal in his treatboth Americans, viz. Mr. Sayre, the New ment of people, the most insincere, and the Yorker, and Mr. W. Lee, brother to Dr. most wrongheaded; witness besides his various Lee. I am glad you stand so well with lord behaviour to me, his duplicity in encouraging Dartmouth. I am likewise well with him, us to ask for more land, ask for enough to but he never spoke to me of augmenting your make a province, (when we at first asked salary. He is truly a good man, and wishes only for two millions five hundred thousand sincerely a good understanding with the co- acres,) were his words, pretending to befriend lonies, but does not seem to have strength our application, then doing every thing to deequal to his wishes. Between you and me, feat it, and reconciling the first to the last, by the late measures have been, I suspect, very saying to a friend, that he meant to defeat it much the king's own, and he has in some from the beginning; and that his putting us

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