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in our own country," the hero, whose stows on the lite glory it was to defend his native land mentioned. Its subja from the desolation of war, does not ly worthy of an author on disdain to exercise his talents in peace Krasinski, and its language to ward off the shafts of envy or ma- --The style is somewhat too elevad, lignity, and to set the character of but the details are not exaggerated. Its his country and his countrymen in a object, however, which we shall now fair and true light before the world. allow the General to describe for himOur Polish friend writes to us as fol- self, is good. He says, lows:
" It is melancholy to observe, that Po“ I may remark to you, in general, that land, notwithstanding the renown she has my military countrymen are particularly acquired in the history of the latter ages, both zealous in all that concerns the good and by the glory of her arms, and by the sahonour of their country. They glorify it in crifices of every kind which her inhabitants war with their valour, and adorn it in peace have made to their country, should be in with their literary pursuits. Polish litera
a manner forgotten in the branch of geoture is greatly indebted for its increase to
graphy_which treats of voyages and tratheir real and superior talents. I would vels. Every country, every town of imnot here make this remark, were they only portance, even in the most remote regions, diletanti in literature and science ; but I attracts crowds of curious and inquisitive dare assert that they cultivate them tho- persons, anxious to lay before the public roughly, and know as well how to sacrifice descriptions as accurate as they are minute ; to the Nine Sisters as to Mars. Several while Poland, so distinguished for her hosyears ago, we boasted of a homely elegiac pitality, her toleration, and the friendly poet, Godebski. He fell on the field of bat. reception she affords to strangers whom ile at Raszyn, in the year 1809, where political convulsions have driven from their 8000 Poles fought against 40,000 Austri- native lands, and who fly to her for an ans--and were victorious. A bard in his asylum-Poland has found in the few tratomb could never have an epitaph more vellers who have described her, enemies glorious than such a victory !-Amongst and calumniators instead of faithful delinethose who are alive is General Kropinski, ators. Without reckoning those who, like who fought at the side of Kosciuszko in the M. Neal, [in his “ Voyage en Pologne et cause of freedom, and spends the remain
en Russie, printed at Paris] present in der of his life in literary occupations. His their indecent pictures a silly collection of national Tragedy of Lutgarda, so often absurd calumnies against the nation, and performed and generally admired, has esta- of revolting personalities against its inhablished for ever his fame as a poet ;-and bitants ;-M. M. Délicourt Mehé, Vauhis other productions have gained him the' trin, whose disgraceful productions injure name of an elegant writer. Colonel Chod. only their authors ;-passing over the letkiewicz followed the path of Addison, and ters of M. Uklanski, whose style is em. wrote the tragedy of Cato. He has dis- bued with the gall of vengeance, --how tinguished himself by different pieces of many works upon Poland, published unepistolary poetry; but for several years has der different titles by M. M. Malte Brun, been devoting himself to chemical studies, Georgel, Grafenaur, Guthrie, Pradt, &c., and has published a great many of his pro- although of acknowledged merit, are defound researches.-General Morawski has fective in point of precision. The most lately raised great expectations by some recent book on this subject, and which is original lyrical picces of poetry and also most chiefly resorted to by travellers, is a by his admirable skill, and the elegance of little portable work, printed at Weimar in his style, in translations from the German 1818, under the title of “ Guide des Voyaand French. There are, besides, some other
geurs dans le Nord,” by M. Reinhard, distinguished names in the military calen- counsellor of the Grand Duke of Saxe der that might be mentioned, whose eager- Gotha, already well known by several exness and talents in literary pursuits are cellent publications of this sort, descripappreciated by their countrymen ; but I tive of all the leading states and cities of have named here only the principal ones, Europe. This author passes an eulogium whose works are looked upon as the orna- on the national character of the Poles, and ments of national literature, and will never
does justice to their hospitality and other cease to be read as long as the Polish good qualities ; but his descriptions, limitlanguage shall be spoken or understood.”
ed to a few pages, would have been more To return to the work before us, it correct, if he had not trusted too implicitly cannot claim for its author any such to the veracity of the authors I have al. distinguished praise as our friend be ready mentioned, and if he had not follow
See Colonel Stewart's Sketches of the Highlanders.
ed the accounts of travellers, whose exa- The Cathedral, which is situated in Ininations of the country, to judge from the centre of this citadel, is an object Mr Reinhard's delineations, must have of peculiar veneration to the Poles ; been made more than twenty years ago. “it is,” says our author, “ what the In other respects the work is useful, and I Capitol was to the ancient Romans, liave adopted it as my model in general in what the Pantheon is to France ; in the following pages.
" Born in Poland, and possessing a to- short, it is the precious receptacle for pographical knowledge of my country, I the mortal remains of their kings and have determined to give the extent to this their heroes, and it is not without a work which its object appeared to me to feeling of respectful veneration, minrequire. Writing for foreigners, 'in a lan- gled with religious awe, that one preguage foreign to myself, I have endea- sumes to penetrate its ancient aisles, voured to unite in the work perspicuity where one is surrounded by mausowith utility, and I shall be too happy if, leums, inscriptive tablets, statues, and while I have no other merit than that of chapels decorated with marble and being the first to present to the world an bronze, and where one cannot advance exact description of some provinces of my a step without meeting with some country, I shall be enabled to make myself useful to travellers, and to point out monument of the renown of the counto strangers whatever objects in Poland try, of the valour and victories of he. are most worthy to arrest their attention.” roes. There repose the venerable ashes
Our author' then proceeds in his de- of Boleslas III. and IV. of Ladislas scriptive tour, commencing with Cra- Lokietek ; of Casimir the Great ; John cau, situated on a gentle ascent on the Albert; Stephen Batory; Sigismoud left bank of the Vistula, which divides III. ; Ladislas IV.; John Casimir ; it into three parts. The old town, Michel Wiszniowiecki ; John SobiCracau, properly so called, the an- eski; and Frederick Augustus II.” cient capital of Poland, is one of
In the Chapel of the Sigismonds are these parts, Podgorze and Casimir are deposited the remains of St Stanislas, the other two, and there are besides the patron of the kingdom, and those suburbs in different directions. One of the heroic Kosciuszko and Poniapart of the town of Casimir is inha- towski, which have been restored from bited by about 6000 Jews, who are foreign graves through the intervenexcluded from the main or old town tion of the Emperor Alexander, (King of Cracau, in which they are not even of Poland) and are now deposited in allowed to pass the night. The re- the vault of King John Sobieski, who mains of antiquity which adorned the conquered the Turks before Vienna, city have been in a great measure de- and saved that capital.* stroyed by the Austrians, whose bar- Our author proceeds to enumerate barous policy it was to annihilate every and describe eight churches, (of which, monument which might remind the he says, Cracau may boast as the Poles of the renown of their ances- finest in Poland,) and other splendid tors. The old town was anciently for- and remarkable public buildings; tified by a double circle of walls, and the Academy, bearing the name of by towers remarkable for the variety
“Daughter of the Sorbonne,” foundof their forms; the gates were of Go- ed by the Jagellons in 1343, and posthic architecture, and were very ele- sessing a library of 30,000 volumes, gant; the Royal Castle or Citadel, and 4000 rare MSS., as well as a ca(Zamek) built in the early ages, and binet of natural history, and an anaformerly the habitation of the kings tomical theatre; and the palaces of the of Poland, rises splendidly conspicu. bishops and nobility, which ornament ous, and commanding an extensive the city. The “ Place" is in the cenprospect, upon a rock called Wewel, tre of the city. It was formerly the in the heart of the city. But the Aus- custom to erect a lofty throne in it on trians totally overturned the ramparts, the day after the coronation of the partly destroyed the gates, and con- kings, seated upon which they received verted the Castle into barracks.
the homage of the tributary princes.
* Mr Palmer is the author of the Authentic Memoirs of Sobieski, which he addressed to the Sovereigns assembled at the Congress at Vierina, in order to remind them of the claims of the Poles, who had, by their services, rescued that city from impending destruction. Mr Palmer is an Englishman.
In the neighbourhood, many plea- téle de pont. The sing excursions may be made, particu- is actively rebuilding larly to the Salt Mines of Wieliczka, tiful and general plan. situated in Austria, a stage from Cra- Duke Constantine has there a spre
The chambers and passages in palace, and usually represents, as de these mines, cut out of the pure and puty, the citizens of these suburbs in sparkling salt, are described as superb. the General Diet. These, and such The passages are dry, clean, and every like liberal proceedings, heal gradualwhere high enough for persons to walk ly the wounds formerly inflicted on upright. In places, they open into the Poles. Prague is separated from large caverns, one of which is in the Warsaw by the Vistula, and comform of a capacious chapel, with an municates with the capital by a flyaltar, ornaments, and two monks, ap- ing bridge of 263 toises in length, parently in the act of solemnizing a which is speedily to give way to a mass, and a statue of Augustus III., more permanent one in masonry and all cut out of the rock of salt, which is chain-work, after a model by Mr in enormous masses, and in general Metzel. most beautifully crystallized. A se- The castle, on a lofty and imposing cond pleasure-trip may be made to the situation, commands the Vistula and marvellous caverns of Czaiowice, lying its opposite banks. It contains many in the midst of scenery worthy of me- superb and interesting apartments, lo-dramatic imitation. Dark forests, adorned with pictures, marbles, and frowning precipices, subterraneous tor- bronzes. The palaces and public rents, castles, donjons, and the bones buildings, to judge from the descripof those who had taken refuge in the tions, and from the very neat prints caves, from the scourge of war and with which this volume is adorned, are pestilence, would furnish forth mate- very, magnificent. Chaste in their rials for the most gloomy scene-paint- architecture, splendid in their extent, er of the most gloomy spectacle. and classical in their embellishments,
At Cracau there are two fairs every they would honour any capital in the year, which are well frequented. In world ; and yet one has never heard of the whole territory there are only 100 Warsaw as distinguished for architecnational guards (infantry,) 40 cavalry, tural beauty. In the midst of the and 200 mounted and dismounted of- large court of the Academy, a statue ficers of police. There is a good deal of KOPERNIK, (Copernicus), who was of commerce in grain.
by birth a Pole, and had been educated We need not follow the author in the University of Cracau, is by this through the small towns on the road time erected. The churches, the hosto Warsaw, but shall join him at that pitals, and the schools, are numerous capital, which contains 99,000 souls, and handsome. Many of the streets, independent of the garrison, amount- squares, and places, are spacious and ing to 20,000 more. It is now the beautiful, some of them ornamented capital of Poland ; and has been, since by statues and pillars. Thorwaldson is the time of Sigismond III., the ordi- employed on a bronze equestrian stanary residence of her kings. It is si- tue, in memory of Prince Joseph Potuated on a considerable hill, on the niatowski, to be placed in some one of left bank of the Vistula, and consists the principal squares. There are some of an old and new town, suburbs, streets in the city, as in all places of (which are the most beautiful parts of antiquity, which are narrow, and the the capital,) and four conterminous houses of which are very high ; but towns, having each their exclusive pri- improvements are daily made in these vileges, and their respective town- respects. houses ;-their names are Grzybow, Our author enumerates the merits Leszno, Szolec, and Prague. Prague, of the different inns, coffee-houses, resformerly of a large extent, was totally taurateurs, &c. in every place he dedestroyed by Suwarrow, in the war of scribes, with all the zest of a con1794. More than 2000 inhabitants, noisseur ; and perhaps the capital may without distinction of sex and age,were boast of many which are of the first butchered by the cruel soldiery. It was order. We must, however, take all afterwards rebuilt; but, in the war of this cum grano, especially as to ac1816, it was again partly pulled down, commodations on the road; for we to make room for fortifications, and a have been cautioned against believing
pint, hurried out of the sanctuary ;-sud- on the exact model on nly your sight is plunged upon (plongée in Tivoli, the other ol su. a lake, though which a river forces its The first is destined for tica way, caring along the foam occasioned by Poland ; it contains a great imber its recem fall, near the ruins of a hand- cient Polish armour_shields, helmets, some aqueduct, which serves as a bridge to bres ; it is overhung with standards won in enable you to make the tour of the lake, the battles with Turks, Crusaders, Austriand to obtain a view of the facade of the ans. There stand around at the wall, the temple.
cenotaphs of conspicuous men of old; those “ Following the flowery banks of this ri- of great generals and poets; some with some ver, you reach an isle, where there is placed relics of bories, some empty-all with apa monument of black marble, on which propriate emblems and mottos. That of an rests a figure of white marble, in the re- ancient poet, Kochanowski, hung over with posing attitude of the St Cecilia of Bernini a lyre; that of Copernicus with a sublime at Rome, which changes the interest of inscription-Sta
Sol. In a dim under vault the inscription, Et in Arcadia ego,' of this temple, an obelisk of black Carpa. to that inspired by the epitaph on the tomb, thian marble is placed, to the memory of
J'ai fait Arcadie et j'y repose.' the Prince Poniatowski, who fell in the bat66 Then you have the picturesque ruins of tle at Leipsic. The Emperor Alexander the ancient habitation of the god Pan; the having visited this temple, adorned hereafsacrifice to Esculapius, surrounded by his ter its
cupola, which was open, with a large attributes ; the isle of offerings, which you glass made expressively for this purpose ; reach by a flying-bridge, fixed to the banks through which a dim and sombre day-light by cordage. The circus, constructed on falls on the glorious remains of the ancient the Grecian model, and of the same size, is Poles. filled with monuments of marble, and of “ The other, that is the Gothic temple, Oriental granite of the highest antiquity. contains chiefly the antiquities of middle A chapel, lately constructed at the gate ages, of all foreign countries and nations ; leading from the park, and in the middle they consist mostly in ancient and modern of a meadow enamelled with flowers, is tomb-stones-rare books and manuscripts above all remarkable.' Its massive exte. -portraits. Among the last is to be seen, rior gives it the majestic appearance of the Portrait of Raphael, painted by him. a sarcophagus. It is elevated on four self, on wood. Besides, this splendid seat of arches, which serve as supports to it. It is Prince Czartoryski's, --who, like the Dukes ornamented in the interior by some co- of Weimar in Germany, are Mecænasses of pies in Sepia, of the works of the best learned men in Poland, and who themselves painters, by Seydelmani
, an artist celebra- bear a high literary characteris enriched ted for the spirit and truth with which he by the largest library in Poland, containgives the character of the painters after ing about 110,000 volumes, in different lanwhom he designs. Among these, there is guages. Especially, there is the richest the Virgin, after Raphael, Sacrifice of store of manuscripts, particularly relating Emanuel, after Rembrandt, -Repose in to the history of Poland.” Egypt, after Ferdinand Boll-Magdalen, after Bottoni, and others.
Posting, we are informed, has " Delille has consecrated this spot, by reached the highest degree of perfechis admirable description of it in his im- tion in Poland. The postillions are mortal poem, LES JARDINS.
active, sober, intelligent, and trust“But the most beautiful place in Po- worthy. The horses, chiefly from the land that has been equally chaunted by De- Ukraine and Russia, are indefatigable, lille, is Pulawy, the usual country residence of the Prince Czartoryski, Nature, art, and action. The celerity with which
strong, although small, and full of fire taste, expence, all seem to have been combined to adorn it. It is situated on the pro
the traveller is conveyed from stage to minent banks of the Vistula. The buildings stage is agreeable in many respects. are shaded over with an extensive park, or
postes doubles," he is not rather dark grove; where, in a beautiful obliged, as in Germany, to kick his variety, are to be seen, Chinese Kiosks and heels while the horses are baiting. The precipices, hermitages and subterraneous public carriages, which regularly tragrottosa colossal statue of the dying vel on the great roads, are on the moClarinda, supported by Tancred, in white del of those in England. They travel marble of Carara_epitaphs hewn in the night and day. At every post-house, rock for the deceased friends of that illustrious family. These, and such like ob- in which travellers are entitled to en
(station de poste,) a register is kept, jects, strike the attention of a traveller ; yet it is not a place of beauty alone, but also ter any complaints they may have to of veneration. To it the natives resort,
as make of the postboys, &c., whose dein pilgrimage, to gratify their patriotic feel. ceptions, inattention, or impertinence, ings; for there are two temples one built if established, are severely punished,