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Copyright, 1876, by HARPER & BROTHERS. Copyright, 1904, by ANTONIA Draper Dixon.
THE AGE OF FAITH IN THE WEST. THE THREE ATTACKS: NORTHERN
OR MORAL; WESTERN OR INTELLECTUAL; EASTERN OR MILITARY.
THE NORTHERN OR MORAL ATTACK ON THE ITALIAN SYSTEM, AND ITS TEMPORARY
Geographical Boundaries of Italian Christianity.-Attacks upon it.
The Northern or moral Attack.—The Emperor of Germany insists on a
reformation in the Papacy.—Gerbert, the representative of these Ideas,
is made Pope.—They are both poisoned by the Italians.
Commencement of the intellectual Rejection of the Italian System. It
originates in the Arabian doctrine of the supremacy of Reason over
Authority.—The question of Transubstantiation.-Rise and develop-
ment of Scholasticism.-Mutiny among the Monks.
Gregory VII. spontaneously accepts and enforces a Reform in the Church.
-Overcomes the Emperor of Germany.—Is on the point of establishing
a European Theocracy.—The Popes seize the military and monetary
Resources of Europe through the Crusades. . . . . . Page 1
THE WESTERN OR INTELLECTUAL ATTACK ON THE ITALIAN SYSTEM
THE AGE OF FAITH IN THE WEST-(Continued).
TAE WESTERN OR INTELLECTUAL ATTACK ON THE Italian SYSTEM.
The intellectual Condition of Christendom contrasted with that of
Diffusion of Arabian intellectual Influences through France and Sicily.
-Example of Saracen Science in Alhazen, and of Philosophy in
Aigazzali.- Innocent III. prepares to combat these Influences. Results
to Western Europe of the Sack of Constantinople by the Catholics.
The spread of Mohammedan light Literature is followed by Heresy.-
The crushing of Heresy in the South of France by armed Force, the
Inquisition, mendicant Orders, auricular Confession, and Casuistry.
The rising Sentiment is embodied in Frederick II. in Sicily. His
Conflict with and Overthrow by the Pope.-Spread of Mutiny among
the mendicant Orders. . . . . . . . . . . Page 27
OVERTHROW OF THE ITALIAN SYSTEM BY THE COMBINED INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL
Progress of Irreligion among the mendicant Orders.—Publication of
heretical Books.—The Everlasting Gospel and the Comment on the
Conflict between Philip the Fair and Boniface VIII.-Outrage upon
and death of the Pope.
The French King removes the Papacy from Rome to Avignon.-Post-
mortem Trial of the Pope for Atheism and Immorality.-Causes and
Consequences of the Atheism of the Pope.
The Templars fall into Infidelity. – Their Trial, Conviction, and
Immoralities of the Papal Court at Avignon.-Its return to Rome.-
Causes of the great Schism.-Disorganization of the Italian System.-
Decomposition of the Papacy.--Three Popes.
The Council of Constance attempts to convert the papal Autocracy into a
constitutional Monarchy.--It murders John Huss and Jerome of
Prague.- Pontificate of Nicolas V.-End of the intellectual influence
of the Italian System . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
THE AGE OF FAITH IN THE WEST-(Concluded).
EFFECT OF THE EASTERN OR MILITARY ATTACK.- GENERAL REVIEW OF THE AGE OF
The Fall of Constantinople.—Its momentary Effect on the Italian