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the long interval in which, owing to the causes which interfered with all the later Arctic expeditions, the question of Polar exploration has languished. Science has made enormous strides during this interval, and the food, clothing, ship's outfit and equipment, not to speak of the minor but still vastly important contributions to the comfort and even enjoyment of any similar enterprise to be entered upon at the present date, deprive Arctic exploration of most, if not all, of its former désagrémens.

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APPENDIX.

The fossil plants belonging to the Miocene period of Spitzbergen have been ably treated by the distinguished naturalist, Oswald Heer, in the “ Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar” for 1869. The results fully prove that a warmer climate existed in Spitzbergen when these plants flourished. In his list of the Miocene flora he identifies three species of the family of Fungi.

era A NON NOW ON

1 in that of the Sea-weeds.

Mosses.
Ferns.
Equisetæ.
Cypress.
Poplar.
Taxinicæ.
Ephedrinea.
Grasses.
Cyperaceæ.
Rushes.
Aroideæ.
Typhaceæ.
Alismaceæ.
Irideæ.
Salicineæ.
Betulaceæ.
Cupulifera.
Plataneæ.

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It will be seen by this list of easily identified species, that the plants of a temperate region once existed there, and individuals of the same species are found in the districts named below in the following order:

25 are found in Greenland..
8 „ „ in Iceland.
5 , , on the Mackenzie.
7 „ „ in Alaska.
30 are recognised as belonging to the Arctic Flora.

to the Baltic Flora,
„ Schosonetz.
„ Bonnerkohlen.
„Wetterau.

Bilin.

Switzerland.
„ France.

Italy.
Kumi (Greece).

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SOME OF THE FOSSIL LEAVES WE FOUND IN SPITZBERGEN.

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