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königl. Societät der Wissenschaften und der antiquarischen Gesellschaft zu London. Wahrscheinlich wird er das Publikum noch mit einer Fortsetzung seiner Geschichte Griechenlands beschenken. Noch verdient von ihm bemerkt zu werden, dass er eine seltene Erscheinung bei einem Engländer - das Französische und Deutsche lkommen gut spricht, und die Deutsche Literatur schätzt. Vorstehende Nachrichten sind grösstentheils aus den Public Characters of 1800, London 1801 gezogen; der Verfasser seiner Biographie hat sich nicht genannt.


Military institutions of the Lacedæmonians *). In the knowledge and practice of war, the Lacedæmonians (if we believe Xenophon, who had fought with and against them)

far excelled all Greeks and Barbarians. Courage, the first quality of a soldier, was enlivened by every motive that can operate most powerfully on the mind, while cowardice was branded as the most odious and destructive of crimes, on the principle that it tended, not like many other vices, merely to the hurt of individuals, but to the servitude and ruin of the community. The Spartans preserved the use of the same weapons and defensive armor that had been adopted in the heroic ages; shortening only the length, and thereby improving the form of the sword, which was two-edged, pointed, massy, and fitted either by cutting or thrusting to inflict a dangerous wound. Their troops were divided into regiments, consisting of five hundred and twelve men, subdivided into four companies, and each of these into smaller divisions, commanded by their respective officers; for it was peculiar to the Lacedæmonian armies to contain, comporatively, few men pot intrusted with some share of subordinate command. The soldiers were attended by a multitude of artisans and slaves, who furnished them with all necessary supplies, and accompanied by a long train of priests and poets, who flattered their hopes, and animated their valor. A body of cavalry always preceded their march; sensible of the weakness of angles, they encamped in a circular form: the order of their guards and watches was highly judicious; they employed, for

*) History of Greece, Vol. I. chap. 3.

their security, out-sentries and vedettes; and regularly, every morning and evening, performed their customary exercises. Xenophon has described with what facility they wheeled in all directions ; converted the column of march into an order of battle; and, by skilful and rapid evolutions, presented the strength of the line to an unexpected assault. When they found it prudent to attack, the king, who usually rose before dawn, to anticipate, by early prayer and sacrifice, the favor of the gods, communicated his orders to charge. in a full line, or in columns, according to the nature of the ground, and the numbers and disposition of the enemy, In the day of battle, the Spartans assumed an unusual gaiety of aspects and displayed, in their dress and oraaments, more than their wonted splendor. Their long hair was aranged with simple elegance; their scarlet uniforms, and brazen armor, diffused

a lustre around them. As they approached the enemy, the king sacrificed a-new; the music struck up; and the soldiers

advanced with a slow and steady pace, and with a cheerful but deliberate countenance,. to what they were taught to regard as the noblest employment of man. Proper officers were appointed to receive the prisoners, to divide the spoil, and to decide the contested prices of valor. Both before and after, as well as during the action, every measure was conducted with such order and celerity, that a great captain de clares, that

en he considered the discipline of the Spartans,

all other nations appeared but' children in the art of war.

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Means by which Lycurgus maintained the populousness

and encreased the strength of Sparta. But that continual exercise in arms, which improved the skill and confirmed the valor, must gradually have exhausted the strength of Sparta, unless the care of population had formed an object of principal concern in the system of Lycurgus. Marriage was directly enjoined by some very singular institutions; but still more powerfully encouraged by extirpating its greatest enemies, luxury and vanity. But Lycurgas, not contented with maintaining the populousness of Sparta, endeavoured to supply the past generation with a nobler and more warlike race, and to enlarge and elevate the bodies and minds of men to that full proportion of which their nature is susceptible. The credulous love of wonder has always been eager to assert, what the vanity of every age has been unwilling to believe, that the ancient inhabitants of the world possessed a measure of size and strength, as well as of courage and virtue, unattainable and unknown amidst the corruptions and degeneracy of later times. The frequent repetition of the saine romantic tále renders giants and heroes familiar and insipid personages in the remote history of almost every people: but from the general mass of fable, a just discernment will separate the genuine ore of Homer and Lycurgus. The laws of the latter brought back the heroic manners which the former had described; and their effects, being no less permanent than salutary, are, at the distance of

many centuries, attested by eye-witnesses, whose unimpeached veracity declares the Spartans superior to other men in the excellences of mind and body.

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His regulations concerning women, marriage and children.

Of this extraordinary circumstance, the evidence of contemporary writers could scarcely convince us, if they had barely mentioned the fact, without explaining its cause. But in describing the system of Lycurgus, they have not omitted his important regulations concerning the intercourse between the sexes, women, marriage, and children, whose welfare was, even before their birth, a concern to the republic. The generous and brave, it is said, produce the brave and good; but the physical qualities of children still more depend on the constitution of their parents. In other countries of Greece, the men were liberally formed by war, hunting, and the gymnastic exercises; but the women were universally condemried to drudge in sedentary and ignoble occupations, which enfeebled the mind and body. Their chief employment was to superintend, more frequently to perform, the meanest offices of domestic æconomy, and to prepare, by the labor of their hands, food and raiment for themselves and families. Their diet was coarse and sparing; they abstained from the use of wine; they were deprived of liberal education, and debarred from fashionable amusements. Women, thas degraded by servility, appeared incapable of giving good sons to the republic, which Lycurgus regarded as the principal duty of the Lacedæmonian females. By the institutions of Sparta, therefore, the working of wool, the laburs of the loom and needle, and other mean mechanical arts, were ge


nerally committed to servile hands. The 'free-born women enjoyed and practised those liberal exercises and amusements,

which, were elsewhere considered as the 'peculiar privilege of 5 men; they assisted at the public solemnities, mingled in geeneral conversation, and dispensed that applause and reproach;

which dispensed by them, are always most effectual. Hence they became not only the companions but the judges of the

other sex; and, except that their natural delicacy was not e associated to the honors of war, they enjoyed the benefit without feeling the restraint, of the Spartan laws.

The restoration of the natural rights of women restored - moderation and modesty in the intercourse between the sexes. Marriage, though enjoined as a duty, could only be contracted in the full vigor of age; and these simple institutions had a more salutary influence on the physical improvement of the Spartans, than either the doubtful expedient, which prevailed among them to the latest times, of adorning the women's apartments with the finest statues of gods and beroes, that, by frequently contemplating these graceful images, they might produce fairer offspring; or the vonatural and detestable cruelty

of exposing delicate or deformed, children, a practice strongly recommended by Lycurgus, and sileatly approved, or faintly blamed, by the greatest philosophers of antiquity,

our tender years.

Education. Even in a moral view, the character of Spartan mothers must have been highly beneficial to their sons ; since much of the happiness of life depends on the first impressions of

When boys were emancipated from the jurisdictions of women, they were not intrusted, as in other parts of Greece, to the mercenary tuition of slaves, 'who might degrade their sentiments, and corrupt their morals. The education of youth, as

an office of the highest confidence, was committed to those who had enjoyed, or who were entitled to enjoy, the most splendid dignities of the republic; after the example of ancient times, when' Phenix educated achilles, and when it was reasonably required that the master should himself possess the virtues with which be undertook to inspire his disciples. The Spartan youth were taught music and drawing; the former of which comprehended the science not only of sounds, but of number and

quantity, they were taught to read and speak their own language with graceful propriety; to compose in prose and in verse; above all, to think, and in whatever they said, even during the flow of unguarded conversation, to accommodate the expression to the sentiment. Their sedentary studies were relieved by the orchestric and gymnastic exercises, the early practice of which might qualify them for the martial labors of the field. For this most important business of their manhaod, they were still farther prepared, by being inured, even in their tender years, to a life of hardship and severity. They wore the same garment, summer and winter; they walked barefooted in all seasons; their diet was plain and frugal, and for the most part so sparing, that they lost no opportunity to supply the defect. What they were unable to ravish by force, they acquired by fraud. When their theft (if theft can be practised where separate property is almost unknown) was discovered, they were severely punished; but if their dexterous deceit escaped observation, they were allowed to boast of their success and met with due applause for their activity, vigilance, and caution; which indicated a character well fitted to excel in the useful stratagems of war.

Peculiar discipline of the youth. After attaining the ordioary branches of education, youth are frequently left the masters of their own actions. Of all practical errors, Lycurgus deemed this the most dangerous. His discerament perceived the value of that most important period of life, which intervenes between childhood and virility; and the whole force of his discipline was applied to its direction and improvement. Instead of being loosened from the usual ties of authority, the Spartans, at the age of adoJescence, were subjected to a more vigorous restraint; and the most extraordinary expedients were employed to moderate the love of pleasure, to correct the insolence of inexperience, and to control the headstrong impetuosity of other youthful passions. Their bodies were carly familiarized to fatigue, hunger, and watching; their minds were early accustomed to difficulty and danger.

The laborious exercise of the chase formed their principal amusement; at stated times, the magistrates took an account of their actions, and carefully examined their appearance.

If the seeds of their vicious appetites had not been thoroughly eradicated by :

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