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2) Juvenaz AND Horace COMPARED 48 SATIR 18T8 *). I would willingly divide the palm betwixt them, upon the two heads of profit and delight, which are the two ends of poetry in general. It must be granted by the favourers of Juvenal, that Horace is the more copious and profitable in his instructions of human life: but in my particular opinion, which I set not up for a standard to better judgments, Juvenal is the more delightful author. I am profited by both, I am pleased with both; but I owe more to Horace, for my instruction; and more to Juvenals for my pleasure. This, as I said, is my particular taste of these two authors: they who will have either of them to excel the other in both qualities, can scarce give better reasons for their opinion, than' I for mine: but all unbiassed readers will conclude, that my moderation is not to be condemned. To such impartial men I must appeal: for they who have already formed their judgments, may justly stand suspected of prejudice; and though all who are my readers, will set up to be my judges, I enter my caveat **) against them, that they ought not so much as to be of my jury; or, if they be admitted, it is but reason that they should first hear what I have to urge in the defence of my opinion.

That Horace is somewhat the better instructor of the two, is proved from hence, that his instructions are more general: Juvenal's more limited. So that, granting that the counsels which they give are equally good for moral use, Horace, who gives the most various advice, and most applicable to all occasions which can occur to us in the course of our lives;

as including in his discourses not only all the rules of morality, but also of civil conversation; is undoubtedly to be preferred to him, who is more circumscribed in his instructions, makes them to fewer people, and on fewer occasions, than the other. I may be pardoned for using an old saying, since it is true, and to the purpose, quo communius, eo melius," ***) Juvenal, excepting only bis ·



**) Aus der, der Uebersetzung des Juvenal vorausgeschickten, Zueignungsschrift to the right honourable Charles, Earl of Dorset and Middlesex etc. **) Caveat, gerichtlicher Einspruch. ***) Je gemeinsamer ein Gut ist, um so werthvoller ist is.

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first satire, is in all the rest confined to the exposing of some particular vice; that he lashes, and there he sticks. His sentences are truly shining and instructive, but they are sprinkled here and there. Horace is teaching us in every line, and is perpetually moral; he had found out the skill of Virgil, to hide his sentences; to give you the virtue of them, without shewing them in their full extent: which is the ostentation of a poet, and not his art. And this Petronius charges on the authors of his time, as a vice of writing which was then gruwing on the age. „Ne sententiae extra corpus orationis emineant:" he would have them weaved into the body of the work, and not appear embossed upon it, and striking directly on the reader's view. Fully was the proper quarry of Horace, and not vice: and as there are but few notoriously wicked men, in comparison with a shoal of fools and fops; so it is a harder thing to make a man wise, than to make him honest: for the will is only to be reclaimed in the one; but the understanding is to be informed in the other. There are blind sides and follies, even in the professors of moral philosophy; and there is not any one sect of them that Horace has not exposed. Which, as it was not the design of Juvenal, who was wholly employed in lashing vices, some of them to most enormous that can be imagined; so perhaps, it was not so much his talent. „vafer vitium ridenti Flaccus amico tangit et admissus circum praecordia ludit *).” This was the commendation which Persius gave him; where by vitium, he means those little vices, which we call follies, the defects of human understanding, or at most the peccadillos of life, rather than the tragical vices, to which men are hurried by their unruly passions and exorbitant desires. But in the word omne, which is universal, he concludes with me, that the divine wit of Horace left nothing untouched; that he entered into the inmost recesses of nature; found out the imperfections even of the most common people; discovering, even in the great

» Omne

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*) Eine Stelle aus der ersten Saigre des Persius, nach Fülleborn's Uebersetzung:

Horaz versteht die Fehler seiner Freunde
So säuberlich zu fassen, dass er ihnen
Ein Lächeln abgewinnt und gern gesehen
Sich unvermerkt in ihre Herzen schmeichelt.



Trebatius *), to whom he addresses the first sátire, his hunting after business, and following the court, as well as in the persecutor Crispinas **), bis impertinence and importunity. It is true, he exposes Crispinus openly, as a common nuisance: but he raillies the other as a friend, more finely. The exhortations of Persius are confined to noblemen: and the stoick philosophy is that alone which he recommends to them Juvenal exhorts to particular virtues, as they are opposed to those vices against which he declaims : but Horace laughs to shame all follies; and insinuates virtue, rather by famibiar examples, than the severity of precepts.

This last consideration seems to incline the balance on the side of Horace, and to give him the preference to Juvenal, not only in profit, but in pleasure. But, after all, I must confess that the delight which Horace gives me, is but languishing. Be pleased still to unterstand, that I speak of my own taste only: he may ravish other men; but I am to stupid an insensible to be tickled. Where he barely grins himself and as Scaliger ***) says, only shews bis white teeth, he cannot provoke me to any laughter. His urbanity; that is, his good manners,

are to be commended; but his wit is faint; and his salt, if I'may dare to say so,

almost insipid. Juvenal is of a more vigorous and masculine wit; he gives me as much pleasure as I can bear; he fully satisfies my expectation; he treats his subject home; his spleen is raised ånd he raises mine: I have the pleasure of concernment in all he says: he drives his reader along with him; and when he is at the end of his way, I willingly stop with him. If he went another stage, it would be too far, it would make a journey of a progress, and turn delight into fatigue. When he gives over, it is a sign the subject is exhausted,' and the wit of man can carry it no farther. If a fault can justly be found in him, it is that he is sometimes too luxuriant, too redundant; says more than he needs, like my friend the Plain - Dealer t), but never more than pleases. Add to this,

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*) Cajus Trebatius Testa, ein Römischer Ritter und Rechtsgelehrter; an ihn ist Horazens iste Satyre des 2ten Buchs gerichtet. **) Horaz erwähnt seiner oft, als Sat. I, 1, 120; S. I, 3, 139; S. I, 4, 14; S. II, 1, 45. ***) Julius Caesar Della Scala oder Scaliger, geboren 1484, gestorben 1558, ein scharfsinnig er Critiker. 1) A plain-dealer, ein aufrichtiger, ehrlicher Mann; der Titel eines Englischen Schauspicls.

that his thoughts are as just as those of Horace, and much more elevated. His expressions are sonorous and more poble; his verse more numerous, and his words are suitable to his thoughts, sublime and lofty. All these contribute to the pleasure of the reader: and the greater the soul of him who reads, his transports are the greater. Horace is always on the amble; Juvenal on the gallop; but his way is perpetually on carpei-ground. He goes with more impetuosity than Horace, but as securely; and the swiftness adds a more lively agitation to the spirits.

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OC K E. JOHN LOCKÉ, Esn. wurde 1632 zu Wrington unweit Bris

, tol geboren, und theils in der Westminsterschule zu London, theils in dem Christ-church Collegio zu Oxford erzogen und gebildet. Er legte sich hauptsächlich auf die Arzneiwissenschaft, und erwarb 'sich in diesem Fache, wie seine Schriften! beweisen, keine gemeine Kenntnisse, ob ihm gleich seine schwachen Gesundheitsumstände nie erlaubten, die Geschäfte eines ausübenden Arztes zu treiben. In seinen Erholungsstunden las er die Werke des Des Cartes, die seinem nach Deutlichkeit und Wahrheit strebenden Geiste einen Theil der Befriedigung gewährten; die er in der Aristotelischen Philosophie; der Modeweisheit damaliger Zeit, vergebe lich gesucht hatte: 1664 sah er in Begleitung des Sir William Swan, Englischen Gesandten am Churbrandenburgischen Hofe, verschiedene Gegenden Deutschlands. Bei seiner Rückkehr setzte er seine Studien zu Oxford fort, und beschäftigte sich besonders mit Naturgeschichte und Physik.

er der Gräfinn von Northumberland nach Prankreich, wo er sich jedoch nicht lange aufhielt. Er lebte

zu London in seines Gönners, des bekannten Lord Ashley Cooper, damaligen Kunzlers der Exchequer und nachherigen Grafen von Shaftsbury, Hause in welchem er um 1970 den Plan zu seinem essay in buman understanding entwarf. 1671 ward er Mitglied der Königl. Societät der Wissenschaften und Batchelor of Physic. Nachdem er einige Zeit

1668 folgte


das Amt eines Sekretärs bei einer zur Untersuchung des Han dels niedergesetzten Commission verwaltet hatte, machte er 1675 zúr Wiederherstellung seiner Gesundheit eine Reise nach Frankreich, hielt sich zu Montpellier und Paris auf, und lernte die vornehmsten dasigen Gelehrten kennen. 1683 fiel der Graf von Shaftsbüry bei Jacob II. in Ungnade, und ging zum Erbprinzen von Oranien über.

Locke folgte ihm, und verlor nicht nur seine Stelle im Christ - church Cola legio, sondern wurde nebst 83 andern Personen durch den Englischen Gesandten reklamirt, weil man ihn beschuldigte, verschiedene Pamphlets gegen die Regierung geschrieben zu haben. Allein er entging seinen Verfolgern, und hielt sich in der Stille zu Amsterdam auf, wo er besonders mit dem berühmten le Clerc Umgang hatte, bis ihn die 1688 erfolgte Revolution nach seinem Vaterlande zurückzukehren erlaubte. Er bekleidete hierauf einen Posten bei der Appellationscommission, und wurde 1691 zu einem Commissär des Handels und der Plantationen ernannt, ein einträgliches Amt, das er jedoch schon 1700 wieder aufgeben musste, weil die Londner Luft seiner Gesundheit nicht zuträglich war. Von nun an hielt er sich grösstentheils zu Oates in Essex, dem Landsitze seines Freundes Sir Francis Masham, auf, wo er auch bei zunehmender Schwachheit im Jahr 1704 starb. Dafs er einer der grössten Philosophen gewesen ist, welche England gesehen hat, ist bekannt; er war aber nicht blos diefs, sondern auch ein Mann von edler Denkungsart und musterhaftem Lebenswandel. Unter der Menge seiner Schriften, zeichnen sich besonders folgende aus: 1) sein essay concerning human understanding in four books,- 1687 in Holland vollendet. Die erste Ausgabe erschien 1690 föl., nachdem le Clerc durch Uebersetzung eines Abschnitts das Publikum aufmerksam darauf gemacht hatte. Die vierte vom Verfasser vermehrte und verbesserte Auflage wird für die beste gehalten. Die 18te erschien zu London 1788. 2 Vols. 8. John Wynne hat, nach einem von Locke gebilligten Plan, einen Auszug daraus verfertigt, der verschiedenemal gedruckt ist, und vor dem Hauptwerke studiert zu werden verdient. 2) Some thoughts concerning education, zuerst London, 1690. 8, ein Werk, das jedem Freunde ächter Pädagogik zur Genüge bekannt ist. Im Jahre 1706 erschienen seine nachgelassenen Schriften in drei verschiedenen Ausgaben unter den Titeln Posthumous 'works und Several pieces. Man hat seine

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