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conquest of Constantinople by the Turks. But need I talk to you of Cantucuzeno *), etc. princes that you are as well acquainted with as I am? Twas with regret I saw us sail from this island into the Aegean sea, now the Archipelago, leaving Scio (the ancient Chios) on the left, which is the richest and most populous of these islands, fruitful in cotton, corn and silk, planted with groves of orange and lemon trees, and the Arvisian mountain, still celebrated for the nectar that. Virgil mentions**). Here is the best manufacture of silks in all Turkey. The town is well built, the women famous for their beauty, and shew their faces as in Christendom. There are many rich families; though they confine their magnificence to the inside of tbeir houses, to aroid the jealousy of the Turks, who have a Bassa here: however, they enjoy a reasonable liberty, and indulge the genius of their country:
And eat, and sing, and dance away their time,
Fresh as their groves, and happy as their clime. Their chains bang lightly on them, tho' 'tis not long sincethey were imposed, not being under the Turk till 2566. But perbaps 'tis as easy to obey the grand signior as the state of Genoa, to whom they were sold by the Greek emperor. But I forget myself in these historical touches, which are very impertinent when I write to you. Passing the strait between the islands of Andros and Achaia, now Livadia, we saw the promontory of Sunium, now called Cape Colonna, where are yet standing the vast pillars of a temple of Minerva. This venerable sight made me think, with double regret, un a beautiful temple-of Theseus, which I am assured, was almost entire at Athens, till the last campaign in the Morea, that
*) Johann Cantacuzen nöthigte den Griechischen Kuiser Johann Palaeologus, den Thron mit ihm zu thcilen, und auch Matthaeus, Cantacuzens Sohn, wurde zum Kai
Allein Cantucu zen legte zur Vermeidung eines Bürgerkrieges die Krone nieder; und Matthaeus wurde im Jahre 1355 dazu gezwungen.' **) Es ist die Stelle aus Virgils fünfler Ekloge v.71 gemeint;'
Vina novum fundam calathis Ariusia nectar. welche Voss so übersetzt:
Giess ich Wein aus Schalen, den Ariusischen Nektar. Der Ariusier war ein Wein, der in der fetsigen Gegend Ariusa ruf der Insel Chios wuchs. Nekrar ist bekanntlich der Name des balsamischen Gönlcatrunks; man nannte' indessen auch der süfsen Wein also.
the Turks filled it with powder, and it was accidentally blown up. You may believe I had a great mind to land on the fam'd Peloponnesus, tho' it were only to look on the rivers of Asopus, Peneus, Inachus and Eurolas, the fields of Arcadia, and other scenes of ancient mythology. But instead of demi - gods and heroes, I was credibly informed, 'tis now over-run by robbers, and that I should run a great risque of falling into their hands, by undertaking such a journey through a desert country, for which, however, I have so much respect, that I have much ado to hinder myself from troubling you with its whole history, from the foundation of Nycana and Corinth, to the last campaign there; but I check the inclination, as I did that of landing. We sailed quietly by Cape Angelo, once Malea, where I saw no remains of the famous temple of Apollo. We came that evening in sight of Candia: it is very mountainous; we easily distinguished that of Ida. We have Virgil's authority, that here were a hundred cities
Centum urbes habitant magnas — *) The chief of them the scene of monstrous passions. Metellus first conquered this birth - place of Jupiter; it fell afterwards into the hands of ~ I am running on to the very siege of Candia; and I am so angry with myself, that I will pass by all the other islands with this general reflection, that 'tis impossible to imagine any thing more agreeable than this journey would have been two or three thousand years since, when, after drinking a dish of tea with Sappho; I might have gone, the same evening, to visit the temple of Homer in Chios, and passed this voyage in taking plans of magnificent temples, and conversing with the most polite and most gay of mankind. Alas! art is extinct here; the wonders of nature alone remain; and it is with vast pleasure I observed those of mount Aeina, whose flame appears very bright in the night many leagues off at sea, and fills the head with a thousand conjectures. However, I honour philosophy too
*) Eine Stelle aus dem 3ten Buche der Aeneide, v. 106.
Hundert mächtige Städte bewohnen sie
Erzählung hin, nach welcher sich Pasiphae, die Gemahlinn des : Ninos, in einen schönen Stier verliebte, und mit demselben den dli
notaurus, ein Ungeheuer, zeugte, welchen Firgil Veneris monumenta nefandae nennt..!
much, to imagine it-could turn that of Empedoclės *), and Lucian shall never make me believe such a scandal of a man, of whom Lucretius says:
Vix humana videtur stirpe creatus **). We passed Trinacria without hearing any of the Syrens that Homer describes, and, being thrown on neilher Scylla nor Charybdis, came safe to Malta, first called Melita, from the abundance of honey. It is a whole rock covered with very little earth. The grand - master lives here in the state of a sovereign prince; but his strength at sea now is very small. The fortifications are reckoned the best in the world, all cut in the solid rock with infinite expénce and labour. Off this island we were tossed by a severe storm, and were very glad, after eight days, to be able to put into Porta Farine on the African shore, where our ship now rides. At Tunis we were met by the English consul who resides, here. I readily accepted of the offer of his house there for some days, being very curious to see this part of the world, and particularly the ruins of Carthage.' I set out in his chaise at nine at night, the moon being at full. I saw the prospect of the country almost as well as I could have done by daylight, and the heat of the sun is now so intolerable, 'tis impossible to travel at any other time. The soil is, for the most part, sandy, but every where fruitful of date, olive, and fig-trees, which grow without , art, yet afford the most delicious fruit , in the world. Their vineyards and melon- fields are inclos’d by hedges of that plant we call Indian fig, which is an admirable fence, no wild beast being able to pass it. It grows a great height, very thick, and the spikes or thorns are as long and sharp as bodkins; it bears a fruit much eaten by the peasants, and which has no' ill tastc.
It being now the season of the Turkish Ramadan, or Lent, and all here professing, at least, the Mahometan religion, they fast till the going down of the sun, and spend the night in feasting. We saw, under the trees, companies of the country-people, eating, singing, and dancing to their wild music. They are not quite black, but all mulattoes, and the most frightful creatures that can appear in a human figure.
*) Empedocles, der sich, der Sage nach, in den Aetna stürzte, um die Natur dieses Vulkans zu erforschen. **) Kaum scheint er aus menschlichem Stamm entsprossen zu seyn.
They are almost naked, only, wearing a piece of coarse serge wrapped about them. - But the women have their arms, to their very shoulders, and their necks and faces, adorned with flowers, stars, and various 'sorts of figures impressed by gun-powder; a considerable addition to their natural de formity; which is, however, esteemed very ornamental amongst them; aud I believe they suffer a good deal of pain by it:
About six miles from Tunis, we saw the remains of that noble aqueduct, which carried the water to Carthage, over several high mountains, the length of forty miles. There are still many arches entire. We spent two hours viewing it with great attention, and Mr. W-y assured me that of Rome is very much inferior to it. The stones are of a prodigious size, and yet all polished, and so exactly fitted to each other, very little cement has been made use of to join them. Yet they may probably stand a thousand years longer if art is not made use of to pull them down. Soon after day-break I arrived at Tunis, a town fairly built of very white stone, but quite without gardens, which, they say, were all destroyed when the Turks first took it, none having been planted since. The dry sand gives a very disagreeable prospect to the eye; and the want of shade contributing to the natural heat of the climate, renders it so excessive that I have much ado to support it. 'Tis true here is, every noon, the refreshment of the sea reeze, without which it would be impossible to live; but no fresh water but what is preserved in the cisterns of the rains that fall in the month of September. The women of the town go veiled from head to foot under a black crape, and being mix'd with a breed of renegadoes, are said to be many of them fair and hand
This city was besieged in 1270, by Lewis King of France *), who died under the walls of it, of a pestilential fever. After his death, Philip, his son, and our prince Edward, son of Henry III. raised the siege on honourable terms. It remained under its natural Africar: kings, till betrayed into the hands of Barbarossa, admiral of Solyman Magn ficent. The emperor Charles V. expelled Barbarossa, but it was recovered by the Turks, under the conduct of Sinan Bassa, in
*) Ludwig IX. (der Heilige) geb. 1215, belagerte 1270 Tr: pis, und starb am 15tex Augus desselben Jahrs an einer epidemischen Krankkeit.
the reign of Selim II. From that time till now, it has remained tributary to the grand signior, governed by a Bey; who suffers the name of subject to the Turk, but has renounced the subjection, being absolute, and very seldom paying any tribute. The great city of Bagdad is, at this time, in the same circumstances; and the grand signior connives at the loss of these dominions, for fear of losiog even the titles of them.
I went very early yesterday morning (after one night's repose) to see the ruins of Carthage. I was, however, half broiled in the sun, and overjoyed to be led into one of the subterranean apartments, which they called, the stables of the elephants, but which I cannot believe were ever designed for that use: I found in many of them broken pieces of columns of fine marble, and some of porphyry. I cannot think any body would take the insignificant pains of carrying them thither, and I cannot imagine such fine pillars were designed for the use of stables. I am apt to believe they were summer apartments under their palaces, which the heat of the climate rendered necessary. They are now used as granaries by the country - people. While I sat bere, from the town of Tents not far off, many of the women flocked in to see me, and we were equally entertained with viewing one another. Their posture in sitting, the colour of their skin, tbeir lank black hair falling on each side of their faces, their features, and the shape of their limbs, differ so little from their country - people, the baboons, 'tis hard to fancy them a distinct race; I could not help thinking, there had been some ancient alliances between them.
When I was a little refreshed by rest, and some milk and exquisite fruit they brought me, I went up the little hill where once stood the castle of Byrsa, and from thence I had a distinct view of the situation of the famous city of Carthage, which stood on an isthmus, the sea coming on each side of it. 'Tis now a marshy ground on one side, where there are salt ponds. Strabo calls Carthage forty miles in circumference. There are now no remains of it, but what I bave described, and the history of it is to well known to want any abridgement of it. You see, Sir, that I think you esteem obedience better than compliments. I have answered your letter, by giving you the accounts you desired, and have