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SENATE.]

Land Bill.

[March 15, 1836.

ardson Anderson, deceased, late a pensioner on the This bill, Mr. President, ought not to be looked upon revolutionary invalid pension roll, the amount of the as a party measure; nor should it, nor, I trust, will it, be said Richardson's invalid pension, from the 3d day of agitated or decided as a party question. It is a great March, 1826, to the 31st day of May, 1830, during national measure; one in which the whole Union is inwhich time the said pension was withheld or discon. terested deeply; one which the eneral good imperatinued, in consequence of the said Richardson's taking tively demands; and it is one which has been heretofore the benefit of the act for the relief of certain surviving considered and sustained as a national measure by men officers and soldiers of the army of the Revolution, of both political parties, even in times of high party ex. passed May 15, 1828.

citement. In turning to the yeas and nays, as recorded The bill for the continuation of the Cumberland road in the journals of the Senate in 1832, I find in the affirm. in Ohio, Indiana, and Mlinois, was read a third time and ative, on the final passage of this bill, Dudley, of New passed.

York, Dickerson, of New Jersey, (now a member of On motion of Mr. BUCHANAN, the Senate proceed the cabinet,) and Dallas and Wilkins, of Pennsylvania; ed to the consideration of executive business; and, after all devoted friends of the President, but who, in this inremaining for some time with closed doors,

stance at least, if party were at all involved in the quesThe Senate adjourned.

tion, showed that they loved their country better than

their party. But the state of things has changed since TUESDAY, Manch 15.

this bill was then before the Senate. The reasons for

its passage, all that then existed, still remain in full LAND BILL.

vigor; all the leading objections to it have ceased to Mr. EWING, of Ohio, moved the Senate to take up exist; and other reasons, most imperative in their nathe bill to authorize the distribution of the proceeds of ture, seem to demand of us its adoption. Those who the public lands, &c.

opposed it then may, with perfect consistency, support Mr. BUCHANAN expressed a hope that the Senate it now. Not only so; they may, and those who view it would proceed to the consideration of executive business. aright will, as I think, feel constrained, by a sense of

Mr. EWING called for the yeas and nays on the ques. what is due to the welfare and prosperity of our comtion; which were ordered; and, after a few words from mon country, to sustain it, and press it onward to a sucMr. BENTON, Mr. EWING, and Mr. BLACK, the cessful termination. The public debt is now paid; the question was taken, and decided as follows:

tariff' is adjusted on terms which no one will think fit to YEAS— Messrs. Black, Calhoun, Clay, Clayton, Crit. disturb; and there has accumulated in the national treastenden, Davis, Ewing of Ohio, Goldsborough, Hen- ury a very large amount of money beyond what is redricks, Kent, Knight, Leigh, McKean, Mangum, Nau- quisite for the wants of the Government. This amount dain, Porter, Prentiss, Preston, Robbins, Southard, Swift, continues and must continue rapidly to accumulate. Tomlinson, Webster, White-24.

We bave for it no safe depository. It is scattered about Nays-Messrs. Benton, Brown, Buchanan, Cuthbert, among the banks in the several States, who give no Ewing of Illinois, Grundy, Hill, Hubbard, King of Ala. pledge for its repayment, and pay no interest for its use. bama, King of Georgia, Linn, Morris, Nicholas, Niles, This surplus, now nominally in the treasury, but really Rives, Robinson, Ruggles, Shepley, Tallmadge, Tipton, scattered among these deposite banks, is large-very Walker, Wall, Wrighi-23.

large; according to the report of the Secretary of the So the Senate determined to take up the bill.

Treasury made to the Senate a short time since, it Mr. EWING, of Ohio, then rose and addressed the amounted on the 1st of February last to $28,239,744 61, Chair as follows:

exclusive of considerable sums also in deposite in these Mr. President: This bill, which has already several banks to the credit of disbursing officers, but which times passed this body, and which was once carried in had not been expended; the whole sum amounted to the other branch of the national Legislature, is so fa- | $30,678,879 91. . This sum cannot be touched or les. miliar to all here that it is hardly necessary to present sened by any of the expenditures of the present year; an analysis of its provisions. Some amendments, in on the contrary, it must continue to increase. There is deed, have been proposed by the Committee on Public one item, and a large one, which will soon, I presume, Lands; but those amendments are not at all vital to the be added to it; I mean the stock which we held in the bill; they merely modify in some measure its provisions; late Bank of the United States. That bank bas ceased they propose to strike out some matters which seem to exist as a national institution. Its stockholders, all incongruous, or out of place here; but there is no one except the United States, have been incorporated by of those amendments which the committee would not one of the States as a State bank. It is now right and be willing to yield, if the bill, in its original shape, be proper that our connexion with it should be dissolved, more acceptable to the Senate. The leading provisions for ihe United States ought not to be a stockholder in which remain are these: 1st. That there be granted to any of the State institutions. This bank stock, amounteach of the new States, to be applied to the purposes of ing to $7,000,000, will, if present prices be maintained, internal improvement, so much land as, with that al seil for at least seven and a half--more probably eight ready granted for the same purpose, will make to each millions; but if we estimate the receipts from it at seven State at least 500,000 acres. 2d. That there be granted and a half, it gives, added to the present sum in the to each of the said new States, Obio, Indiana, Illinois, treasury, $38,178,879 91 of present means on hand, Missouri, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama, ten per or which must be on hand in the course of the summer. cent. on the nett proceeds of the sales of the public And this surplus must continue to increase; for the relands within its limits since the 31st day of December, ceipts of the current year will very much exceed all the 1832, to be applied to the purposes of internal improve expenditures which can be made beneficially to the ments within the respective States; and, lastly and country under the appropriations of the present session. chiefly, that the whole residue of the nett proceeds The receipts from customs for the year 1836 may be of the sales of the public lands since that day safely estimated as equalling those of 1835. Indeed, shall be divided among all the States, according to their the receipts for January of this year bave very much respective federal representative population, as ascer exceede: those for the corresponding month of the tained by the last census, to be applied by the Legisla- last. But that I may not place it too high, 1 set it down tures of the States to such objects as they shall designate at the same; that is, in round numbers, $19,000,000. and authorize.

The receipts from public lands will much exceed those

Mancu 15, 1836.)

Land Bill.

(SENATE.

of the past year. The lowest estimate which can be tion personally; for, if he had, his personal veracity would made, with a due regard to facts already in our possession, have been implicated in withholding it; and his statement, from That source is $20,000,000, making $39,000,000 although it purported to be but an estimate, must have for the receipts of the year 1836. This, added to the conformed to the fact as far as it was actually ascertained. sum now in the treasury, and the bank stock which will But what I do say is, that he might have known it if he fall in during the present year, make an aggregate, in pleased; and if he had been anxious to give a full and round numbers, of $77,000,000. Out of this sum are fair view to Congress and the nation of what was receive to be paid all the expenses of the current year, which

ed, and what would be received, into the treasury withare estimated by the Secretary of the Treasury at in the year, he would have had it. If the party to which $23,133, 640, including all expenditures, ordinary and he is aitached would, in his opinion, have obtained any extraordinary; and a pretty good round sum it is for an advantage by a show of larger receipts for that year, can 'economical Government. Dropping the fractions, as I any one doubt that he would have had more exact inforhave done in my estimate of receipts, and deducting the mation of the receipts for the first two months of the $23,000,000, which the Secretary says will be wanted last quarter, and that bis estimate for that quarter would for all the purposes of Government, ordinary and ex have been larger? My belief is that it would. traordinary, during the year 1836, we have a balance

Included in the thirty millions now in the deposite on the 1st of January, 1837, of about $54,000,000.

banks to the credit of the Treasury and the disbursing These estimates, it is true, differ very materially from officers, is the eight millions of unexpended balances of those of the Secretary of the Treasury, so far as relates old appropriations, as shown in the report of the Secre. to receipts, but not as to expenditures; for in that I tary of the Treasury of the 8th December, 1835. I intake his estimate as accurate. As to the receipts, he is

clude this sum, because I look upon it as a permanent not to be implicitly relied on. Ever since the surplus residuum, which will always be found in the ireasury at began to accumulate in the treasury, he has kept it as the end of each year, never to be much lessened, but far down as possible, on paper, by very low estimates. generally increased in amount. In looking at the means In his report of the 3d of December, 1834, on the state of the treasury to effect any object in the present or any of the finances, he estimates the receipts into the treas

future year, this should be taken into the account. It ury for the year 1835, from all sources, al $20,000,000, is not necessary or proper that this amount should reviz:

main idle in the treasury, or worse than idle in the de. From customs,

• $16,000,000 posite banks, to be lent out by them on interest, or used From public lands,

3,500,000

as the basis of a large paper issue. It was settled, I Bank dividends and miscellaneous receipis,

500,000

think, some fifteen years ago, in solemn debate in the House

of Representatives--a debate in which Mr. Lowndes bore $20,000,000

a conspicuous part--that the unexpended balance of appropriations for former years might and ought to be, io

a considerable extent, considered as a constant fund, to This estimate will be found in Doc. No. 2. of the last

be applied to the purposes of Government. It is true year, page 4. In this instance he has erred more than

this might not be the case if we were about to settle up fifteen millions of dollars; the actual receipts for that

and quit, orif administration were taken out on the affairs year having been, in fact, nearly as follows: I cannot

of the nation, and the estate were to be finally adjusted. give it exactly, not having yet received full and exact re

In that state of things, the objection of the Senator from turns:

Maine (Mr. SHEPLEY] would apply. But, until that Customs,

$19,324,547 takes place, this fund, with the rest, is properly availLands,

15,200,000 able, and subject to appropriation. It is, in fact, doing Other sources,

736,991 as the Senator from Missouri (Mr. Benton] very justly

said the other day we might do-anticipate, in the approMaking, in all,

$35,261,538 | priations for any year, one quarter's receipts of the next

succeeding year. This, indeed, has been constantly In his report, made to Congress at the commencement done heretofore, as I believe. I have looked back no of the present session, he gives us the receipts for the further than 1832, where I find the estimates of the Secfirst tbree quarters of the year 1835 at $20,480,881 07; retary of the Treasury, for the then coming year, include and he estimates all the receipts, from all sources, for $5,231,094 of the unexpended balance of former approthe last quarter of the same year, at $4,950,000. This priations; to this I heard of no objections. Whether report was presented on the 8th December, 1835, when any were urged to it, or not, I cannot say. If there all but twenty-three days of that quarter had expired. were any, they were not founded in justice, or in a comYet, strange to tell, that estimate falls short of the true prehensive knowledge of financial operations. amount by more than $6,800,000; the whole receipts for Io estimating the customs of the year 1836 by the rethat quarter, instead of $4,950,000, actually amount to ceipts of 1835, I am conscious they are set too low. The $11,780,000. These great and repeated errors look bad receipts for this year, thus far, in the port of New York, upon the face of them. One would be half inclined to do, I am informed, very much exceed those of last year suspect that this officer, who has the custody of the for the same period. That excess will probably conmoney of the people, was willing to conceal from them, as tinue during the year, if the causes which have given long as possible, the actual amount in his hands, or which, rise to it be not checked in their action. It springs in in the regular course of things, was coming into his hands. part, and, as I think, principally, from the immense paAt the time he made his estimate of a little less than five per circulation which the deposite banks are enabled to millions, for the last quarter of 1835, about eight millions ihrow out, founded on the deposite of thirty millions of must have been actually received by his subordinates in the public money in their vaults. They deal on the the custom-houses and land offices; and he must, in the public treasure as a fixed capital. regular course of business in his Department-either he The estimate of the Secretary of the Treasury of the personally, or the heads of his several bureaux-have receipts for lands in the year 1836 differs very widely been informed, officially or unofficially, of receipts for from my own. He fixes it at four millions. Was that his such part of that quarter, to an amount considerably ex. real opinion? Did he seriously believe, after the expericeeding that at which he estimated the receipts of the ence which he had of the past year, that it would not exwhole quarter. I do not say that he had this informa. I ceed that amount? His estimate from the same source for

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1835, it will be recollected, was $3,500,000; while the re avails go to the Chickasaws, under their treaty of the ceipts do, in fact, amount to about $15,200,000. I have 24th of May, 1834. But it shows not the less conclunot got the returns exactly for 1835, but, so far as received, sively the eagerness of capitalists to vest their funds in they amount to $14,719,259 21; and the table sent me from the public lands; the spirit of speculation and emigration the General Land Office, showing the result, is accom. which is abroad, and which has pervaded every section panied with a slip stating that the sales in those offices of our country, and every condition and situation in life. in which the returns have not been rendered will exceed I agree entirely with the Senator from Missouri, that $500,000.*. If it amount to that sum, the aggregate fur very much of these excessive sales arises from a diseased the year will be $15,219,239 21.

state of our currency; that much, indeed all, that we are The Secretary of the Treasury has, as I before re. now receiving for the national domain, is mere trashmarked, estimated the receipts for lands in the present base rags; and that every thing is tending to a catastroyear (1836) at $4,000,000. Now I, for one, can see no phe similar to that of 1818; but I did not, I confess, exreason why those proceeds should have been estimated pect to hear from that Senator the precious consessions so much lower for this year than what it was known they which he uttered yesterday. All that I had prepared had produced, or must produce, for the last. The rea. to urge upon that subject; all that I had anticipated, sons urged in the report of the Secretary are, in my when the first experiment was tried upon the fiscal conopinion, wholly inconclusive. Accident, it is true, may cerns of our country; all the danger to our public funds; check these sales; a great commercial or financial catas and all the consequent destruction of the credit and busitrophe may check, and, indeed, almost stop, the entries ness of our country, which every one who possessed the of public land; but unless such catastrophe do take place, least ray of light glimmering into the future foresaw, or unless there be an extraordinary pressure in the mo and which many foretold would arise from leaving the ney market, it is likely that the sales will go on as bere. State banks unchecked and unrestrained, and making tofore; for the same causes which produced the great them the depositories of our almost unbounded treas. purchases in 1835 are still in full and even increased ure, is, as he concedes, about to come upon us. But, activity. So far as we have facts to aid us in estimates strange to be told, the Senator says "the Bank of the like this, which must necessarily rest parily on conjec. United States has done all this." To whom does the ture, they are of the first importance; they are a safe honorable Senator address himself? To men who he guide, so far as they go; and, when we must necessarily believes possess ordinary intellect and ordinary informaquit them, they give a just direction to our further pro- tion? The honorable Senator rates the common intelgress. We are now something more than two months ligence of our country too low, if he believes he can inadvanced in the year 1836; I have received, through the duce any one to suppose, even for a moment, that the proper channel, information of the sales in many of the Bank of the United States, which has been deprived of offices for the first month of that year, and, by compa. the public deposites, whose charter has expired and ring those sales with the amount of sales in the same offi- ended, that bank which has ceased to exist, except for ces for January, 1835, and carrying out the proportion, the mere purpose of collecting its debts and winding up we can, it would seem, arrive at a tolerably fair conjec. its affairs, has caused all this mighty food of bank paper, tural estimate of the products of the lands for the whole which now pours like a torrent over the whole land, and of the present year.

drives out gold and silver from circulation. One thing I have before me a table made out, pursuant to my should be constantly borne in mind, and that is this: instructions, at the General Land Office, which presents, those who see the bank paper, which is so abundant in in corresponding columns, all the receipts for public circulation, know whether that which they see is the lands, in ile several land offices, for January, 1835, and paper of the Bank of the United States or not. If that all the receipts for January, 1836, so far as heard from. is pre profusely mixed with the notes on the deposite The Secretary of the Senate has caused to be prepared banks, the people may give credit to those who say that Sor me, from that table, another, having in the column the Bank of the United States has borne its part in produs for January, 1835, those offices only which had been cing the evils which now menace us. heard from for January, 1836. This table shows the ex I am fully aware, and I wish the country to be appri. traordinary fact that the same offices, twenty-seven in zed also, that these immense, unparalleled sales of the number, which produced, in January, 1835, but public lands arise from a diseased condition of the public $333,949 34, have produced, in January, 1836, currency. It is in a great measure deceptive; or, rather, $841,066 18. From this it would appear that, if the that which we receive for them is not money, but a sales at all the offices increase in the same proportion, cheat. We sell for cash, in form, but, in effect, on and if that proportion continue for the whole year, the credit; we make the honest purchaser-him who buys sales will amount to $38,221,928.7 This is nearly on his own means, and for his own use-pay cash; and double my estimale. There is, however, one other fact, we sell to the great capitalists-those who are connect. and an important one, to show the avidity with which ed with the deposite banks, those who buy tens of thouvaluable public lands are now sought for, and the rapidi-sands and hundreds of thousands of acres on speculation, ty with which sales are made. From accounts just re. and who make fortunes by it, of which we plain men ceived from the Pontitoc land office, in the Chickasa w scarcely have a conception, we sell them on credit, district, in the State of Mississippi, it appears that there without interest. And I will show you how: There are was received in that single office, at a public sale, be. thirty millions of the public money deposited in these tween the first Monday in January and the 17th day of banks without interest, and there it is to remain from February of this year, $600,000; and on the 17th of year to year; those who are connected with these banks, February, after the public sales had closed, there were or who find favor with them, borrow this money, and ten thousand applications for private entries in a single lay it out in public land; it is paid into the land office; day. If those applications averaged eighty acres each, the receiver returns it to the banks by way of deposite, the money received from them will be one million of and it is again lent out, and again goes the round of purdollars. If all be for the smallest possible quantities for chasing land, and coming again into bank. You see at which entries can be made—that is, forly acre lots--it once, sir, the advantage this gives the great monopolist must amount to $500,000. It is true tbat the receipts over the common citizen, who depends upon his own . from this uffice do not belong to the United States; the resources, and not on the favor of Government, for his

means of purchase. The man or the company with two Sce table A, at the end. See table B, at the end. or three millions of money may cause to be traversed

Marcu 15, 1836.)

Land Bill.

(SENATE.

men.

every desirable portion of the public lands by their ser Samuel Gwyn, the register of the office of Chocvants and agents, and seize upon all the choicest spots, chuma, writes to the Commissioner of the General Land before the farmer who seeks for himself a home can Office, on the 24th of September, 1835, a letter, in examine and select it. And, what is still worse, there is which are the following paragraphs: great danger and I am told that that state of things has, I am now more than ever satisfied that it is the in some cases, been found to exist-there is great dan settled purpose and determination of a set of speculators ger that the land officers themselves, or some one in the to sweep the balance of the Choctaw country, under the offices, will be in the partnership or in the pay of these pretended claims arising under the 14th article of the regularly organized bands. Sir, the shocking frauds ireaty;" and he adds, speaking of the order of the Presiwhich have taken place under the pre-emption laws have dent, above referred to, “But advantage has been had their origin in this source. It is they or their agents taken, and his order, limited, as it is on its face, to the that call upon the poor and ignorant families residing on last Congress, is held up as authority for sweeping every the public lands, and, persuading them that they had a acre of the remaining country, under circumstances right to do so, get them to swear that the man and his wife much more aggravated than the grand Yazoo speculation cultivate the land separately, and that each child, from thirty-five years ago. Hordes of Indians, who have all twenty-one to one year old, cultivates separately; and thus plain cases, are now conjured up, and, under pretended manufacture eight or ten pre-emption claims from a sin- purchases, a set of ravenous speculators are swceping gle family, pay fifty or a hundred dollars for it, get out every thing before them.” The document to which I these floats, and get them duly assigned, and lay them have referred abounds in matter of this kind, and I invite upon lands of the United States worth thirty or forty the attention of the Senate to its details, as there can be dollars per acre. Nay, more; I have been advised that seen something of our financial affairs, our land system, there is a regular manufactory of those pre-emption and our Indian affairs, at a point where they all meet floats, carried on under the same auspices, where the and touch. papers are all duly made out, signed, and sworn to, leav These speculations and these frauds—the abundance ing a blank for the purchaser to fill up with whatever of public money deposited in banks, whose officers were tract of land he may choose. Now, it is self-evident ready, if not to engage themselves in the business, to that these things could not be carried on extensively | lend freely to those who did, and thus afford means to without great capital embarked in it; and that capital these large and powerful combinations to carry out their could not be had, and thus diverted and withdrawn from schemes of rapine-have, no doubt, very much augthe ordinary business of the country, if it were not for mented the sales of public lands, though, perhaps, all its accumulation in the deposite banks. An end will be combined, they have not much increased the amount of put to all this fraud more safely and certainly by this law money received into the treasury; for the rich lands in ihan in any other mode that can be devised. It will the South would have sold, and that at high prices, if abstract the accumulated mass of the public treasure they could have been brought into market under cir. from these banks. It will tap these great reservoirs, cumstances which would give room for fair competition. which send forth their streams of corruption through If those fruitful sources of fraud be cut off, and the devious channels, and over the whole surface of our public money remain in those deposite banks, without country. As it is, the public money is taken and made distribution, the sales will continue large, and speculause of to defraud the public out of the most valuable por- tion will run high; but, the means of perpetrating frauds tions of the domain; and, after all, the amount of money being cut off, it will be that kind of speculation which, in the public treasury or elsewhere is not increased by though we should endeavor to prevent, we cannot conthe operation: it is credit borrowing upon credit, and demn; for, when the occasion is fairly made, a man is no the United States is the final creditor, who, after being more to blame for endeavoring to better his circumdefrauded of its domain, must lose at last even the show stances by an investment in land than by an investment of consideration which was received for it. It is diffi. in cotton or tobacco. But it should be the care of Govcult to conceive a more bungling, wretched system than ernment, if possible, so to dispose of its lands that they that which has been devised for the keeping of these pub-may pass direct to the cultivator, the husbandman himlic funds.

self, and have no middle man between them to make There is another matter closely connected with the profit out of both. But the thing, as it is carried on above, in which, I am inclined to think, funds of the now, is destructive alike to the interest of the GovernUnited States in some of these deposite banks have borne ment and the morals of the people. no humble part. It will be recollected that, by the 14th I have now to look at this subject in another and a article of the treaty of Dancing Rabbit creek, made with more pleasing aspect. I propose to touch briefly on the the Choctaws on the 27th of September, 1830, it was pro- leading causes which operate to keep up the permanent vided that, though the nation removed beyond the Miss sales of the public lands, independently of all excess of sissippi, each head of a family who wished to remain, and circulating medium; independently of all temporary ex, become a citizen of the United States, was at liberty to citement, all the rage of speculation, all its success, and do so; and, on his giving in his name to the agent within all its reverses; the steady, permanent, and enduring a limited time, he became entitled to a section of land, causes which cannot cease to act until the subject on to be selected by a locating agent; and smaller quanti- which they act is exhausted, and our broad domain filled ties were allowed to each of his children. It appears with inhabitants. It is a point too clear to require arguby document No. 69, laid on our tables some time since, ment or illustration, that the sale of our national domain that this agent, who was authorized to receive and regis- must depend, at last, on the increase of our population. ter the names of such Indians as wished to remain, In that whole range of country east of the Allegany omitted or lost some of the names, or some leaves con mountains, including New York and all New England, taining the names of Indians having made such applica except Maine, and southward to Georgia, the country tion. The subject, therefore, was opened by order of the is very nearly filled with population; and the agricultural President, and further time given to let in these Indians, portion of the community will not become much more whose names were so omitted, to prove their rights. numerous within that extensive district, so long as there

Here was an opening at once, as in the case of the are new lands, accessible within a reasonable distance, pre-emption laws, to obtain lands, and pay for them, in and at a moderate price. The whole increase of this whole or in part, in affidavits; and the occasion was, as population go into the towns and cities, and engage in a matter of course, seized upon by these bonest gentle. I trade or manufactures, or they emigrate. In the year

Vol. XII.-52

SENATE)

Land Bill.

[MARCH 15, 1836.

annum.

1800, which is as far back as I propose to extend my tion, which shut out the broad and inviting regions of view of this subject, there were in the old States, (in the West from the Atlantic States, are broken down which I include Kentucky and Tennessee,) about and removed; our roads and canals across the Allegany 100,000,000 of acres of wild land, that belonged not to mountains, the New York canal, Lake Erie, the Ohio the United States, but to the several States themselves, canal, and the steamboats that navigate all our lakes and or to individuals. This furnished an outlet to emigra- rivers, have almost annihilated space, and brought the tion; and thus, for a series of years, absorbed nearly the fair and fertile lands of the West into the very neighbor. whole increasing population of the old States. From hood of our Atlantic cities. 1800 to 1835, there have been sold, and given as dona. It is on these considerations that I rest my estimate of tions, of the public lands, above 50,000,000 of acres, the sales of the public lands, the regular and permanent nearly all of which is actually occupied; so that there sales for the use of the cultivator, for a long series of has been brought into actual occupation, within thirty years to come. Speculation may increase them for one five years, about 150,000,000 of acres of wild and un year; disappointment and embarrassment in the moneyed cultivated land; that is, an average quantity of something concerns of the country may diminish them for the next, more than 4,000,000 of acres a year. The population but these are the constant elements which now act, and of the United States in 1800 was about 5,300,000; it is which must continue to act with constantly increasing now about 14,500,000; so that, if the new land continue vigor; and from these I infer that, if our land system be to come into occupancy for the next thirty-five years in preserved, and fairly and honestly administered, the sales the same ratio, as compared with the population, there will hereafter exceed an average of $10,000,000 per will pass from the hands of the United States into those of the busbandman, within that time, about 400,000,000 I know how easy it is to attack estimates in advance, of acres, being about 12,000,000 of acres a year-less and to forget them when they are verified by the event. at the beginning, and more towards the close of the It is now but one year since the honorable Senator from period. The average sales for the first ten years, there South Carolina, now near me, (Mr. CALHOUN,) presented fore, will not be less than 8,000,000 of acres a year, a report on the revenues, with a view to the general yielding considerably more than $10,000,000.

distribution of the surplus which should remain after It is curious to note the progress of our population, subserving all the wants of the general Government; a its steadiness and regularity as to the whole Union, and report in which he shed the clear sunlight of intellect the constant principles by which it varies in its several and intelligence over that involved and intricate subject. parts. The increase of the whole population of the In that, he estimated the amount which could be set United States bas been, since 1790, about thirty-four per aside for distribution annually at nine millions; and he ceni. in ten years; varying, in the whole, not more than was charged by the Senator from Missouri with “bal. one and three fourths of one per cent. between any lucination;" a word selected, and repeated with emphaperiods of ten years, except what is caused in one of sis, as if the very supposition savored of madness or selfthem by the acquisition of Louisiana, between 1800 and delusion. But, mark the event. The Senator from 1801. But, deduct from that scries of ten years what

Missouri now admits an excess much beyond that; many Louisiana has added to it, and it will correspond, very millions larger; but now there is a new excuse, a new ex. justly, with the average for the other several series. planation, a new project. The currency is all unsound, From 1800 to 1810, Maine, Vermont, and the northern and that occasions this accumulation of money, which district of New York, increased much beyond the aver is but waste paper, mere rags. Be it so; still it is the age ratio; they, therefore, received immigration. While better currency which was promised us by those who New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode have been ignorantly or wantonly tampering with the Island, New Jersey, and the southern district of New currency as well as with the finances of the country. York, have an increase very much below the average; This is the way in which a hard-money currency has been they, of course, gave out emigration, a part of which restored to us. These notes on the deposite banks, flowed into the neighboring States, and a part found its which are able to cash one dollar in seven, are the way westward, to Ohio. At the same time, Delaware, yellow boys which were to glisten in the long silken Maryland, the eastern district of Virginia, North Caro. purses of our substantial farmers. The result would be lina, and South Carolina, sent out a large portion of amusing, if it were not a subject too serious to excite a their increase in emigration, which is to be found in the smile. great relative increase of western Virginia, Kentucky, But since the money, such as it is, is nominally in the Tennessee, and Georgia; east and west Pennsylvania, treasury, and now when we seek to apply it to this purduring that period, having preserved a little more than pose, so useful to the country at large, we are met with the average increase, and receiving more emigration a project new and fresh coined, for the avowed purpose than she sent out. This condition of things gradually of defeating this distribution. It is proposed to expend changed, as the new parts of the old States and the older it all upon our navy and fortifications, and in keeping of the new States became filled with population. And, up a standing army to man the fortifications. And it is at this time, in addition to those which were emigrating now, for the first time in the history of nations, urged districts in 1810, the State of Vermont, the northern that ihe maintenance of a standing army will be a source district of New York, the western districts of Penn. of pecuniary profit to the people. Modern opinions sylvania and Virginia, and the States of Georgia, Ken. differ some little from the old notions of economy and tucky, and Tennessee, instead of receiving and absorlo. retrenchment, of which we used to hear so much in ing the population of the adjoining States and districts,

times past. give out large portions of their own increase, which, But I have no objections to any expenditures, within joined with the general current, flow westward. This reasonable bounds, which can be made, and usefully flood-lide of emigration, constant and undeviating in its made, in finishing our fortifications and improving our course, holds due on, and will continue onward until it navy; and, although an excessive expenditure for that bas spread over and filled the wide national domain, and purposc must seriously embarrass business in the West, equalized the population, according to natural advan- by drawing a large portion of the treasure of the nation on tages, over the whole land.

to the seaboard, and disbursing it there, yet I would not It is not merely that the new portions of the old States cavil upon small points, even in that respect. I would are filled with population, and, instead of receiving, send not, it is true, like well io have all the vast treasure of our forth their emigrants; but the great barriers to emigra- 1 country drawn to one point or to one line, and there

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