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Dec. 29, 1835.]
Distributive Land Bill.

(SENATE. there will remain for distribution among the twenty-four turned as the constitution requires, but was retained by States of the Union the sum of $18,435,054 21. of this him after the expiration of his official term, and until sum the proportion of Kentucky will be $960,947 41, the next session of Congress, which had no power to act of Virginia the sum of $1,581,669 39, of North Car upon it. It was understood and believed that, in anticiolina $988,632 42, and of Pennsylvania $2,083,233 32. pation of the passage of the bill, the President had preThe proportion of Indiana, including the fifteen per pared objections to it, which he had intended to return cent., will be $855,588 23, of Ohio $1,677,110 84, and with his negative; but he did not. If the bill had been of Mississippi $958,945 42. And the proportions of all returned, there is reason to believe that it would have the twenty-four States are indicated in a table which I passed, notwithstanding those objections. In the House hold in my hand, prepared at my instance in the office it had been carried by a majority of more than two of the Secretary of the Senate, and to which any Senator thirds. And, in the Senate, although there was not that may have access. The grounds on which the extra al- majority on its passage, it was supposed that, in conselowance is made to the new States are, first, their com quence of the passage of the compromise bill, some of plaint that all lands sold by the federal Government are the Senators who had voted against the land bill bad five years exempted from State taxation; secondly, that changed their views, and would have voted for it upon it is to be applied in such manner as will augment the its return, and others had left the Senate. value of the unsold public lands within them; and, last There are those who believe that the bill was unconly, their recent establishment.

stitutionally retained by the President, and is now the It may be recollected that a bill passed both Houses law of the land. But whether it be so or not, the genof Congress, in the session which terminated on the 3d eral Government holds the public domain in trust for March, 1833, for the distribution of the amount received the common benefit of all the States; and it is, therefrom the public lands upon the principles of that now fore, competent to provide by law that the trustee shall offered. "The President, in bis message at the com make distribution of the proceeds of the three past mencement of the previous session, had specially invited years, as well as future years, among those entitled the attention of Congress to the subject of the public to the beneficial interest. The bill makes such a prolands; bad adverted to their liberation from the pledge vision. And it is very remarkable that the sum which for the payment of the public debt; and had intimated it proposes to distribute is about the gross surplus or his readiness to concur in any disposal of them which balance estimated in the treasury on the 1st of January, might appear to Congress most conducive to the quiet, 1836. When the returns of the last quarter of the year harmony, and general interest of the American people. come it, it will probably be found that the surplus is

After such a message, the President's disapprobation larger than the sum which the bill distributes. But if of the bill could not bave been anticipated. It was pre it should not be, there will remain the seven millions sented to him on the 2d of March, 1833. It was not re held in the Bank of the United States, applicable, as far

as it may be received, to the service of the ensuing year. The following is the table referred to by Mr. CLAY:

It would be premature now to enter into a consideraStatement showing the dividend of each State (according tion of the probable revenue of future years; but, at the to its federal population) of the proceeds of the public proper time, I think it will not be difficult to show that, lands, during ihe years 1833, '4, and’5, after deducting exclusive of what may be received from the public from the amount 15 per cent. previously allowed to the lands, it will be abundantly sufficient for all the econom. seren new States.

ical purposes of Government in a time of peace. And

the bill, as I have already stated, provides for seasons of Federal Share for 15 p.ct. Total

I wish to guard against all misconception by reStates. population. each State. to new

peating, what I have heretofore several times said, that to new

this bill is not founded upon any notion of a power in States. States.

Congress to lay and collect taxes, and distribute the amount among the several States. I think Congress

possesses no such power, and has no right to exercise it Maine, 399,437 $617,269

until some such amendment as that proposed by the N. Hampshire 269,326 416,202

Senator from South Carolina (Mr. Calhoun) shall be Massachusetts 610,408 943,293

adopted. But the bill rests on the basis of a clear and Rhode Island, 97,194 150,198

comprehensive grant of power to Congress over the Connecticut, 297,665 459,996

Territories and property of the United States in the Vermont, 280,657 433,713

constitution, and upon express stipulations in the deeds New York, 1,918,553 2,964,834

of cession. New Jersey, 319,922 494,391

Mr. President, I have ever regarded with feelings of

the profoundest regret the decision which the President Delaware, 75,432 116,568

of the United States felt himself induced to make on the Maryland, 405,843 627,169

bill of 1833. If it had been his pleasure to approve it, Virginia, 1,023,503 1,581,669

the heads of Departments would not now be taxing their Noth Carolina, 639,747 988,632

ingenuity to find out useless objects of expenditure, or S'th Carolina, 455,025 701,495

objects which may be well postponed to a more distant Georgia, 429,811 664,208

day. If the bill had passed, about twenty millions of Kentucky, 621,832 960,947

dollars would have been, during the last three years, in Tennessee, 625,263 966,249

the hands of the several States, applicable by them to Ohio, 935,884 1,446,266 230,844 1,677,110 the beneficent purposes of internal improvement, edu. Louisiana, 171,694 265,327 67,561 332,888 cation, or colonization. What immense benefits might Indiana, 343,031 530,102 325,485 855,588

not have been diffused throughout the land by the active Illinois,

157,147 242,846 483,760 726,606 employment of that large sum! What new channels of Missouri, 130,419 201,542 174,354 375,897 commerce and communication might not have been Mississippi, 110,358 170,541 788,403 958,945 opened! What industry stimulated, what labor reward, Alabama, 262,508 405,666 541,940 947,607 ed! How many youthful minds might have received

the blessings of education and knowledge, and been [Fractions of dollars are omitted in the above sums.] rescued from ignorance, vice, and ruin? How many

VOL. XII.--4



Executive Patronage, &c.- Reduclion of the Revenue.

(Dec. 29, 1835.

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descendants of Africa might have been transported from

The mole, projecting, break the roaring main. a country where they never can enjoy political or social

Back to his bounds their subject sea command, equality, to the native land of their fathers, where no And roll obedient rivers through the land." impediment exists to their attainment of the highest de The affair of the public lands was forced upon me. gree of elevation, intellectual, social, and political! | In the session 1831-2 a motion from a quarter po where they might have been successful instruments, in cally unfriendly to me was made to refer it to the Comthe hands of God, to spread the religion of his Son, and mittee of Manufactures, of which I was a member. I to lay the foundations of civil liberty!

strenuously opposed the reference. I remonstrated, I And, sir, when we institute a comparison between protested, I entreated, I implored. It was in vain that what might have been effected, and what has been in i insisted that the Committee on the Public Lands was fact done, with that large amount of national treasure, the regular standing committee to which the reference our sensations of regret, on account of the fate of the should be made. It was in vain that I contended that bill of 1833, are still keener. Instead of its being dedi. the public lands and domestic manufactures were subcated to the beneficent uses of the whole people and jects absolutely incongruous. The unnatural alliance our entire country, it has been an object of scrambling was ordered by the vote of a majority of the Senate. I amongst local corporations, and locked up in the vaults felt that a personal embarrassment was intended me. I or loaned out by the directors of a few of them, who felt that the design was to place in my hands a manyare not under the slightest responsibility to the Govern. edged instrument, which I could not touch without being ment or people of the United States. Instead of liberal, wounded. Nevertheless, I subdued all my repugnance, enlightened, and national purposes, it has been partially and I engaged assiduously in the task which had been so applied to local, limited, and selfish uses. Applied to unkindly assigned me. This, or a similar bili, was the increase the semi-annual dividends of favorite stockhold. offspring of my deliberations. When reported, the reers in favorite banks! Twenty millions of the national port accompanying it was referred by the same majority treasure are scattered in parcels among petty corporal of the Senate to the very Committee on the Public Lands tions; and whilst they are growling over the fragments, to which I had. unsuccessfully sought to bave the subject and greedy for more, the Secretaries are brooding on originally assigned, for the avowed purpose of obtaining schemes for squandering the whole.

a counteracting report. But, in spite of all opposition, But, although we have lost three precious years, the it passed the Senate at that session. At the next, both Secretary of the Treasury tells us that the principal is Houses of Congress. yet safe, and much good may be still achieved with it. I confess I feel anxious for the fate of this measure, The general Government, by an extraordinary exercise less on account of any agency I have had in proposing of executive power, no longer affords aid to any new it, as I hope and believe, than from a firm, sincere, and works of internal improvement. Although it sprung thorough conviction that no one measure ever presentfrom the Union, and cannot survive the Union, it no ed to the councils of the nation was fraught with so much longer engages in any public improvement to perpetuate unmixed good, and could exert such powerful and enthe existence of the Union. It is but justice to it to ac. during influence in the preservation of the Union itself, knowledge that, with the co-operation of the public and upon some of its highest interests. If I can be inspirited State of Maryland, it effected one national road strumental, in any degree, in the adoption of it, I shall having that tendency. But the spirit of improvement enjoy, in that retirement into which I hope shortly to enpervades the land, in every variety of form, active, vig- ter, a heart-feeling satisfaction and a lasting consolation. orous, and enterprising, wanting pecuniary aid as well I shall carry there no regrets, no complaints, no reas intelligent direction. The States have undertaken proaches, on my own account. When I look back upon what the general Government is prevented from accom my humble origin, left an orphan too young to have plishing. They are strengthening the Union by various been conscious of a father's smiles and caresses, with a lines of communication thrown across and through the widowed mother, surrounded by a numerous offspring, mountains. New York has completed one great chain. in the midst of pecuniary embarrassments, without a Pennsylvania another, bolder in conception, and far more regular education, without fortune, without friends, arduous in the execution. Virginia has a similar work without patrons, I have reason to be satisfied with my in progress, worthy of all her enterprise and energy. public career. I ought to be thankful for the high A fourth, farther south, where the parts of the Union places and honors to which I have been called by the are too loosely connected, has been projected, and it favor and partiality of my countrymer, and I am thankcan certainly be executed with the supplies which this ful and grateful. And I shall take with me the pleasing bill affords, and perhaps not without them.

consciousness that, in whatever station I have been This bill

passed, and these and other similar under placed, I have earnestly and honestly labored to justify takings completed, we may indulge the patriotic hope their confidence by a faithful, fearless, and zealous disthat our Union will be bound by ties and interests that charge of my public duties. Pardon these personal allurender it indissoluble. As the general Government sions. I make ihe motion of which notice bas been given. withholds all direct agency from these truly national Leave was then granted, and the bill was introduced, works, and from all new objects of internal improve read twice, referred to the Committee on the Public ment, ought it not to yield to the States, what is their Lands, and ordered to be printed. own, the amount received from the public lands? It

EXECUTIVE PATRONAGE, &c. would thus but execute faithfully a trust expressly created by the original deeds of cession, or resulting from

Mr. CALHOUN, pursuant to notice, asked and obthe treaties of acquisition. With this ample resource,

tained leave to introduce the following bills: every desirable object of improvement, in every part of limiting the terms of service of certain officers therein

A bill to repeal the first and second sections of the act our extensive country, may, in due time, be accomplished. Placing this exhaustless fund in the hands of

named, &c. the several members of the confederacy, their common

A bill to regulate the public deposites. federal head may address them in the glowing language

Also, a joint resolution to amend the constitution, so of the British bard, and

as to provide for a distribution of the surplus revenue.
" Bid harbors open, public ways extend,

Bid temples worthier of the God ascend.

Mr. CALHOUN offered the following resolution:
Bid the broad arch the dangerous flood contain,

Resolved, That the report of the Secretary of the

Dec. 30, 1835.]

Newspapers to Members--Reduction of the Revenue.


Treasury of the 15th instant, relative to the duties that be reduced or repealed. The Secretary of the Treasmay be reduced or repealed, be referred to the Com ury had recommended some, and given a list of others, mittee on Manufactures, with instructions to report a bill and it was for the committee to investigate the subject. providing for the reduction or repeal of all duties which, He would not wish to touch a single article that could in their opinion, may be reduced or repealed consistent injure the inanufacturer. ly with a due regard to the manufacturing interest. Mr. DAVIS suggested that he might probably concur

Mr. CALHOUN, on offering this resolution, adverted in all the views of the Senator from South Carolina, if to the immense surplus which was daily accruing in the be bad time to look into the report; but at present he public treasury, to which we must look for an immense would only ask that the resolution be permitted to lie increase of power in the hands of the executive Goy on the table until to-morrow. ernment, and the overspreading of the country with Mr. CALHOUN assented to the request, and the rescorruption and subserviency. This was not a proper olution was laid on the table. occasion to discuss the actual condition of the treasury;

NEWSPAPERS TO MEMBERS. but, if it were, it would not be difficult to show that the actual surplus in the treasury was now from twenty-one The resolution to supply the Senators with the usual to twenty-two millions, and that in the coming year it newspapers was read a third time, and, on the question would be scarcely short of thirty millions. With this of its passage, Mr. KING, of Georgia, after a few reimmense revenue at the disposal of the President, in marks in opposition, asked the yeas and nays; which banks under his control, and subject to be withdrawn were ordered. at his discretion, it would be in vain, all our efforts would Mr. KNIGHT, in consequence of the absence of Mr. be in potent, to oppose the executive will. On this Robbins, the mover, moved to lay the resolution on the point, therefore, the battle would have to be fought be- table; but the motion was negatived: Ayes 15, noes 22. tween power and liberty. All other measures which The question was then taken on the passage of the could be devised would fail short of correcting the dan- resolution, and decided as follows: ger to be apprehended from the march of power. But Yeas-Messrs. Brown, Buchanan, Calhoun, Clay, if all those who were opposed to the usurpations of the Crittenden, Davis, Ewing, Goldsborough, Grundy, HenGovernment could be brought zealously to unite in ar. dricks, Hill, Hubbard, Kent, Knight, Leigh, Linn, Mcresting the funds arising out of the revenue, as far as Kean, Moore, Naudain, Niles, Preston, Prentiss, Porter, they could, in their passage to the public treasury, and Robinson, Southard, Swift, Tallmadge, Tipton, Tomlinwould snatch from the grasp of the Executive the funds son, Wall, Wright-31. which have already accumulated in his bands, there Nays— Messrs. Benton, King of Alabama, King of would be still ground for the hope that the course of Georgia, Morris, Ruggles, Shepley, White-7. power would be stayed. Every dollar we can prevent

Several bills were introduced and ordered to a second from coming into the treasury, or every dollar thrown reading; when, back into the hands of the people, will tend to strength On motion of Mr. DAVIS, the Senate proceeded to en the cause of liberty, and unnerve the arm of power.

the consideration of executive business; after which, He hoped that the Committee on Manufactures would The Senate adjourned. take up the report with an earnest desire to repeal and reduce all those duties that can be reduced or repealed

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 30. without injury to the manufacturing interest. In doing this they will then feel that they are not only aiding in

REDUCTION OF THE REVENUE. the cause of reform, as far as it can be assisted by these Mr. DAVIS moved that the resolution of the Senator means, but that they are also contributing to the pros from South Carolina, (Mr. Calhoun,] (to instruct the perity of that particular interest of wbich they are the Committee on Manufactures to report a bill to reduce special guardians; since every reduction of duty, and certain duties on imports,) which was yesterday laid on every tax removed, while it cheapens the cost of pro- the table on his motion, be taken up. Mr. D. said that, duction at home, and thus benefits our own manufac. having given the resolution a careful examination, he turer, will open the prospect of securing the fereign found that it was not so extensive in its bearings as he market. As there will be the two interests thus concur had supposed--that its object was merely financial-and ring to favor reduction, he hoped the Committee on that, consequently, he had no objection whatever to its Manufactures would consider the subject, and report, at passage. as early a period as possible, all the reductions wbich Mr. CLAY said that, in the room of making it a can be piade without injury to the manufacturing interest. matter of positive instruction, he would rather that it

Mr. DAVIS said he was not quite prepared to vote at should be sent to the committee as a subject of inquiry. once for the proposition of the gentleman from South He did not suppose that the Senator from South CaroCarolina. It had come upon him suddenly, and he was lina and himself would finally disagree. It would be not prepared to understand the exact extent of the prop- very easily discovered by any one who took the trouble osition, as he had not in his mind the precise proposi- of looking, that the two principal objects of duty were tions of the Secretary of the Treasury on the subject. wine and silks--they could very well bear the collection Therefore, he was rather unwilling to vote for an in- of such duty-still, if there was no necessity for its colstruction to the committee; for it would seem that this lection, arising out of the wants of the Government, was not in the shape of an inquiry, but a peremptory neither of these articles should bear it. He merely instruction, touching an interest of the first magnitude, wished for an opportunity to examine and judge for and a measure of a very important character which was himself; and, so long as there was a certain and abun. adopted a few years since. He hoped the Senate would dant supply in the public exchequer, the resolution not be called on to vote an instruction of this importance would meet with no opposition from him. It was his before they bad time to examine its character. 'He had desire, as, in the event of the passage of the bill which only risen

express the hope that the Senator from he introduced yesterday, it might be necessary to retain South Carolina would not press his resolution at this mo

the duties on wines and silks, to make some further exment.

amination. He would move that the usual words should Mr. CALHOUN replied that there could be no diffi- be inserted, “to inquire into the expediency,” &c. culty on the subject. The Committee on Manufactures Mr. CALHOUN said that was already done. The would have to examine and ascertain what duties might resolution directed the committee first to inquire and


Joinl Library CommitteeHospitals on the Ohio.

(Dec. 31, 1855.

then to report. If, continued Mr. C., the land bill in

JUDICIAL SYSTEM. troduced by the Senator from Kentucky should pass, there would still remain a large surplus in the public

A bill supplementary to the act to amend the judicial treasury. The amount there already was twenty-one or

system was taken up as in Committee of the Whole;

when twenty-two millions, and by the end of the first quarter of the coming year that amount will have swelled to

Mr. LEIGH, suggesting that the gentleman who had thirty millions. If, as the Secretary of the Treasury

introduced the bill (Mr. Black] was not in his seat, and

as the bill was an important one, and it was proper that had stated, the expenditures can be reduced to thirteen millions, there would be ample funds in the treasury,

the Western Senators should have an opportunity to unless the reductions of duty sbould go far beyond what

examine it, moved to postpone its further consideration,

and make it the special order for Monday next. he had imagined:

The motion was agreed to. He wished to impress upon the Senate the importance of two considerations: first, that there was an immense

When some other business had been disposed of,

On motion of Mr. TIPTON, the Senate proceeded to surplus in the public exchequer, which might be em

the consideration of executive business; and after a short ployed for the degrading purposes of bribery and cor

time the doors were reopened, and ruption; ani), secondly, that, by a timely and liberal

The Senate adjourned. reduction, all conflicting interests might be reconciled before the crisis which might be expected in 1842–'3. Every cent removed from the hands of Government

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 31. is so much added to the wealth of the whole people.

HOSPITALS ON THE OHIO RIVER. It cheapens production, and thus, by allowing a field for competition, it opens the foreign market at a shorter Mr. HENDRICKS presented the memorial of the period.

General Assembly of the State of Indiana, on the subMr. CLAY said that the difference between himself ject of hospitals within that State for the relief of sick and the honorable Senator was very trilling. Like him,

and disabled persons employed in navigating the Obio he (Mr. C.) had looked a little into the subject of our

and Mississippi rivers. He said that, in this memorial, finances. The believed with him that there were twenty

the Legislature represented the strong necessity, as well one millions in the treasury, and that at the end of the as the humanity, of providing these receptacles for the first quarter of the ensuing year, with the seven millions sick and disabled navigators of the Western waters. coming from the Bank of the United States, the surplus

The necessity for this measure (Mr. H. said) was pecurevenue would amount to thirty millions. He perfectly liarly strong and pressing. For this class of men, it concurred with him in the propriety of repealing all could scarcely be affirmed that there was any provision duties, so far as it could be done consistently with the at all in existence, while the protecting arm and the interests of the manufacturer. But, sir, (said Mr. C.,) fostering care of the Government had always been eshow many of the forty-five or forty-eight Senators here tended in aid of the sick and disabled seamen both of the have looked into the matter as the Senator from South navy and of our commercial marine. It was true that Carolina has done, and arrived with him at the same

the boatmen and raftmen of the Ohio and Mississippi conclusion. They should not be called upon by a reso rivers were properly entitled to the benefits of the lution, presented in either an unusual form and at an several acts of Congress for the relief of sick and disaearly period of the session, to vote at once, without re bled seamen engaged in foreign commerce and in the flection or examination, for the repeal of every duty. coasting trade; but so defectively supplied were the He did not wish so to commit himself.

Western waters with hospitals and asylums for the sick, Mr. CALHOUN said that if any doubt of the ability

that these benefits had seldom been feit. In the foreign of the treasury to meet all demands upon it should arise commerce and in the coasting trade, although there during the progress of this bill, he would then move to may be scanty provision made in hospitals on shore, yet Jay it upon the table, or to refer it to the Committee on these men are almost always afloat. The vessels in Finance.

which they are employed are receptacles for them, and Mr. CLAY said that, with these pledges, he certain their shipmates are companions around them. They ly should not oppose the motion.

have generally society and comfort 10 some extent. The resolution was then agreed to.

But often it is not so with the boatmen of the West. JOINT LIBRARY COMMITTEE.

The very boat in which they have descended, when at

the termination of their voyage, if a fat boat, bas to be A message was received from the House of Represent.

abandoned, no matter where that may be, or in what atives, by Mr. FRANKLIN, their Clerk, stating that the

condition they are. House had passed a joint resolution for the appointment deprives them of all their companions. These men are

Anxiety to return home generally of a Committee on the Library; and that the House

constantly landed and left destitute on the banks of had appointed Messrs. LOYALL, McKean, and WADDY Toompson, as the committee on their part.

those rivers, often amongst a population unable, and

sometimes unwilling, to take care of them; for, however On motion of Mr. ROBBINS, the resolution was con

humane and hospitable the people of the West are, (and curred in; and Messrs. PRESTON, PORTER, and Robbins, were chosen, by ballot, as the committee on the part of there are none more so,) the frequent repetition of these

acts of kindness becomes a burden insupportable. the Senate..

These men so left are generally destitute of medical EXECUTIVE PATRONAGE.

aid, and frequently of the most ordinary attentions and The bill to repeal the 1st and 2d second sections of comforts of life. They go from high and healthful latian act to limit the terms of office of certain officers tudes to southern and sickly climates. The change of therein named was read a second time, and made the their habits, as well as of climate, was generally greatspecial order for the second Monday in January. er than that of seamen; the trade in which they were

The bill to regulate the deposites of the public money engaged was that of transporting their own produce was read a second time, and made the special order for and that of the country to the lower markets, and this the second Monday in January.

was necessarily carried on in the spring and summer The joint resolution proposing to amend the constitu. seasons of the year, when they were most susceptible of tution was read a second time, and made the special the diseases which prevail on the waters of the Mississiporder for the third Monday in January.

pi and the South. The people of the West engaged in this

Jan. 4, 1836.]

Bank of the Metropolis.


river trade were exposed to more and perhaps greater operations of philanthropy on the Ohio and Mississippi casualties than any other in the world; and there was rivers would be productive of the most beneficial reno class whose occupation and business contributed sults. It would produce sanatary regulations which more largely to the prosperity of the Union, and especi- would be the means of saving thousands of lives perhaps ally of the West, than this class of our citizens. Not every year, and of checking and controlling, in some only were they exposed to sickness and death, without measure, the cholera--that minister of desolationthe usual comforts of the last hour, but they were sube amongst us. jected also to an almost innumerable train of evils, ex On this subject (continued Mr. II.) efforts liad been posures, and casualties; boats getting aground; running unceasing for several years past. This was the third upon snags and sawyers; sinking, from these and various time it had been placed before the Senate by himself: other causes, when the greatest danger and exposure last session by the same memorial which he now preof health for the preservation of property takes place; and sented, and the previous session by a resolution, which, if this be hopeless, there is the still greater peril of life. on bis motion, had been adopted by the Senate. He In addition to these, there are the casualties by steam, hoped that the Legislatures and the Representatives of the bursting of boilers, the crushing of boats against the Western States would not cease to importune Coneach other by night, and the more terrible and appalling gress until they obtained on this subject some benefidisasters of fire and storm. These are some of the evils cial regulation. It had been referred to the Committee and dangers to which this whole class of men are ex of Commerce of the Senate at the last and previous sesposed, and which many of them suffer.

sions. A bill was reported last winter in the other And how numerous is this class? And how large a House. It was, however, insufficient in its provisions. population and extent of country are closely identified It did not contain any appropriation for hospitals above with their prosperity and business? This class of men the mouth of the Ohio. It was his intention to have are the bone and sinew of more than four millions of proposed an amendment to it in the Senate, if not people. They are the farmers and farmers' sons of the amended in the House, but it never reached this body. whole valley of the Mississippi, engaged in the laudable The practice of the Committee of Commerce for years and valuable business of transporting their own produce past, in waiting for bills from the other House, had, as to market, and in the transportation of the entire com. it seemed to him, been deleterious to much useful busimerce of the West. They are closely and intimately ness; he hoped it would not be so at the present session, identified with a country of great extent; the whole but that this subject would at least be taken up and country beyond the mountains; a country much larger acted on by the committee of the Senate. The want of than the residue of the United States; a country per-money was not at this time a consideration. We had haps unequalled in resources; in the fertility of its soil; enough, and more than we knew what to do with; and the navigation of its rivers; the internal cominerce which there was surely no object more deserving the appropriit creates and sustains; the rapidly increasing magnitude ation of a few thousand dollars than that of erecting hosof its population, and the maximum of which it is sus. pitals for the relief of sick and disabled seamen and riverceptible; unequalled in these particulars, in all proba- faring men. bility, by any other region of the earth of the same ex He moved the reference of the memorial to the Comtent. I take this occasion (said Mr. H.) to say to the mittee of Commerce; and it was so referred. Committee of Commerce, to which I wish this memo On motion of Mr. GRUNDY, it was rial referred, that this is an important interest of the Resolved, That when the Senate adjourn, it adjourn Western country; one in the hands, and especially so, to meet on Monday next. of the federal Government. I tell the committee and The resolutions on the table were severally considered the Senate that its importance within the last few years and adopted. has increased into a ratio far beyond the increase of the Agreeably to the resolution offered on Wednesday the population and the commerce of the country.

last in relation to the Patent Office, Messrs. RUGGLES, The cholera, so prevalent on the Mississippi and its Prentiss, and Hill, were chosen members, on the tributary streams, has given this subject of late years an part of the Senate, of the joint committee ordered by importance and a magnitude almost indescribable. The said resolution. want of these hospitals scatters the cholera, and distrib. Mr. Preston being absent, the resolution in reutes it in the neighoorhoods and villages of these rivers; gard to the regulation of the Senate chamber was, on whereas, if erected, they would aid in concentrating and motion of Mr. TIPTON, laid on the table. extinguishing it, by collecting its patients together, and The bill concerning writs of error and judgments preventing their intercourse with society. A man arising under the revenue laws was read a third time; known to a boat's crew to have the cholera is put on when shore wheresoever he can, by persuasion or stratagem,

Mr. WEBSTER made a few observations on the charbe deposited. He produces consternation wherever acter of the measure, approving of the general tendency, left, is neglected or 'abandoned, and dies. Thus the but desiring some explanations which rendered him de. cholera is spread upon these rivers among the citizens sirous, as Mr. Preston was absent, to have the bill laid on shore, and its fatality is greatly increased among the over for the present. river-faring men themselves. The Committee of Com. The bill was then, on his motion, laid on the table merce cannot be engaged in a work of patriotism and until Monday, devotion to the best interests of the country of more

A bill for the relief of Commodore Isaac Hull was importance, in a work of benevolence and humanity considered as in Committee of Whole, and, after a few more broad and expansive. This subject has been remarks from Messrs. SHEPLEY and SOUTHARD, greatly neglected.

was, on motion of the latter, laid on the table. He did not stand alone in these opinions. The Sec. Several other bills were taken up in the course of the retary of the Treasury had pressed this matter upon the day, and appropriately disposed of; after which attention of the last session of Congress. He tell us, in

The Senaie adjourned to Monday. his report, that the laws for the relief of sick and disabled seamen should be revised; that hospitals should

MONDAY, JANUARY 4. be built, and that the fund should be made more pro

BANK OF THE METROPOLIS. ductive; that, instead of yielding about $30,000 a year, Mr. KENT moved to take up the memorial of the it ought to produce $180,000. A fair dividend of these president and directors of the Bank of the Metropolis,

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