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That it should thus reappear in the far East, and under barbarian conquerors, is all but amazing, and causes serious. doubts whether after all a word not Greek but Scythic may be intended. But it is clear from the term TupavvoÛvros that the Saka kings rather avoided the usual titles of the kings of Syria and Egypt, and they seem to have somehow come to the conclusion that кoípavos represented Khan. The same word occurs, in the blundered form xopavo, on the coins of Kadphises and others, and has occasioned much perplexity. Masson first asserted that it was a military title, without however explaining its derivation or origin. Prinsep, Wilson, and Lassen, however, all declare that it is out of the question to identify xopavo with Koipavos, and are rather in favour of an Indian or Scythic origin. Perhaps these able writers would scarcely have maintained their opinion in the face of the present coin. Here I may stop, contenting myself with bringing this remarkable monument before orientalists, and leaving to them the task of pursuing the lines of investigation which I have but indicated.
Wilson, "Antiq. and Coins of Afghanistan," pp. 78, 358. Prinsep, "Indian Antiquities," ed. Thomas, p. 130; Lassen, "Points in the History, &c.," trans. Roeer, p. 58.
THE readers of the Numismatic Chronicle may be interested in the result of researches which, although not strictly numismatic, are yet so similar, that it has been judged that an account of them will not appear out of place in this journal. Attention was called in 1856 by Mr. Stoddart to the fact that in ancient times the amphoras used by Greek merchants for holding wine and oil, frequently bore upon one or both of the handles a stamp, circular or oblong, in which may be read the names of magistrates, together frequently with a type or emblem belonging to them or to their city. A long catalogue of these petty, but not uninteresting inscriptions was given by Mr. Stoddart,' and many papers have
'Proceedings of the Royal Society of Literature. 2nd series, Vols. III. and IV.
since appeared in foreign archæological journals publishing new names and fresh types discovered on the handles of amphoras. The elaborate work of M. Dumont, published in 1872, threw a great deal of light on the different classes of amphoras used in ancient commerce, on the meaning of the stamps impressed upon them, and the bearing of these discoveries upon the question of the directions and extent of commerce in ancient times. Having examined several thousands of amphorastamps preserved in Athens and elsewhere, M. Dumont found himself able to assert that inscribed ceramic remains, on whatever shore discovered, are almost sure to belong to amphoras of one of three great classes.
(1). Thasian, capacious and clumsy, made of coarse red earth, and bearing on the handle the name of the island of Thasos, of a magistrate, and often a symbol or type belonging to him.
(2). Cnidian, of red earth, bearing on the handle one or two names, and sometimes a symbol and the name of Cnidus, together with, in a few cases, a title, such as phrourarchos or astynomos.
(3). Rhodian, of fine white earth, bearing the name of a magistrate, often with the title hiereus or priest of Helios, and either a Rhodian emblem, such as a rose or the head of Helios, or the name of one of the Dorian months, or both of these.
To these three classes must be added a class of amphoras made at cities on the shores of the Black Sea, and usually marked with an emblem and the title astynomos in addition to the magistrate's name. Besides, there are manubria apparently belonging to diotas from a few
VOL. XIV., N.S.
other Greek cities, and many bearing the names of Roman magistrates in Roman characters, and found at Rome, but nevertheless supposed by some writers to come from the Roman colony of Corinth.3
In the British Museum there are, acquired from many sources, but for the most part either obtained through Mr. Stoddart or brought from Asia Minor by Mr. Newton, some thousands of these amphora-handles, nearly all with inscriptions. From a careful examination of these I am able to report that M. Dumont's opinions as to the classes of vases used in ancient commerce are sound and trustworthy. Among all these specimens I have been unable to find one which can be with certainty attributed to any other place than Rhodes, Cnidus, Thasos, the Euxine, and Rome, with perhaps two or three exceptions. Why these cities should have enjoyed a monopoly in the manufacture of diotas, or at least why they alone should have chosen to stamp their productions with the name of a magistrate, is a problem yet to be determined, and the determination of it must needs throw a great deal of light on the course of Greek commerce.
It appeared to me a most desirable thing, in examining these manubria, to put on record such as had been hitherto unpublished, and so contribute something towards that complete survey of all the remains of antiquity which must be the foundation of every sound archæological theory. I found, however, that the Roman manubria, and those from the shores of the Black Sea, had been almost all published in previous works. And as to those of Cnidus, the list of M. Dumont under this head
3 Stoddart, loc. cit. This author, however, relies too much on the casual coincidence of the word CANINI with the name of one of the decemvirs of Roman Corinth.
is so long, that I am inclined to believe that it includes almost all the specimens in the British Museum. The Thasian and Rhodian manubria remain. In these two classes the Museum is very rich, and I hope to add many to the known varieties of amphora-stamps coming from those places. In the present article I confine myself to giving a list of the varieties of the amphora-stamps coming from the island of Thasos; Rhodes I reserve for a future number of the Chronicle. I give those which are published, as well as the unpublished, to make the list complete.
AMPANAPOC} Horse galloping, r. Amphandros Cf. Dum. 3