« AnteriorContinuar »
> is replaced by the later form Σ or 3, the other letters remaining unchanged.
They evidently mark the commencement of a new era in Syracusan history; the incuse square is renounced, and Nike makes her first appearance, crowning on some specimens the horses and on others the driver of the victorious quadriga. The female head from the centre of the incuse square on the earlier coinage, now becomes the principal type of the obverse, and is surrounded by dolphins. Tetradrachms and didrachms occur, the reverse type of the latter is similar to the obverse of the previous coinage. (Pl. I. 3.)
It is recorded that Gelon, as a citizen of Gela, conquered in the chariot-race at Olympia in B.c. 488.1 became master of Syracuse in 485, and it is highly probable that the introduction of this new type marks this epoch. The Nike evidently commemorates a victory in the games, and was probably placed by Gelon on his money both at Gela and Syracuse, in commemoration of his Olympic victory.2 The coins of the group with the Q, now assigned to Gelon, are rare; but exhibit several varieties of type. The hair of the female head is generally indicated by dots, as on the coins of the Geomori. If this arrangement be adopted, we observe that some time during the reign of Gelon the must have been replaced by the K; the types also of both sides underwent various modifications. The hair of the head upon the obverse gets by degrees to be indicated by lines
1 Donaldson's Pindar, p. xxiv.
2 Concerning the signification of Nike, and of the agonistic types which refer to chariot and horse-races, see R. S. Poole "On the use of the Coins of Kamarina in illustration of the fourth and fifth Olympian Odes of Pindar," in the Transactions R. Soc. Lit., vol. x. part iii. N.S.
instead of dots, and the ends are usually turned up under the diadem of beads. (Pl. I. 4-6.) Some of these pieces betray a certain carelessness of work, the letters of the inscription being often reversed and upside down. In addition to the tetradrachm and didrachm, the drachm, obol, and the silver litra make their first appearance. (Pl. I. 7—10.) The type of the drachm is similar to that of the didrachm, except that the horseman on the reverse does not lead a second horse. The obol and the litra have the same head upon the obverse, but the reverse of the former seems to be distinguished by the wheel type and that of the latter by the cuttle-fish. The two are not always to be distinguished by their weight, though the litræ are, as a rule, a few grains heavier than the obols. The normal weights are, for the obol, 112, and for the litra, 13.5 grains. In the year 4803 Gelon gained his famous victory over the Carthaginians at Himera, and, by the intervention of his wife, Demarete, concluded a solemn peace with his vanquished foes, the conditions of which were so much more favourable than they had been led to expect, that in gratitude they presented to Demarete a hundred talents of gold, from the proceeds of which were struck, circ. B.C. 479, the celebrated Pentekontalitra, surnamed Demaretia. These pieces of 50 litræ or 10 Attic drachms are so well known that I need not here describe them minutely. The head upon the obverse is
3 Clinton, Fasti Hellenici, vol. ii. 30. Herod., vii. 166. Pollux, ix. 85.
Diod., xi. 26 :—καὶ στεφανωθεισα ὑπ ̓ αὐτῶν ἑκατὸν ταλάντοις χρυσίου, νόμισμα ἐξέκοψε τὸ κληθὲν ἀπ ̓ ἐκείνης Δαμαρέτειον· τοῦτο δεἶχεν 'Αττικὰς δραχμὰς δέκα, ἐκλήθη δὲ παρὰ τοῖς Σικελιώταις ἀπὸ του σταθμου πεντηκοντάλιτρον.
See also De Luynes, Annali dell' Inst. Arch., 1830, p. 81.
crowned with olive instead of with the usual diadem of beads, and may be intended for Nike; it is also enclosed in a circle, as on some of the earlier tetradrachms with the Q. In the exergue is a lion, possibly the symbol of Africa, in memory of the great victory over the Carthaginians, concerning which Diodoros remarks that the number of captives taken by Gelon was so great that it seemed as if all Libya had become his prisoner.7
Besides the pentekontalitron or dekadrachm there are tetradrachms and obols of this coinage; the former bears a very close resemblance to the dekadrachm; the obol has the same olive-crowned head upon the obverse and the usual wheel upon the reverse. (Pl. I., 10 bis—12.)
These coins may be looked upon as the last of purely archaic style. Gelon died in B.C. 478, and was succeeded by his brother Hieron.
III. HIERON I., B.C. 478—467.
As the renown of Gelon sprang from his victory at Himera, so the chief glory of Hieron dates from his great sea-fight with the Etruscans near Cuiæ, в.c. 474, in which he shattered the naval power of that nation, hitherto supreme upon the sea (PalaтTOKраTOÚνTES).8 This mari
R. S. Poole, Coins of Kamarina, p. 10.
* Diod., xi. 25. Ἐπήγετο γὰρ αἰχμαλώτων τοσοῦτο πλῆθος, ὥστε δοκεῖν ὑπὸ τῆς νήσου γεγονέναι τὴν Λιβύην ὅλην αἰχμάλωτον. 7 Holm, Geschichte Siciliens im Alterthum, vol. i. 208.
Diod., li. 2. Although the Tyrrhenians are not included in the famous list of Thalassocracies by Castor of Rhodes, it has, nevertheless, been placed beyond doubt both by Ottfried Müller and Lepsius, that, in the Pelasgic ages, they were the rulers of the sea. On this subject see also De Rouge (Rev. Arch., 1867, p. 92) who identifies as Tyrrhenians the people called Turs'a in Egyptian inscriptions, a word which exactly represents the ancient form of the Italic name of the Etruscans
VOL. XIV. N.S.
time victory is alluded to by Pindar (Pyth., i. 72), and there is a helmet still in existence, now preserved in the British Museum, which was dedicated from his Tyrrhenian spoils by Hieron to Zeus at Olympia, where it was found in 1817. It bears the following inscription :
i.e., Ιέρων ὁ Δεινομένους καὶ οἱ Συρακόσιοι
The forms of the letters in this inscription correspond with those on the coins of about this period.9
The coins which I would attribute to Hieron are a series having in the exergue, instead of the lion, a sea-monster or pistrix (Pl. II., 1-12), which I take to symbolize the vanquished naval power of the Tuscans, just as the lion which appears on Gelon's coins after the battle of Himera may symbolize the destruction of the African dominion in Sicily.
It must not, however, be imagined that the attribution of these coins to Hieron's time rests solely upon an interpretation of a symbol, which may be thought by many to be rather far-fetched and fanciful. Up to the year 479, when the Demaretia were issued, the style of the art had been purely archaic, the Demaretia themselves being only
Tursce, Turscer, &c. Cf. the Greek ethnic Tuponvés, Tuppηvós. There seems even some reason to suppose that the "ships of Tarshish" mentioned in Scripture were no other than Etruscan merchantmen. The Hebrew word (Tarshish) has
usually been identified with Tartessus in Spain; but De Rougé (1.c., p. 94, note 2) says that it is, in his opinion, "en rapport direct avec Turs 'a, on sait qu'il figure parmi les nations qui se partagèrent les îles de la mer, Gen. x. 4, 5."
Engraved in Rev. Num., 1843, pl. i.
distinguished by a greater fineness of work. The series with the pistrix, or sea-monster, exhibits a marked advance upon the archaic style. For instance, the eye of the female head is represented, for the first time, in profile, and no longer with both corners visible as if seen from the front, a peculiarity of archaic art. (Cf. Pl. II. with Pl. I.) The hair also is waved and a greater variety is apparent in the mode of arranging it, the plain string of beads being often replaced by a fillet bound two or three times round the head. The horses of the quadriga, as on the earlier coins, are, with a single exception (Pl. II., 12, 13), always represented as walking and the charioteer is also always apparently male. The inscriptions are in general more carefully executed, being very seldom retrograde or inverted, as on the archaic, properly so called. The R, I imagine, towards the close of Hieron's reign gives place to the P, although it often reappears on pieces which are certainly later in style.
There are drachms, litræ, and smaller divisions which attach themselves by their style to the Pistrix series, although no piece smaller than the didrachm bears that symbol. (Pl. II., 4, 5, 13.)
The reign of Hieron seems to be the link which connects the pieces of archaic art with those of the early fine style which is characteristic of the Democracy which follows.
IV. DEMOCRACY, B.C. 466–415; BEFORE THE
The expulsion of Thrasybulos, the brother of Hieron, after one year's tyranny, led to the establishment of a democracy, during which the city, and indeed all Sicily, attained to a very high degree of wealth and prosperity