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63. Obr.-Head of Hera, left, wearing stephanos adorned with flowers, and with ear-ring and necklace; her hair falls over her neck; behind, W.
Rev.-APTEION. Diomedes naked but for chlamys, which flies behind him, advancing stealthily to right, carrying the Palladium in his left hand, and a short sword in his right; between his legs AR. 75; wt. 81-4 grs. Pl. V. fig. 4.
The head on the obverse is probably that of the statue of Hera Antheia in her temple at Argos. The type of the reverse, Diomedes carrying off the Palladium from Ilium, is adopted by Argos because it was there that he afterwards deposited the image. One of the paintings in the Propylaia at Athens represented the same subject. (Pausan., i. xxii.)
64. Obv.-Head of Apollo (?) left, diademed and wearing necklace, hair long.
Rev.-TPO. Ornament, top of trident. R.5; wt. 31.4 grs. Leake supposes this head to be that of Apollo Thearios, who had a temple at Troezen, and a statue the work of the Troezenian Hermon. I cannot, however, call to mind a single instance of Apollo represented with a necklace. The trident alludes to Poseidon."
65. Obv.-Female head, right (Hera ?), wearing diadem of beads, hair turned up behind under diadem, over which the ends fall.
Rev.-ERA between two plain lines, outside each of which is a line of dots, the whole in incuse square. A. 6; wt. 37-7 grs. Pl. V. fig. 5.
The ancient city of Heræa was situated on the banks of
Τροιζὴν δὲ ἱερά ἐστι Ποσειδῶνος ἀφ ̓ ὧν καὶ Ποσειδωνία ποτὲ éyero. (Strabo, Arg., c. 373.)
the Alpheios, and on the high road through central Peloponnesos to Olympia. Its Hera-worship may have been imported from Elis, with which place it was closely allied." MANTINEIA, ARCADIÆ.
66. Obr.-Bear walking, left.
Rer.- in incuse square, divided into two parts by a bar
which passes between the letters; in right lower corner a countermark (?) AR. 55; wt. 44.8 grs. 67. Obv.-Bearded head, right, wearing Corinthian helmet without crest.
Rev.-MANTI. Head of Apollo, right, with long hair.
The nymph Kallisto was metamorphosed into a shebear by Zeus to conceal her from the jealousy of Hera. She became by Zeus the mother of Arkas, the hero of Arkadia. Kallisto is identified by Müller with the Arkadian Artemis. She was worshipped at Mantineia as the mother of Arkas, whose bones, by order of the Delphic oracle, were transported from Mænalus and deposited in a tomb near Mantineia.
The bearded heroic head on the second coin, which is of much later date than the first, may be intended to represent the mythical Arkas, or possibly Podares, who was slain in the battle against Epaminondas and the Thebans. Pausanias describes his sepulchre at Mantineia, and says that even in his time he was reverenced as a hero. (Arkad., ix.)
68. Obv.-Head of young Herakles, right, wearing lion's skin. Rev.-ΣTYMOAAION (retrograde). Head of one of the Stymphalian birds with small crest; in field, right and left, T Y. R. 5; wt. 11.2 grs.
An ancient treaty between these towns inscribed on a bronze tablet is preserved in the British Museum.
Concerning the figures of the Stymphalian birds in the temple of Artemis, at Stymphalus, see Pausanias, Arcad., xxii.
69. Obv.-Head of Pallas, full-face, wearing three crested helmet.
Telephos suckled by doe. Æ. 65.
70. Obr.-Head of Demeter, right, crowned with corn.
Rev.-TE EAT. Pallas standing, left, and dropping the hair of Medusa into a vase held up to her by a small female figure (Sterope, the priestess of Athena Alea). Above, mon R, between the figures M. Æ. 65.
Pausanias remarks that the sacred rites of Athena Alea, at Tegea, were celebrated by a young girl (Arkad., xlvii.). For the story of Sterope and the hair of the Gorgon see Apollodorus, Bibl., ii. 7, 3, who, however, makes Sterope receive the hair of the Gorgon in a brazen vase from Herakles, to whom it had been presented by Athena.
71. Obr.-Young male head, right, with short hair.
Rev.-KY. Dog seated, right, with tail erect. E. 55. The young head is probably intended for Kydon, a son of Hermes or Apollo and Akakallis, one of the daughters of Minos; the dog is perhaps a symbol of Artemis, who was worshipped at Kydonia under the name of Britomartis, a Cretan word signifying sweet maid.
72. Obv.-Head of Zeus, left, diademed, beneath, A.
Rev.-ΓΟΡΤΥΝΙΩΝ ΘΙΒΟΣ. Pallas standing, left, holding wreath-bearing Nike and resting with left upon shield, on which is a Gorgon's head; in front, a serpent coiled and erect; the whole
within an olive wreath. AR. 17; wt. 235 grs.
Pl. V. fig. 7.
This remarkable coin affords an interesting example of the influence of Athens in Crete. It is difficult to say on what occasion it was struck. It is certainly later than the series of coins with the type of Europa seated in a tree; for these follow the Æginetan standard, while this coin is struck according to the Attic weight, which seems to have supplanted the older standard not only in Gortyna but in the other cities of Crete. It may be compared with certain other tetradrachms of Gortyna, Hierapytua, Knossus, Kydonia, Polyrhenium, and Priansos, which are thoroughly Athenian, both in weight and type, with the exception of the name of the city and the addition of a secondary type or symbol peculiar to the cities in which they were struck. Whether or not this coin precedes or follows the introduction of a purely Athenian coinage, it is not easy to determine. The obverse type of the head of Zeus links it to the smaller coins of Gortyna, Obv. Head of Zeus diademed, right; Rev. Naked archer (Herakles) seated on a rock, which are also of Attic weight. I should, therefore, place it, together with these its subdivisions, between the Europa type and the Athenian tetradrachms. The goddess with the serpent and the Gorgon shield can be no other than the Athena of the Akropolis described by Pausanias (Att., xxiv.). Some temporary alliance with Athens is doubtless indicated by the adoption of this type. The legend ΓΟΡΤΥΝΙΩΝ ΘΙΒΟΣ is peculiar, and has given rise to much speculation. (Vide G. Curtius, Grundzüge, &c., 3rd ed., pp. 467-8.) My first impression concerning it was that it was a Cretan form of EOE, but on reference to Boeckh I could find no such peculiarity in Cretan inscriptions, although IO occurs as a Cretan form of
ΘΕΟΣ. The strangeness of the legend ΓΟΡΤΥΝΙΩΝ ΘΕΟΣ as applied to Pallas or Herakles (for ΓΟΡΤΥΝΙΩΝ ΘΙΒΟΣ also occurs on a drachm in the French collection, with the type of Herakles naked, seated on rocks and holding a bow) also tells against this explanation of the word. I have since learnt, moreover, that this theory has been advanced before, and is not considered a probable Cretan form by etymologists. Another suggestion which I have to offer, and one which I believe has not been advanced before, is to consider the inscription as analogous in meaning to the famous ΣΕΥΘΑ ΚΟΜΜΑ, ΣΕΥΘΑ ΑΡ ΓΥΡΙΟΝ and to the archaic legend AAO Oт MOVт¶0A on a coin of this very town, Gortyna, in the collection of the late General Fox. This latter inscription has been read by M. François Lenormant as ΓΟΡΤΥΝΟΣ ΤΟ ΠΑΙΜΑ. He supposes παῖμα to be a substantive derived from παίειν, to strike, as κόμμα, from KÓTTEw, the signification of both these words being something struck, and so, "a coin." I therefore throw out as a possible explanation of OIBOΣ that it may be a peculiar Cretan form of rúmos, which stands in the same relation to τύπτειν as κόμμα and παῖμα to κύπτειν and παίειν : thus ΓΟΡΤΥΝΙΩΝ ΤΥΠΟΣ would in fact be a modern rendering of ΓΟΡΤΥΝΟΣ ΤΟ ΠΑΙΜΑ. Whether it is possible for ißos to be a Cretan form of rúπos, I do not know; the would have to be replaced by its corresponding aspirate form 0, and the labial ẞ would have to be substituted for the labial, while the vowels í and would also have to be interchanged. Schleicher gives examples of í for ú in his Compendium, 3rd ed., 1871, p. 66, Anm. 2. for 7, 0 and ẞ for 7, do not seem to me impossible dialectic changes. I confess I can find no such examples in Boeckh, although he gives x for « (No. 2,556), and I therefore leave the X possibility or probability of such changes, both in consonants