Perspectives in Ethology: Evolution, Culture, and Behavior

Portada
Nicholas S. Thompson, François Tonneau
Springer Science & Business Media, 2001 M01 31 - 318 páginas
The relations between behavior, evolution, and culture have been a subject of vigorous debate since the publication of Darwin's The Descent of Man (1871). The latest volume of Perspectives in Ethology brings anthropologists, ethologists, psychologists, and evolutionary theorists together to reexamine this important relation. With two exceptions (the essays by Brown and Eldredge), all of the present essays were originally presented at the Fifth Biannual Symposium on the Science of Behavior held in Guadalajara, Mexico, in February 1998. The volume opens with the problem of the origins of culture, tackled from two different viewpoints by Richerson and Boyd, and Lancaster, Kaplan, Hill, and Hurtado, respectively. Richerson and Boyd analyze the possible relations between climatic change in the Pleistocene and the evo lution of social learning, evaluating the boundary conditions under which social learning could increase fitness and contribute to culture. Lancaster, Kaplan, Hill, and Hurtado examine how a shift in the diet of the genus Homo toward difficult-to-acquire food could have determined (or coe volved with) unique features of the human life cycle. These two essays illus trate how techniques that range from computer modeling to comparative behavioral analysis, and that make use of a wide range of data, can be used for drawing inferences about past selection pressures. As culture evolves, it must somehow find its place within (and also affect) a complex hierarchy of behavioral and biological factors.
 

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Contenido

BUILT FOR SPEED PLEISTOCENE CLIMATE VARIATION AND THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN CULTURE
1
2 CULTURE AS AN ADAPTATION TO VARIABLE ENVIRONMENTS
4
22 Simple Models of Social Learning
5
3 PLEISTOCENE CLIMATE DETERIORATION
13
4 BRAIN SIZE EVOLUTION IN THE PLEISTOCENE
17
5 LARGE BRAINS FOR WHAT?
20
6 HUMAN CULTURE IS DERIVED
24
7 WHY IS CUMULATIVE CULTURAL EVOLUTION RARE?
27
21 Selection Implies Sorting
162
22 Implications for Temporal Change
164
23 Selective Processes Versus Processes of Selection
165
24 Selection and Drift
167
3 EVALUATING SKINNERS SELECTION ANALOGY
169
31 Further Objections
170
32 The Analogy at the Neural Level
172
4 CONCLUSION
175

8 CONCLUSION
37
REFERENCES
40
THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE HISTORY INTELLIGENCE AND DIET AMONG CHIMPANZEES AND HUMAN FORAGERS
47
1 INTRODUCTION
48
2 CHIMPANZEE CULTURE AND HOMINID EVOLUTION
49
3 LIFE HISTORIES OF HUMAN FORAGERS AND WILD CHIMPANZEES
51
CHIMPANZEES AND HUMAN FORAGERS
55
42 Difficulty of Acquisition
59
43 The Age and Sex Patterning of Food Acquisition and Consumption among Chimpanzees and Humans
60
44 The Effect of Mens Surplus Energy Production on the Reproductive Lives of Women
64
5 CONCLUSIONS
66
REFERENCES
68
CULTURES AS SUPRAORGANISMAL WHOLES
73
2 INDIVIDUALITY
75
3 HIERARCHY
76
4 ABSTRACTION
78
5 LANGUAGES
79
6 A PROCESSUAL SOLUTION
81
7 THE CULTURE OF SCIENCE
84
REFERENCES
86
NICHE CONSTRUCTION AND GENECULTURE COEVOLUTION AN EVOLUTIONARY BASIS FOR THE HUMAN SCIENCES
89
1 INTRODUCTION
90
2 BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION
91
21 Natural Selection and Niche Construction
94
22 Amplification
96
23 Modelling Niche Construction
97
3 IMPLICATIONS OF NICHE CONSTRUCTION FOR THE HUMAN SCIENCES
99
31 Beyond Sociobiology
101
32 The Human Past and the Human Future
106
REFERENCES
109
BIOLOGICAL AND MATERIAL CULTURAL EVOLUTION ARE THERE ANY TRUE PARALLELS?
113
1 INTRODUCTION
114
2 THE INFORMATIONAL BASIS OF BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL EVOLUTION
115
21 Implications for Evolutionary Rates
116
22 Implications for Evolutionary Trees
118
23 Implications for Classification
124
3 ON NAIVE SELECTIONISM IN THE BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONARY DOMAIN
127
31 Evolutionary and Economic Hierarchies
129
32 Core Patterns in Biological Evolution
130
33 Environmental Disturbances and the Core Patterns
131
4 EVOLUTION OF MATERIAL CULTURAL INFORMATION
134
42 Economic Hierarchies
136
43 Core Patterns in Design Evolution
139
COORDINATED STASISTURNOVER PULSE OF MATERIAL CULTURAL INFORMATION
144
52 18601900 The Great Age of Victorian Cornets
145
53 19001920 The New Era
146
54 19201985 Comet Eclipse
147
55 1985 Onwards Nostalgia
150
REFERENCES
151
PITFALLS OF BEHAVIORAL SELECTIONISM
155
1 OPERANT BEHAVIOR AND SELECTION
156
11 Development of an Analogy
157
12 Psychology in Disarray
159
13 Correspondence of Components
160
2 SELECTION PROCESSES
161
REFERENCES
177
BEING CONCRETE ABOUT CULTURE AND CULTURAL EVOLUTION
181
2 INTRODUCTION
182
31 Memes and Other Abstractions
183
32 Proposal
186
33 Behavioral Units
187
4 TRANSMISSION
188
41 Cultural Contingencies
190
42 Genes and Culture
192
43 RuleFollowing
194
44 RuleGiving
198
46 RuleGiving and Altruism
202
47 Units Transmission and Selection
203
5 SELECTION
204
52 Devices and Modules
206
6 CONCLUSION
208
REFERENCES
210
INTENTIONALITY IS THE MARK OF THE VITAL
213
2 THE PROBLEM OF INTENTIONALITY
214
3 INTENTION AND DESIGN
217
31 What Is Natural Design?
218
32 How Is Natural Design to Be Explained?
219
4 CONTROL SYSTEMS AND INTENTIONALITY
221
5 SO WHAT IF LNTENTIONALITY IS AN OBJECTIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF ALL BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS?
225
REFERENCES
227
EVOLUTIONARY MODELS OF MUSIC FROM SEXUAL SELECTION TO GROUP SELECTION
231
EVOLUTIONARY MUSICOLOGV MEETS SOCIOMUSICOLOGY
232
11 Evolutionary Musicology
233
12 Sociomusicology
236
MUSICMAKING AS A COURTSHIP DISPLAY
240
22 Darwin 1871
241
23 Miller 2000
242
24 Problems with the Sexual Selection Argument
244
MUSICMAKING AS A COOPERATIVE ACTIVITY
251
32 Music as a GroupLevel Adaptation
257
4 MUSIC AS RITUALS REWARD SYSTEM
273
5 CONCLUSION
275
REFERENCES
277
BIOLOGY CULTURE RELIGION
283
2 THE ELEMENTS OF RELIGIOUS SYSTEMS
286
22 Why Believe?
287
23 The Nature of Deities
290
3 NARRATIVES
291
4 RITUAL
292
41 Why Do People Take Part in Rituals?
293
42 The Consequences of Ritual
294
43 Prayer and Sacrifice
295
44 The Forms of Ritual
296
5 CODES OF CONDUCT
297
6 RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE
302
7 SOCIAL ASPECTS
303
9 CONCLUSION
304
10 NOTES
305
INDEX
309
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