Perspectives in Ethology: Evolution, Culture, and Behavior

Portada
Nicholas S. Thompson, François Tonneau
Springer Science & Business Media, 2001 M01 31 - 318 páginas
The relations between behavior, evolution, and culture have been a subject of vigorous debate since the publication of Darwin's The Descent of Man (1871). The latest volume of Perspectives in Ethology brings anthropologists, ethologists, psychologists, and evolutionary theorists together to reexamine this important relation. With two exceptions (the essays by Brown and Eldredge), all of the present essays were originally presented at the Fifth Biannual Symposium on the Science of Behavior held in Guadalajara, Mexico, in February 1998. The volume opens with the problem of the origins of culture, tackled from two different viewpoints by Richerson and Boyd, and Lancaster, Kaplan, Hill, and Hurtado, respectively. Richerson and Boyd analyze the possible relations between climatic change in the Pleistocene and the evo lution of social learning, evaluating the boundary conditions under which social learning could increase fitness and contribute to culture. Lancaster, Kaplan, Hill, and Hurtado examine how a shift in the diet of the genus Homo toward difficult-to-acquire food could have determined (or coe volved with) unique features of the human life cycle. These two essays illus trate how techniques that range from computer modeling to comparative behavioral analysis, and that make use of a wide range of data, can be used for drawing inferences about past selection pressures. As culture evolves, it must somehow find its place within (and also affect) a complex hierarchy of behavioral and biological factors.
 

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Contenido

BUILT FOR SPEED PLEISTOCENE CLIMATE VARIATION AND THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN CULTURE
1
2 CULTURE AS AN ADAPTATION TO VARIABLE ENVIRONMENTS
4
22 Simple Models of Social Learning
5
3 PLEISTOCENE CLIMATE DETERIORATION
13
4 BRAIN SIZE EVOLUTION IN THE PLEISTOCENE
17
5 LARGE BRAINS FOR WHAT?
19
6 HUMAN CULTURE IS DERIVED
22
7 WHY IS CUMULATIVE CULTURAL EVOLUTION RARE?
25
23 Selective Processes Versus Processes of Selection
163
24 Selection and Drift
165
3 EVALUATING SKINNERS SELECTION ANALOGY
167
31 Further Objections
168
32 The Analogy at the Neural Level
170
4 CONCLUSION
173
REFERENCES
175
BEING CONCRETE ABOUT CULTURE AND CULTURAL EVOLUTION
179

8 CONCLUSION
35
REFERENCES
38
THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE HISTORY INTELLIGENCE AND DIET AMONG CHIMPANZEES AND HUMAN FORAGERS
45
2 CHIMPANZEE CULTURE AND HOMINID EVOLUTION
47
3 LIFE HISTORIES OF HUMAN FORAGERS AND WILD CHIMPANZEES
49
CHIMPANZEES AND HUMAN FORAGERS
53
42 Difficulty of Acquisition
57
43 The Age and Sex Patterning of Food Acquisition and Consumption among Chimpanzees and Humans
58
44 The Effect of Mens Surplus Energy Production on the Reproductive Lives of Women
62
5 CONCLUSIONS
64
REFERENCES
66
CULTURES AS SUPRAORGANISMAL WHOLES
71
2 INDIVIDUALITY
73
3 HIERARCHY
74
4 ABSTRACTION
76
5 LANGUAGES
77
6 A PROCESSUAL SOLUTION
79
7 THE CULTURE OF SCIENCE
82
REFERENCES
84
NICHE CONSTRUCTION AND GENECULTURE COEVOLUTION AN EVOLUTIONARY BASIS FOR THE HUMAN SCIENCES
87
2 BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION
89
21 Natural Selection and Niche Construction
92
22 Amplification
94
23 Modelling Niche Construction
95
3 IMPLICATIONS OF NICHE CONSTRUCTION FOR THE HUMAN SCIENCES
97
31 Beyond Sociobiology
99
32 The Human Past and the Human Future
104
REFERENCES
107
BIOLOGICAL AND MATERIAL CULTURAL EVOLUTION ARE THERE ANY TRUE PARALLELS?
111
2 THE INFORMATIONAL BASIS OF BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL EVOLUTION
113
21 Implications for Evolutionary Rates
114
22 Implications for Evolutionary Trees
116
23 Implications for Classification
122
3 ON NAIVE SELECTIONISM IN THE BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONARY DOMAIN
125
31 Evolutionary and Economic Hierarchies
127
32 Core Patterns in Biological Evolution
128
33 Environmental Disturbances and the Core Patterns
129
4 EVOLUTION OF MATERIAL CULTURAL INFORMATION
132
42 Economic Hierarchies
134
43 Core Patterns in Design Evolution
137
COORDINATED STASISTURNOVER PULSE OF MATERIAL CULTURAL INFORMATION
142
52 18601900 The Great Age of Victorian Cornets
143
53 19001920 The New Era
144
54 19201985 Comet Eclipse
145
55 1985 Onwards Nostalgia
148
REFERENCES
149
PITFALLS OF BEHAVIORAL SELECTIONISM
153
11 Development of an Analogy
155
12 Psychology in Disarray
157
13 Correspondence of Components
158
2 SELECTION PROCESSES
159
21 Selection Implies Sorting
160
22 Implications for Temporal Change
162
2 INTRODUCTION
180
31 Memes and Other Abstractions
181
32 Proposal
184
33 Behavioral Units
185
4 TRANSMISSION
186
41 Cultural Contingencies
188
42 Genes and Culture
190
43 RuleFollowing
192
44 RuleGiving
196
46 RuleGiving and Altruism
200
47 Units Transmission and Selection
201
5 SELECTION
202
52 Devices and Modules
204
6 CONCLUSION
206
REFERENCES
208
INTENTIONALITY IS THE MARK OF THE VITAL
211
2 THE PROBLEM OF INTENTIONALITY
212
3 INTENTION AND DESIGN
215
31 What Is Natural Design?
216
32 How Is Natural Design to Be Explained?
217
4 CONTROL SYSTEMS AND INTENTIONALITY
219
5 SO WHAT IF LNTENTIONALITY IS AN OBJECTIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF ALL BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS?
223
REFERENCES
225
EVOLUTIONARY MODELS OF MUSIC FROM SEXUAL SELECTION TO GROUP SELECTION
229
11 Evolutionary Musicology
231
12 Sociomusicology
234
MUSICMAKING AS A COURTSHIP DISPLAY
238
22 Darwin 1871
239
23 Miller 2000
240
24 Problems with the Sexual Selection Argument
242
MUSICMAKING AS A COOPERATIVE ACTIVITY
249
32 Music as a GroupLevel Adaptation
255
4 MUSIC AS RITUALS REWARD SYSTEM
271
5 CONCLUSION
273
REFERENCES
275
BIOLOGY CULTURE RELIGION
281
2 THE ELEMENTS OF RELIGIOUS SYSTEMS
284
22 Why Believe?
285
23 The Nature of Deities
288
3 NARRATIVES
289
4 RITUAL
290
41 Why Do People Take Part in Rituals?
291
42 The Consequences of Ritual
292
43 Prayer and Sacrifice
293
44 The Forms of Ritual
294
5 CODES OF CONDUCT
295
6 RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE
300
7 SOCIAL ASPECTS
301
9 CONCLUSION
302
10 NOTES
303
INDEX
307
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