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CHAPTER XIII.

DIGRESSION ON THE PASSAGE OF THE ARABIANS TO THEIR AGE

OF REASON.

INFLUENCE OF MEDICAL IDEAS THROUGH THE NESTORIANS AND JEWS.

The intellectual Development of the Arabians is guided by the Nestorians

and the Jews, and is in the Medical Direction.The Basis of this

Alliance is theological.

Antagonism of the Byzantine System to Scientific Medicine. --Suppres-

sion of the Asclepions.---Their Replacement by Miracle-cure. The

resulting Superstition and Ignorance.

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THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF

EUROPE.

CHAPTER I.

ON THE GOVERNMENT OF NATURE BY LAW. The subject of this work proposed. Its difficulty. Gradual Acquisition of the Idea of Natural Government by Law.

Eventually sustained by Astronomical, Meteorological, and Physiological Discoveries.-Illustrations from Kepler's Laws, the Tradewinds, Migrations of Birds, Balancing of Vegetable and Animal Life,

Variation of Species and their Permanence. Individual Man is an Emblem of Communities, Nations, and Universal

Humanity. They exhibit Epochs of Life like his, and, like him, are under the Control of Physical Conditions, and therefore of Law. Plan of this Work.-The Intellectual History of Greece.--Its Five

characteristic Ages.-European Intellectual History. Grandeur of the Doctrine that the World is governed by Law. I INTEND, in this work, to consider in what manner the advancement of Europe in civilization has taken the subject place, to ascertain how far its progress has been proposed. fortuitous, and how far determined by primordial law.

Does the procession of nations in time, like the erratic phantasm of a dream, go forward without reason or order? or, is there a predetermined, a solemn march, in which all must join, ever moving, ever resistlessly advancing, encountering and enduring an inevitable succession of events ?

In a philosophical examination of the intellectual and political history of nations, an answer to these questions is to be found. But how difficult it is to master the mass of facts necessary to be collected, to handle so great an accumulation, to place it in the clearest point of view;

VOL. I.

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how difficult it is to select correctly the representative Its difficulty men, to produce them in the proper scenes, and and grandeŭr. to conduct successfully so grand and complicated a drama as that of European life! Though in one sense the subject offers itself as a scientific problem, and in that manner alone I have to deal with it; in another it swells into a noble epic—the life of humanity, its warfare and repose, its object and its end.

Man is the archetype of society. Individual development is the model of social progress.

Some have asserted that human affairs are altogether determined by the voluntary action of men, some that the Providence of God directs us in every step, some that all events are fixed by Destiny. It is for us to ascertain how far each of these affirmations is true.

The life of individual man is of a mixed nature. In Individual

part he submits to the free-will impulses of life of a mixed himself and others, in part he is under the kind.

inexorable dominion of law. He insensibly changes his estimate of the relative power of each of these influences as he passes through successive stages. In the confidence of youth he imagines that very much is under his control, in the disappointment of old age very little. As time wears on, and the delusions of early imagination vanish away, he learns to correct his sanguine views, and prescribes a narrower boundary for the things he expects to obtain. The realities of life undeceive him at last, and there steals over the evening of his days an unwelcome conviction of the vanity of human hopes. The things he has secured are not the things he expected. He sees that a Supreme Power has been using him for unknown ends, that he was brought into the world without his own knowledge, and is departing from it against his own will.

Whoever has made the physical and intellectual history of individual man his study, will be prepared to admit in

what a surprising manner it foreshadows social history. The equilibrium and movement of

humanity are altogether physiological pheno

Yet not without hesitation may such an opinion be frankly avowed, since it is offensive to the pride, and to many of the prejudices and interests of our age. An author

It fore-
shadows
social life.

mena.

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