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(3) "and appeared even in the poetry that completely

belonged to the new time. (4) The prose was still much

affected by the Queen Anne style.

Section 2.-(1) The Revolution rendered the struggle with

the old spirit easier ; (2) yet, not finding free vent in politics

and public life, (3) it generated philanthropy in the active-

minded and sentimentalism in the indolently leisured, (4)

and only in the last decade of the century did its violent

forms find expression in literature.

33-36

Section 3.-(1) Sentimentality and romance were two of its

best literary safety-valves in England. (2) Romantic ✓
interest in the past revived the study of history, without
changing its method ; (3) although its philosophical treat-
now appeared and originated political economy, (4) and
the discussion of questions as to origins. (5) The same
growth of cosmopolitanism was shown by the increase of y
books of travel. (6) The East especially excited the
imagination. (7) But only towards the close of the period

is the influence on literature fully apparent.

Section 4.-(1) So the expansion of science only superficially

affected the poetry of the period ; (2) yet natural history had

advanced so far as to introduce into literature a new feeling

for nature ; (3) and the practical sciences became literary

material long before the speculative. (4) Optimism and

materialism existed side by side ; (5) and utilitarianism

came into being as a working philosophical principle. (6)

Science also made observation, thought, and the use of

language more exact. (7) Yet its full effect was not yet

attained.

40--44

Section 5.-(1) It is the same with the influence of art. (2)

The stage could never become national again, but, through

comedy especially, moulded the modern novel. (3) Music

after the Elizabethan era had not great influence over

poetry or prose till the nineteenth century. (4) Architec-

ture and sculpture began to attract imaginative writers and

to mould their ideas. (5) But it was painting that most

developed during the period and most influenced literature..

(6) It came to be allied with literature in the illustration of

books. (7) The result was greater picturesqueness in both

poetry and prose.

44-51

Section 6.-(1) Literature was deeply affected by oratory, -

which now reached its climax in England. (2) The
Johnsonian balanced period was produced by it, (3) and
affected all forms of prose and many of poetry. (4) The
new political oratory was more dignified than either
pulpit or forensic oratory. (5) It helped prose to a more
natural and regular style, a result finally accomplished by
the new fiction and the new poetry.

51-54

countries was but small; (2) it was their older literature
and not their contemporary that had most effect upon the
English mind. (3) Germanism began to predominate at
the close of the century. (4) At first it was not altogether

wholesome. (5) German music assisted the lyrical move-

ment of English poetry towards the close of the century.

(6) This lyricism revealed a return to older and more

national literary forms.

59–62

CHAPTER III.

SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND INFLUENCES.

THE PERIOD

OF FULFILMENT.

1800-1850.

Section 1.-(1) But the great period of Germanism in our

literature is 1800 to 1850. (2) It is the great period of

experimentation in metre and verse, (3) and in prose

rhythms and styles; (4) nay, the larger harmonies of

German music have their analogies in prose. (5) Opera

influenced the drama ; (6) and the sentimentalism of German

plays held its own for a time ; (7) whilst the translations of

Goethe's and Schiller's plays confirmed the tendency to a

literary drama; (8) Faust especially had a deep influence

upon English imaginative writers. (9) Goethe's Wilhelm

Meister moulded the English philosophical novel. (10)

The study of German brought back to English some of its

older Teutonic habits. (ul) So German scholarship led

Englishmen back to the glories of their own literature ;

(12) and recreated English scholarship, criticism, and his-

tory. (13) But it was German philosophy that most

influenced English thought and imaginative work. ... 63-70

...

...

...

...

...

Section 4.-(1) The struggles of Poland, Greece, and Spain

drew English attention to them ; but it was the older
history and literature of the two latter that impressed the
imagination. (2) Scandinavian literature, both old and
new, began to have appreciable influence over English
writers. (3) The other countries of Europe gave but little
impulse to English literature during the period.

77-79

Section 5.-(1) But what stirred the English literary mind

most was the rapidly expanding English empire. (2) The

English language grew conscious of its great capacity and

drew new treasures from all sources. (3) Classical scholar-

ship was also refined and made more living, yet began to

take a subordinate place.

80-.82

...

...

Section 6.-(1) Most important was the rediscovery of the

/treasures of older English literature. (2) The new national
audience demanded a wider and more national vocabulary.
(3) The Latin elements of it were as much needed as the
Saxon, but came to be mastered by the imagination instead
of mastering it. (4) The foreign and native elements were
so amalgamated as to fit the purpose of every writer, and to
make the diction more flexible. (5) Lamb's Essays of Elia
furnish a crucial instance of the return on the older vocabu-
lary and literature ; it reveals that the new audience had pre-
served the older words and tastes. (6) The Authorised
Version and the books moulded upon it now supplied the
medium for addressing the new audience. (7) Shakespeare
had also become a national book and tinged the new
medium. (8) The audience having been again nationalized,
the cultured poets were again the popular poets.

. 824-90

Section 7.-(1) The spread of musical taste made lyricism

again dominant in poetry, and melody and harmony in

prose. (2) Sculpture, architecture, and painting had also

their moulding influence on the literature of the period.

(3) But the stage was the art that most influenced the

literature, even though it was not and would never again
become the national institution it had been in the Eliza-
bethan age. (4) The acting drama affected the fiction,
and the literary drama affected the poetry and the imag-
inative prose. (5) Verbatim reporting raised oratory into
a more accurate and thoughtful art. (6) And oratory
through journalism and the pulpit affected the style of

most writers.

90-95

Section 8.4(1) Astronomy first amongst the sciences

supplied new thought and illustration. (2) Geology and

biology revolutionised thought, and the minuter study of

nature that they introduced appeared in both poetry and

prose. (3) Science, in fact, changed the whole life of

imaginative literature.

95–97

Section 9.-(1) The kinship of man with the infinities first

became a source of poetic inspiration. (2) World-

anguish, arising from the dethronement of the ego,

combined with revolutionism, and became in some pessi-

mistic, in others optimistic. (3) Philosophy had to be

revised from the new point of view, and, as in all ages of

progressive science, its positivist revision was the domi-

nant. (4) But the positivist attitude in imaginative

literature is barren. (5) Science by resolving all matter

into energy and making it immortal has gradually

confirmed the idealistic attitude in literature ; (6) and

throughout the poetry and imaginative prose of the

period this predominates. (7) But science and the

positive attitude led to a religious reaction in the second

quarter of the century ; the Broad-church movement

influenced literature more widely and deeply than the

High-church movement.

97-102

Section 10.--(1) It was rather the practical application of

science that first influenced the popular audience. (2)

A new mediating literature arose to interpret cultured

and scientific results for the new classes.

102-104

Section II.--(1) The novel has gradually mastered the

whole of this mediating realm. (2) It absorbed the
functions and purposes of poetry and the drama. (3)
And this was the period of great movements rather than
of great individualities, and made more demand upon

. the most popular form of literature. (4) Yet the novel

still comes after poetry and the drama as a literary form

and as a sensitive test of popular feeling.

104-107

Section 1.-(1) It needs a great poet in a period to make it

abandon precedent. (2) The poetry of this period is at

best one of tendencies. (3) The most prominent

tendency in the first half of it is to follow Pope. (4)

Johnson, in spite of his strong character, was mastered by

it. (5) In his poetry he adds a certain clumsy dignity of

his own to the Popian couplet. (6) Whilst conservative

in form and in political and religious spirit, he anticipates

the revolutionism of the new class in social opinions.

108-112

Section 2.-(1) Goldsmith is his true successor in poetry,

but carries the spirit of social revolt farther. (2) He is

nearer the coming age than Johnson, and more like to

Rousseau in his sentiments. (3) His Traveller chiefly

expresses the middle class love of hearth and home, and

the rising middle class philanthropy, and, whilst deploring

the evils of wealth and luxury, inconsistently closes with

a Johnsonian peroration on the safety of absolutism. (4)

It therefore became an English household book. (5)

The Deserted Village though less of a unity became

more popular, because it gave fullest expression to

the rising love of nature and romance. (6) It inaugur-

ated the poetry of regret which lingered round abandoned

hamlets or cottages. (7) The Wealth of Nations, pub-

lished soon after, elaborately refuted the economic fallacy

it expresses, but could not have so immediate an

effect as this poem so full of beautiful melody and

pictures of reminiscence. (8) The poem touched the

hearts of the newly urbanised masses, although a

moment's thought would have convinced them of the

inaccuracy of the assertion that men decay”. (9) He

defended the fallacy in his prose dedication, and seemed

quite unconscious that he was giving expression to the

rising revolutionism of Europe. (10) He is also with

the literary revolution, that was about to reject patronage,

to cast off the fetters of pedantry, and to abandon the

personal invective of satire. (11) His occasional verses

are best when they are humorous, and reveal in him a

vein not unlike Hood's.

112—123

Section 3.-(1) Crabbe is his successor, but, by his realistic

method and closer study of Pope, even in his first poem
Inebriety, misses the romantic tinge of Goldsmith, and
merits the name Pope in worsted stockings." (2)
Conservative though he was, and free from the
sentimental fallacy, his poetry belongs to the revolu-
tionism of the new time. (3) “Inebriety” paints with

66

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