Imágenes de páginas




[ocr errors]




Section 3.—(1) Sentimentality and romance were two of its
best literary safety-valves in England. (2) Romantic✓✓
interest in the past revived the study of history, without
changing its method; (3) although its philosophical treat-
now appeared and originated political economy, (4) and
the discussion of questions as to origins. (5) The same
growth of cosmopolitanism was shown by the increase of
books of travel. (6) The East especially excited the
imagination. (7) But only towards the close of the period
is the influence on literature fully apparent.

[ocr errors]

Section 5.-(1) It is the same with the influence of art.

The stage could never become national again, but, through

comedy especially, moulded the modern novel. (3) Music

after the Elizabethan era had not great influence over

poetry or prose till the nineteenth century. (4) Architec-

ture and sculpture began to attract imaginative writers and

to mould their ideas. (5) But it was painting that most

developed during the period and most influenced literature.

(6) It came to be allied with literature in the illustration of

books. (7) The result was greater picturesqueness in both

poetry and prose.

Section 6.-(1) Literature was deeply affected by oratory,
which now reached its climax in England. (2) The
Johnsonian balanced period was produced by it, (3) and
affected all forms of prose and many of poetry. (4) The
new political oratory was more dignified than either
pulpit or forensic oratory. (5) It helped prose to a more
natural and regular style, a result finally accomplished by
the new fiction and the new poetry.








[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]



[ocr errors]




Section 1.-(1) But the great period of Germanism in our
literature is 1800 to 1850. (2) It is the great period of
experimentation in metre and verse, (3) and in prose
rhythms and styles; (4) nay, the larger harmonies of
German music have their analogies in prose. (5) Opera
influenced the drama; (6) and the sentimentalism of German
plays held its own for a time; (7) whilst the translations of
Goethe's and Schiller's plays confirmed the tendency to a
literary drama; (8) Faust especially had a deep influence
upon English imaginative writers. (9) Goethe's Wilhelm
Meister moulded the English philosophical novel. (10)
The study of German brought back to English some of its
older Teutonic habits. (11) So German scholarship led
Englishmen back to the glories of their own literature;
(12) and recreated English scholarship, criticism, and his-
tory. (13) But it was German philosophy that most
influenced English thought and imaginative work.


.. 75-77
Section 4.-(1) The struggles of Poland, Greece, and Spain
drew English attention to them; but it was the older
history and literature of the two latter that impressed the
imagination. (2) Scandinavian literature, both old and
new, began to have appreciable influence over English
writers. (3) The other countries of Europe gave but little
impulse to English literature during the period.


Section 6.—(1) Most important was the rediscovery of the
treasures of older English literature. (2) The new national
audience demanded a wider and more national vocabulary.
(3) The Latin elements of it were as much needed as the
Saxon, but came to be mastered by the imagination instead
of mastering it. (4) The foreign and native elements were
so amalgamated as to fit the purpose of every writer, and to
make the diction more flexible. (5) Lamb's Essays of Elia
furnish a crucial instance of the return on the older vocabu-
lary and literature; it reveals that the new audience had pre-
served the older words and tastes. (6) The Authorised
Version and the books moulded upon it now supplied the
medium for addressing the new audience. (7) Shakespeare
had also become a national book and tinged the new
medium. (8) The audience having been again nationalized,
the cultured poets were again the popular poets.





[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Section 10.--(1) It was rather the practical application of
science that first influenced the popular audience. (2)
A new mediating literature arose to interpret cultured
and scientific results for the new classes.


Section II.--(1) The novel has gradually mastered the
whole of this mediating realm. (2) It absorbed the
functions and purposes of poetry and the drama. (3)
And this was the period of great movements rather than
of great individualities, and made more demand upon
the most popular form of literature. (4) Yet the novel
still comes after poetry and the drama as a literary form
and as a sensitive test of popular feeling.










Section 1. (1) It needs a great poet in a period to make it
abandon precedent. (2) The poetry of this period is at
best one of tendencies. (3) The most prominent
tendency in the first half of it is to follow Pope. (4)
Johnson, in spite of his strong character, was mastered by
it. (5) In his poetry he adds a certain clumsy dignity of
his own to the Popian couplet. (6) Whilst conservative
in form and in political and religious spirit, he anticipates
the revolutionism of the new class in social opinions.
Section 2.-(1) Goldsmith is his true successor in poetry,

but carries the spirit of social revolt farther. (2) He is
nearer the coming age than Johnson, and more like to
Rousseau in his sentiments. (3) His Traveller chiefly`
expresses the middle class love of hearth and home, and
the rising middle class philanthropy, and, whilst deploring
the evils of wealth and luxury, inconsistently closes with
a Johnsonian peroration on the safety of absolutism. (4)
It therefore became an English household book. (5)
The Deserted Village though less of a unity became
more popular, because it gave fullest expression to
the rising love of nature and romance. (6) It inaugur-
ated the poetry of regret which lingered round abandoned
hamlets or cottages. (7) The Wealth of Nations, pub-
lished soon after, elaborately refuted the economic fallacy
it expresses, but could not have so immediate an
effect as this poem so full of beautiful melody and
pictures of reminiscence. (8) The poem touched_the
hearts of the newly urbanised masses, although a
moment's thought would have convinced them of the
inaccuracy of the assertion that "men decay". (9) He
defended the fallacy in his prose dedication, and seemed
quite unconscious that he was giving expression to the
rising revolutionism of Europe. (10) He is also with
the literary revolution, that was about to reject patronage,
to cast off the fetters of pedantry, and to abandon the
personal invective of satire. (11) His occasional verses
are best when they are humorous, and reveal in him a
vein not unlike Hood's.



[ocr errors]

Section 3.-(1) Crabbe is his successor, but, by his realistic
method and closer study of Pope, even in his first poem
Inebriety, misses the romantic tinge of Goldsmith, and
merits the name "Pope in worsted stockings.' (2)
Conservative though he was, and free from the
sentimental fallacy, his poetry belongs to the revolu-
tionism of the new time. (3) "Inebriety" paints with



« AnteriorContinuar »