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of the German mind, unfitted as it was for the stage, that, along with the deeper study of Shakespeare's tragedies, drew the best English poets to the unhistrionic dramatic form. Byron reveals imitation of Goethe's drama in his Manfred and The Deformed Transformed, and all his plays were. undoubtedly written under its inspiration. It was this, too, along with the tragedies of Aeschylus that turned so undramatic poets as Shelley and Mrs. Browning to the drama in the Prometheus Unbound and the Drama of Exile. Keats, Landor, Browning, Tennyson, Joanna Baillie, Hannah More, Croly, Wells, Clough, Horne, Kingsley, Darley, all attempted the literary dramatic form for many of their poems. And the reading drama or dramatic scene has come to be established as one of the most popular types of poetry in nineteenth century literature; it originated with Faust, but it has drifted far from its origin, drawing inspiration from varied

And it has its counterpart in prose in the dramatic dialogue and conversation, made so artistic by Landor and Helps. Nor was the influence of Goethe's Faust confined to the dramatic art and form. It greatly stirred the imagination of Carlyle, as we can see in Sartor Resartus. And De Quincey shows his study of it in his more imaginative essays and in his Opium-eater. The fiction of the supernatural benefited by it being deepened and made more philosophical in its treatment of the ever-attractive theme.

9. But it was Goethe's novel, Wilhelm Meister, that most affected English fiction. It gave birth to a new division of it, the philosophical, that, in the hands of Kingsley, Hawthorne, and George Eliot, attempted the most difficult problems of modern life and yet remained artistic. At first its dissertations and discussions led to such novels as Plumer Ward's Tremaine; but later in the period it inspired Bulwer Lytton to shallower and more rhetorical and yet more interesting efforts in fiction. Carlyle translated it amongst his earliest literary attempts. And he also helped the English literary public to appreciate the new era in German literature by his brilliant essay upon it and by his translations from its prominent fictionists, Musaeus, Tieck, Richter.

Jean Paul Richter tinged Carlyle's own style and diction deeply by the strange patchwork of humour, simile, and poetical philosophy, in which his novels were dressed. To Novalis the maximist and him is due the introduction of the sententious, almost oracular, aphoristic style that culminated in Emerson and still has its disciple in George Meredith. Carlyle developed the bizarre tendency he had acquired from Richter into a mannerism that made a Carlylean school of style impossible. There is almost none of it in his earlier essays and his Life of Schiller; and in Sartor Resartus there is more of Richter's humour and love of concentration, of striking poetry and thought and simile in strange epithet and compound. His later style became more conventional according to his own model than picturesque. Yet it infected nineteenth century English with a distinct Germanising tendency. The free creation of compounds was a habit of the oldest English that had been curtailed and almost lost by the many centuries of French influence. The study of German and the example of great imaginative writers like Carlyle have re-established it to the great advantage of our language. The older habit of more numerous adjectival epithets has revived in the same way, and the use of an active infinitive for the more usual passive dependent on a noun or adjective. A less advantageous tendency derived from German is the dislocation of the article or pronoun from its noun by a series of adjectives or epithets ; it interferes greatly with the rhythm of phrases and the balance of sentences. Even melodious writers of prose like Lamb, writing early in the century, were infected with this epithetic habit. The chief service that the influence of German has done to English has been to recall it to its Teutonic origin. Without rejecting the French and Latin words and idioms that have been completely acclimatised in our language, English prose diction has become more conscious of the power of its Saxon elements, and in all its developments towards poetic power and the expression of pathos and the emotions has learned to go back to the simpler words that the Saxonism of the common people has retained for more than a thousand years and has saturated with national feeling.



II. It was the Germanism of the early part of our century, too, that sent us back to the treasures of our own literature. The previous period had begun this good work of retreat upon our footsteps. But Coleridge on his return from Germany introduced into England the more sympathetic and at the same time more scholarly study of Shakespeare and the Elizabethan writers. And Lamb and a host of less imaginative scholars and critics than he drew both readers and writers back to the greatness of the English literary past and supplied native fountains of inspiration. Scott had already been confirmed in his researches into folk-literature amongst the old legends and ballads of the Borders by the new ballads and narrative poems of Germany It made Englishmen proud of their own literature to find another nation studying every age of it with both poetic enthusiasm and minute scholarship. They had dealt with all but the greatest writers like Shakespeare and Milton and Spenser in a half-apologetic way, and even at times chimed in with French critics in their condemnation of the barbaric grandeur of these great poets. The new consciousness of the beauty of the Gothic in architecture and the Teutonic in literature grew into confidence in the old English poets and prose-writers as the best sources of inspiration. And the nineteenth century witnessed a great Anglicising movement in all kinds of composition, thanks largely to the influence of Germany and German scholarship.

12. German scholarship and criticism were recreating the past. Heyne and Adelung, Wolf and Voss had revolutionised the study of the classics from the side of both literature and language. Winckelmann and Lessing analysed the spirit of classical art. Schleiermacher and Neander were bringing the new critical methods to bear on the Bible and its history. And Heeren and Savigny, Niebuhr and Bunsen were illuminating various phases of past civilisation by means of them. The Schlegels and Grimms, Tieck and most of the imaginative writers studied Teutonic and especially English literature and legend and folk-lore with great enthusiasm and industry. Such activity in scholarship and criticism could not but spread to England in so vigorous a period as the first half of the nineteenth

century. And the new methods appeared not only in classical study but in the study of English literature. Coleridge and Hazlitt as sympathetic critics, Isaac Disraeli and Hone, Collier and Knight, as editors and collectors gave evidences of the new method and the new industry. Their application to history appeared in the work of Turner and Kemble, Hallam and Palgrave, Macaulay and Napier, Arnold and Milman, Thirlwall and Grote. These were historians of the new and German type who left no document or authority unexamined, no doubt or question ignored, before they would describe an event or a character, a scene or an episode.

13 But it was in philosophy that German influence became more apparent as the period advanced. There had been a native development of abstract thought all through the eighteenth century in England towards utilitarianism, and this was carried on under French stimulus by Bentham, the Mills, and George Henry Lewes. But with Coleridge's return from Germany there entered in a strong idealistic opposition to this. The great names of Kant and Hegel, Fichte and Schelling could not but give an impetus to English philosophy as soon as Germanism found a footing; and these were all idealists. Coleridge was the first to introduce the taste for highly abstract statements of the principles and formulæ of life and knowledge; and through his writings and lectures and monologues, the subjective and the objective and the ideal became common even in popular didactic prose.' No great school of English idealistic philosophy yet arose. But we see the influence of Kant and even of Fichte in the thought of lecturers and writers like Hamilton and Mansel and a tinge of idealism appears occasionally in even popular prose-writers like Carlyle and De Quincey, Bulwer Lytton and Ruskin, Emerson and Hawthorne. Perhaps the most striking effect is to be found in poetry, which is by nature idealistic. Wordsworth and Coleridge reintroduced the philosophical point of view; and few poets of the nineteenth century are without that tinge of philosophy which distinguishes the Elizabethans. The imaginative and even the dramatic statement of the most abstract problems became a common feature of the poetry of the early half of our century. The Queen Anne poetry had occasionally come across them with its didactic method ; but it had no conception of their power to suggest thought or sound the imaginative depths of human life; it could not Shakespearianise them as Shelley and Browning and Tennyson were able to do. The Prometheus Unbound, Paracelsus, and In Memoriam, all products of the first half of our century, range through the most difficult problems of philosophy and are yet as far from the didactic spirit as Shakespeare from Pope; they have around them atmosphere of idealistic thought and suggestion that the Germanism introduced by Coleridge and Carlyle must have done much to create.


Section 2.

I. Through France and French philosophy some of this idealism came from Germany into England. St. Hilaire, Royer Collard, Maine de Biran, Jouffroy, and Cousin stripped German idealism of its bristling technicalities and made its chief mental attitudes familiar and almost easy to popular readers ; in short they Gallicised Kant and Fichte. And though Coleridge brought the new view of life and knowledge direct from its source with all its Germanism upon it, English philosophy and popular thought during the earlier part of our century preferred to take it as clarified by French minds. Thus it was ready for use in popular literature, in sermon and essay, poem and novel, a generation before it could have filtered down through English philosophy direct from its home.

2. The attitude more natural to French philosophy is the positive that adheres to classification of facts and prefers a materialistic or utilitarian solution of problems. Conte claimed to be its supreme representative, if not its re-discoverer, in the nineteenth century. And from him and Bentham the English popularisers of utilitarianism drew much of their inspiration, James Mill, John Stuart Mill, George Henry Lewes, Bain, Buckle, and Grote. Though his classification of the sciences was by no means the final, it gave stimulus to the encyclopedism that marked

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