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head of the covenant by faith. Being thus ingrafted into him, ye shall partake of all that happiness which is fecured to Christ mystical, in the everlasting covenant: even as, through your becoming children of Adam, by natural generation, ye are personally entered into the first covenant, so as to fali under that fin and death which passed upon all men, by the breach thereof, Rom. v. 12.
III. Ojf the Party contracted and undertaken for,
S the party contractor and undertaker on man's
sentative ; so the party cootracted and undertaken for, was represented by him. And that these two, namely, the represented, and those contracted for, are of equal latitude, is plain from the nature of the thing: for these whom one represents in a covenant he contracts for in that covenant; and those for whom one contracts for in a covenant made with him as representative, are represented by him in that covenant. Thus it was in the covenant of the first Adam, who was a figure of Christ the head of the second covenant. In it, those whom Adam contracted for, he represented; and those whom he represented, he contracted for: he reprefented his natural seed only, and for them alone he contracted : Therefore those whom the second Adam contracted for, he represented ; and whom he represented, he contracted for.
Now the party represented and contracted for, by our Lord Jesus Christ, in the covenant of grace, was the elect of mankind; being a certain number of mankind, chosen from eternity to everlasting life; children, partakers of Aesh and blood, which God gave to Chrift, Heh. ii. 13, 14. In their person he stood, making this covenant with his father, in their name he acted, striking this bargain with him, as a surety to obey the law and fatisfy justice,
And this I shall, in the first place, confirm; and then shall enquire, how the elect were considered in this covenant and federal reprefentation.
First, That the elect were the party represented, or contracted and undertaken for, in the covenant of grace, appears from the following grounds.
1. The party with whom the covenant was made, is in the text called God's Chofen; as representing and contracting for all the chosen or elect : even as the first man was called Adam or man, as representing and contracting for all mankind, in his covenant. For as the apostle teacherh, Heb. ii. 11. He —and they are all of one ; not only of one nature, but also of one body, to wit; the election : Christ is the head elect, Isa. xlii. 1. they the body elect, Eph. v. 23. Therefore they go under one name; principally belonging to him, and then to them by participarion with him. Thus he is also called Abraham's feed, as representing all the spiritual seed of Abraham, that is, the elect, Gal. iii. 16. And to thy seed, which is Chrift; and the seed of the woman, as opposed to the fer pent's feed and under that name also the elect are comprehended; they, and they only, being the party betwixt whom and the serpent with his feed, God puts the enmity, according to the promise, Gen. iii. 15.
2. Those whom Christ represented and contracted for in the covenant of grace, are the heavenly men: i Cor. xv. 47, 48. The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second man is the Lord from heaven. As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. Now, the heavenly men, belonging to Christ the second man, are none other but the elect. For they are contradistinguished to the earthy men, belonging to the first man ; to wit, all mankind taken into the first covenant in Adam; and therefore they are the elect men, taken into the second cove
nant, in the second Adam. Again, the heavenly men are those who shall bear the image of the heavenly man, Christ, ver. 49.; and such are the elect, and they alone. And, finally, they are those to whom Christ js, in respect of efficacy, a quickening spirit: for as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. As Adam's deadly efficacy goes as wide as his representation did in the first covenant, reaching all mankind his natural seed, and them only: to Christ's quickening efficacy goes as wide as his representation did in the second covenant, reaching all the elect, his spiritual seed, and them only: and if it did not, some would be deprived of the benefit, which was purchased and paid for, by the furety in their name; the which is not consistent with the justice of God.
3. They whom Christ represented and contracted for in the covenant, are his feed, his fpiritual feed : Gal. iii. 16. Now to Abraham and his feed were the promises made. He faith— And to thy feed, which is Christ. Pfalm lxxxix. 3, 4. I have sworn unto David my fervant. Thy feed will I establish for
In the covenants typical of the covenant of grace, the parties represented were the seed of the representatives they were made with, as was cleared before ; and in the first Adam's covenant, his na. tural feed were the represented. Wherefore, in the second Adam's covenant, his spiritual seed are the represented. Now, Christ's fpiritual feed are the e, lect, and none other; for they are those whom he begets with the word of truth, James i. 18. and are born again (1 Pet. i. 23.) unto him in their regeneration; whom therefore he fees as his feed, with his own image on them, Ifa. liii. 1. They are the travel of his soul, who sooner or later are all of them, justified, ver. 11. They are the feed that shall ferve him, Pfalm xxii. 30.; which shall be established and endure for ever, namely, in a state of happiness, Psalm lxxxix. 4, 29, 36,
4. Lastly, Christ was in the covenant of grace, Ilrael's representative, according to that text, Isa. xlix. 3. Thou art my servant, o Ifrael, in whom I will be glorified. Now, Ifrael the collective body, is the elect. Rom. ix. 6. They are not all Israel which are of Israel: Therefore the elect were the party repre. sented and contracted for in the covenant. So those whom Christ took with him into the bond of his co. venant, are described to be the feed of Abraham; Heb. ii. 16. For verily he took not on him the nature of angels: but he took upon him the seed of Abraham: or rather, as it is read in the margin of our Bibles, more agreeable to the original, He taketh not hold of angels: but of the feed of Abraham he taketh hold. The original word signifies, to take hold of a thing running away, or falling down; and, in the same manner of construction, it is used of Christ's catching hold of Peter sinking in the water, Matth. xiv., 31. Fallen angels and men were both run away from God, and sinking in the sea of his wrath; and Christ, with the bond of the covenant, takes hold of men; but not of the fallen angels: them he leaves to fink unto the bottom. All the seed of Adam was
sinking, as well as the seed of Abraham, which is but • a part of the feed of Adam, even some of all mankind;
but Christ is not said to have taken hold of the feed of Adam, that is, all mankind; but of the feed of Abraham, that is, all the elect, or the spiritual Israel, called the house of Jacob, Luke i. 33. Accordingly it is observable, that the first time the covenant of grace was heard of in the world, the discourse was directed to the serpent, by way of narration, Gen. iii, 14, 15. ; not to Adam, as the first covenant was chap. ii. 16, 17. that Adam might know, he was to come in here as a private person only, and not as a public person with his feed. And for this cause al. so, our Lord Jesus is not simply called Adam,, or Man; but the last Adam, and the second Man,
whose feed differs from that of the first man, as A. braham's seed from Adam's feed; but he is simply called Ifrael, without any epithet at all : and his feed is plainly determined to be the elect, Ifa. xlv. 25. In the Lord shall all the feed of Israel be justified: even as in the first man all the feed of Adam was condemned, Rom. v. 18. For the first man was fimply called Adam or Man, because, in the first covenant, he was a compend of all mankind; he was all man in law reckoning, they being all represented by him: so Jefus Christ was a compend of all Israel; that is, all the elect; he was all Ifrael in law-reckoning, they being all represented by him. And thus we have the true ground of the univerfality of that expression, Isa. liii. 6. The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all; i. e. of all Ifrael, that is to fay, all the elect. The which is confirmed by a parallel text, bearing the type, whereof this hath the antitype, viz. Lev. xvi. 21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their fins, putting them upon the head of the goat. For as Israel was a people entertained with types, so they themselves were indeed a typical people.
Secondly, We are to inquire, how the elect were considered in this covenant and federal representa. tion. And therein they came under a threefold confideration.
1. They were considered as sinners, lost, ruined, and undone in Adam; loft seep of the house of Israel, Matth. xv. 24. In the first covenant, the whole flock of mankind was put under the hand of one shepherd, to wit, Adam; but he losing himself, lost all the flock, and was never able to recover so much as one of them again. God had, from all eternity, put a secret mark on some of them, whereby he distinguished them from the rest, 2 Tim. ii. 19.