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Lift up your heads, O ye-gates, and be ye lift up, yė everlasting doors, and the King of glory. shall come in. And in another Pfalm, penned on the fame occasion, and expressly said to have been delivered on that very day into the hand of Afaph, i Chron. xvi. 1, 7. is that expression found, ver. 11. Seek his face continually; justly to be interpreted, agreeable to the circumstances of the main thing which David through the Spirit had in view that day, namely, the coming of the Messias. Thus, Christ bears the name of his spiritual feed; and they, on the other hand, bear his name too: i Cor. xii. i 2. For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: So also is Cbrift.
4. The promises were made to Christ as the fecond Adam, the head and representative of his feed : Gal. iii. 6. Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He faith not, And to feeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy feed, which is Christ. I own, that here, even as in the text immediately before cited, is meant, Christ mystical, the head and members. It is to them that the proinises are here said to be made; but primarily to the head, secondarily to the members in him ; even as the promise of life in the first covenant, was primarily made to Adam as the head, and secondarily to all his natural feed in him. Thus, in the typical covenant with Abraham, the promises of the earthly inheritance were primarily made to Abraham himfelf, and fecondarily to his feed according to the flesh. And even so the promise of the eternal inheritance plainly stands made to Christ, Tit. i. 2. In hope of eternal life, which God that cannot lye, promised before the world began; when there was none but Christ to whom that promise could be made personally. Accordingly the covenant is faid to be inade with the house of Israel, namely, the spiritual
Ifrael; yet are the promises of it directed, not to
them, but to another person, Heb. viii. 10. I will cbe to them a God, and they shall be to 'me a people. The reason of which plainly appears, in the pro miles being made to Christ as their head and representative. Now, forasmuch as these promises belong to the covenant of grace, which is therefore called the covenants of promise, Eph. ii. 12. it is manifest, that if they were made to Christ as the head and representative of a feed, the covenant of grace was made with him as such; and he to whom they were primarily made, was surely the party-contractor therein.
5. Lastly, This federal headship of Christ, and his representing his spiritual seed in the covenant of grace appears from his suretiship in that covenant, the better testament whereof Jesus was made a furety, Heb. vii. 22. Now, he became surety for them in the way of satisfaction for their debt of punishment and obedience; and that taking the whole bur. . den on himself, as for persons utterly unable to answer for themselves. This will afterwards fall in to be cleared. Mean while, such a surety is a true representative of the party he is furety for, and one person with them in the eye of the law. Hence, not only is Christ said to have been made sin for us, 2 Cor. v. 21. to have had the iniquity of us all laid on him, Ifa. liii. 6. and to have died for us, Rom. v. 8.: buc also we are said to have been crucified with Christ, Gal. ii. 20. to be made the righteousness of God in him, 2 Cor. V. 21. yea, to be raised up together, and glorified, being made to sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus, Eph. ii. 6. and to be made alive in Christ, as we die in Adam, 1 Cor. xv, 22. All which necessarily requires this his headship and representation in the covenant.
And thus it appears, that the second covenant was made with Christ as the last or second
Adam, head and representative of his spiritual feed.
Secondly, We are to enquire, wherefore the fecond covenant, the covenant of grace, was so made? And this shall be accounted for in the following particulars.
1. The covenant of grace was made with Christ as the last Adam, head and representative of his Spiritual seed, that infinite love might have an early vent, even from eternity. The special love of God to the spiritual seed took vent in the covenant of grace. And that love and that covenant are of the fame eternal date: as the love was everlasting or eternal, Jer. xxxi. 3. so was the covenant, Heb. xiii. 20. Tit. i. 2. But since the feed are but of yesterday, the covenant of grace behoved to be like the covenant of works, a yesterday's covenant, a timecovenant, if it was not made with Christ as their representative ; it could not otherwise have been an eternal covenant. The promise of eternal life, which is undoubtedly a promise of the covenant of grace, could not otherwise have been of fo ancient a date, as before the world began, as the apostle says it is, Tit. i. 2. How could an eternal covenant be origipally made with creatures of time, but in their eternal head and representative? Or how could an eternal covenant be personally made with them, by way of personal application to them, had it not been from eternity made with another as their head and representative? But in this method of infinite wil dom, free love took an early vent; not waiting the Now motion of its objects creeping out of the womb of time, in which many of them lie wrapt up, even to this day. But as princes fometimes do, by proxy, marry young princesses, before they are marriageable, or capable to give their confent; fo God, in his infinite love, married to himself all the spiritual feed, in and by Jesus Christ as their representative, not only before they were capable of consenting, but before they were at all. The which they do after. wards, in their effectual calling, approve of by faith, and give their consent personally to; and so they enjoy God as their God, and God hath them as his people : John xx. 17. I afcend unto my Father and your Father, and to my God and your God.
2. Otherwise it could not have been made at all a conditional covenant answering the design of it. This covenant taking place only upon the breach of the first covenant, the great design of it was, that dead sipners might have life, as was before observed. Now, in order to this, a holy just God stood upon conditions, without performing of which that life was not to be given : and they were high conditions, Pfal. xl. 6. Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire. 1 Thess. v. 9, 10. Jesus Christ who died for us, that--we should live. But how could an effectual conditional covenant for life be made with dead sinners, otherwise than in a representative ? Dead fouls cannot perform any condition for life at all which can be pleasing to God. They must needs have life before they can do any thing of that nature, be it never so small a condition: therefore a conditional covenant for life could not be made with sinners in their own persons : especially considering, that the conditions for life, were so high, that man at his best state was not able to perform them. Wherefore, if such a covenant was made at all, it behoved to be made with Christ as their representative, Rorn, viii. 3, 4.
3. It was fo ordered, to the end it might be unto us poor finners a covenant of grace indeed. It is evident from the holy feriptures, that this covenant was designed for exalting the free grace of God; and that it is so framed, as to be a covenant of pure grace, and not of works, in respect of us, whatever it was in respect of Christ: Rom. iv. 16. Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace.
Eph. Eph. ii. 9. Not of works, left any man should boast. And at this rate, indeed, it is a covenant of pure grace ; and all ground of boasting is taken away from us ; the Lord Jesus Christ himself, as a reprefentative, being sole undertaker and performer of the conditions thereof. But it is not so, if it is made with the finner himself, standing as principal party, contracting with God, and undertaking and performing the conditions of the covenant for life : for how low foever these conditions, undertaken and wrought by the finner in his own person, are fupposed to be, the promise of the covenant is made to them: and so, according to the scripture-reckoning, it is a covenant of works, Rom. iv. 4. Now to him that worketh, is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt; and betwixt Adam's covenant and such a covenant, there is no difference, but in degree, which leaves it still of the same kind.
4. This method was taken, that the communication of righteousness and life might be in as com. pendious a way, as the communication of lin and death was : As by one man's disobedience many were made sinners; so by the obedience of one fall many be inade righteous, Rom. V. 19. The covenant of works having been made with Adam as a representative of his natural seed, upon the breaking thereof, fin and death are communicate to them all from him as a deadly head. This being so, it was not agreeable to the method of divine procedure with men, to treat with those predestinated unto falvation severally, as principal parties, each contracting for himself in the new covenant for life ; but to treat for them all as one public person, who through his fulfilling of the covenant, should be a quickening head to them, from whence life might be derived to them, in as compendious a way, as death was from the first Adam. For his mercies are above all his other works.