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Now, Jesus Christ the party-contractor on man's side, in the covenant of grace, is, according to our texts, to be considered in that matter as the last or second Adam, head and representative of a seed, loft finners of mankind, the party contracted for. And thus he fifted himself Mediator between an offended just God, and offending men guilty before him. In which point lay one main difference betwixt the first Adam and the last Adam: For there is one Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus; who gave himself a ransom, 1 Tim. ii. 5. 6. And so the covenant of grace, which could not be made immediately with sinners, was made with Christ the last Adam, their head and representative, mediating between God and them; therefore called Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, to whom we come by believing, Heb. xii. 22. 24.
The term Mediator is not, to my obfervation, applied in the holy fcripture to any other, except Moses, Gal. iii. 19. The law-was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. And of him, a typical mediator, it is worth observing, that he was not only an inter-messenger between God and lírael; but, in God's renewing his covenant, in a way of reconciliation, after the breaking of the tables, the covenant was made with him, as their head and representative, Exod. xxxiv. 27. And the Lord said unto Mofes, Write thou these words ; for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Ifrael. This refers unto the gracious answer made to Moses's prayer, verse 9. Pardon our iniquity, and our fin, and take us for thine inheritance, verfe 1o. And he (namely the Lord) said, Behold, I make a covenant : before all thy people I will do marvels, &c. verse 28. And he wrote upon the tables (to wit, the new ones) the words of the covenant, the ten commandments. Now, Moses was alone on the mount with God during the whole time of this transaction; and in B 4
it the Lord speaks of him and the people as one all along.
For clearing of this purpose anent the party-contractor on man's fide, I shall 1. evince, That the covenant of grace was made with Christ as the last Adam, head and representative of a feed ; and 2. Thew why it was so made.
First, That the covenant of grace, the second cove. nant, was made with Christ as the last or second Adam, head and representative of a feed, to wit, his spiritual seed, appears from the following considerations.
1. Covenants typical of the covenant of grace were made or established with persons representing their respective feed. Thus it was in the typical covenant in our text, the covenant of royalty made with David, an undoubted
of the covenant of grace. In it David was God's servant, having a seed comprehended with him therein, Psalm lxxxix. 3, 4. He was an eminent type of Christ; who is therefore called David, Hof. iii. 5. Afterwards shall the children of if rael return, and seek the Lord their God, and David their king. And the benefits of the covenant of grace are called the fure mercies of David, Isa. Iv. 3. Thus was it also in the covenant of the day and night, (Jer. xxxiii. 20.) established with Noah and his sons, representatives of their feed, the new world, Gen. ix. 9. Behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your feed after you. And that this covenant was a type of the covenant of grace, appears, from its being made upon a facrifice, Chap. viii, 20, 21, 22. and from the sign and token of it, the rainbow, chap. ix. 13. appearing round about the throne, Rev. iv. 3. but especially from the nature and import of it, to wit, that there hould not be another deluge, Gen. ix. 11, the substance of which is plainly declared, Ifa. liv. 9. As I have worn that the waters of Noah shall no more go over the earth; so have I Sworn, that I would not be wrath with thee, rior rebuke thee. verse 10. For the mountains Mall depart, and the hills be removed, but my kindness mall not depart from thee, neither shall the covenant of my peace be removed, faith the Lord, that hath mercy on thee. And such also was the covenant of the land of Canaan, made with Abraham, representing his feed, Gen. xv. 18. and afterwards confirmed by oath, chap. xxii, 16, 17. In all which he was an eminent type of Christ, the true Abraham, father of the multitude of the faithful, who, upon God's call, left heaven, his native country, and came and fojourned among the cursed race of mankind, and there offered up his own flesh and blood a sacrifice unto God, and so became the true heir of the world, and received the promises for his spiritual feed; the fum whereof is given by Zacharias, in his account of the covenant with Abraham, Luke i. 72. To remember his holy covenant, ver. 73, the oath which he fware to our father Abraham, ver..74. that he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hands of our enemies, might serve him without fear, ver. 75. in holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life. And finally, thus it was in the covenant of everlasting priesthood made with Phinehas, another type of the covenant of grace. In it Phinehas stood a repre. sentative of his feed, Numb. xxv. 13. And he shall have it, and his feed after him, even the covenant of an everlasting priesthood; because he was zealous for his God, and made an atonement for the children of Israel. And therein he typified Jesus Christ, representing his spiritual seed in the covenant of grace; for it is evident, that as in Chrift, who made the great atonement for sinners, the everlasting priesthood promised to Phinehas, hath its full accomplishment, his spiritual feed partaking of the same in him; according to Psal. cx. 4. Thou art a priest for ever. Rev. i. 6. And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father.
Now, forasmuch as these typical covenants were made or established with parties standing therein as public persons, heads, and representatives of their seed; it natively follows, that the covenant of grace typified by them, was made with Christ as the head and representative of his fpiritual feed: for whatsoever is attributed to any person or thing as a type, hath its accomplishment really and chiefly in the perfon or thing typified.
2. Our Lord Jesus Christ being, in the phrase. ology of the holy Ghost, the last Adam, the reason hereof cannot be taken from the nature common to the first Adam and him ; for all mankind partake of that; but from their common office of federal headship and representation, in the repective covenants touching man's eternal happiness ; the which is peculiar unto Adam, and the man Christ. Accordingly, Adam is called the first man, and Christ the second man, 1 Cor. xv. 47.; but Christ is no otherwise the second man, than as he is the second federal head, or the representative in the second covenant ; as Adam was the first federal head, or the representative in the first covenant. Agreeable to which, the Apostle represents Adam as the head of the earthly men, and Christ as the head of the heaven. ly men, ver. 48.; the former being those who bear Adam's image, namely, all his natural feed; the latter, those who partake of the image of Christ, namely, his fpiritual feed, ver. 49. All this is confirmed from Adam's being a figure or type of Christ, which the Apostle exprefly asserts, Rom. v. 14., and from the parallel he draws betwixt them two, namely, that as by Adam's covenant-breaking, sin and death came on all that were his, so by Christ's covenant-keeping, righteousness and life came to all that are his, verse 17, 18, 19. Wherefore, as the first covenant was made with Adam as the head and representative of his natural feed, so the second co
venant was made with Christ as the head and
representative of bis spiritual seed.
3. As the first man was called Adam, that is to fay, man; he being the head and representative of mankind, the Person in whom God treated with all men, his natural seed, in the first covenant; and on the other hand, all men therein represented by him, do, in the language of the holy Ghost, go under the name of Adam, Psal. xxxix. 5. 11. Surely every man (in the original it is, all Adam) is vanity: lo Christ bears the name of his spiritual seed, and they, on the other hand, bear his name; a plain evidence of their being one in the eye of the law, and of God's treating with him as their representative in the second covenant. Israel in the name of the fpiritual seed, Rom. ix. 6.; and our Lord Jesus Christ is called by the same name, Ifa. xlix. 3. Thou art my servant, ő Israel, in whom I will be glorified; as several learned and judicious commentators do understand it ; and is evident from the whole context, verse 1, 2, 4,-9. The truth is, Christ is here so called with a peculiar folemnity; for the original text stands precisely thus: Thou art my servant; ifrael, in whom I will glorify myself: that is, thou art Ifrael's representative, in whom I will glorify my. felf, and make all mine attributes illustrious; as I was dishonoured, and they darkened, by Israel the collective body of the spiritual feed. And this leads us to a natural and unstrained interpretation of that passage, Pfal. xxiv. 6. This is the generation of them that seek him, that seek thy face, O Jacob: that is, in other words, that long for the appearing (Prov. vii. 15. Gen. xxxii. 39.) of the Messias, the Lord whom the old Testament church did fo seek; a pledge of whofe coming to his temple, (Mal. iii. 1.) was the bringing in of the ark into the tabernacle that David had erected for it, on which occasion that Psalm was penned. Accordingly it follows immediately, ver. 7.