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Ixxxix. 24. 29, 36. ; and in which they are freed from the curse, so that it cannot reach them, notwithstanding of their failures; but the Lord deals with them as his children still, though offending children; ver. 30.--33.; and all by the means of Jesus Christ the Saviour, the mighty One, ver. 19. This is the foundation of the whole building of mercy to sinners in their low estate, into which they were brought by Adam's fall
. The revelation, promulgation, and offer made unto the fons of men, of this covenant which lay hid in the depths of the e
ternal counsel, is called the gospel; the glad tidings bf a new covenant for life and salvation to sinners.
IL. The parties-contractors in this covenant are, God, and his Chosen, the last Adam: for it is evident from the nature of the things here spoken of, ver. 3, 4. and from 2 Sam. vii. 8. that these words, I have made a-tbvenant with my Chofen, are the Lord's own words. Both heaven and earth were concerned in this covenant; for it was a covenant of them: and accordingly the interests of both are seen to by the parties contractors. 1. On heaven's side is God himself, the party-proposer of the cove. nant, I have made a covenant with my Chosen. He, was the offended party, yet the motion for a covenant of peace comes from him; a certain indication of the good will of the whole glorious Trinity towards the recovery of lost sinners. The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mer. cics, beholding a lost world, his mercy seeks a vent, that it may be shown to the miserable ; but justice stands in the way of the egress and building of mer. cy, without there be a covenant whereby it may
be Satisfied. Then faith the Father, “ The first cove
nant will not serve the purpose of mercy; there " must be a new bargain: but the lost creatures have “ nothing left, to contract for themselves; unless a“nother take the burden upon him for them, there
“ is no remedy in the case: they cannot chuse such
an one for themselves ; I will make a choice for “ them, and make the covenant with my Chofen." 2. On man's side, then is God's Chofen, or chosen One ; for the word is fingular. This chosen One, in the type, the covenant of royalty, is David; but in the antitype, the covenant of grace, it is the Son of God, the last Adam, even Christ the chosen of God, Luke xxiii. 35. The truth is, such great things are faid of this party with whom this covenant was made, of his seed, and of the efficacy of this covenant, as can fully agree to none but Christ and his fpiritual seed, verfe 4. 27. 29. 36, 37. The royal family of Judah, the house of David never recovered their ancient splendor, after the Babylonish captivity; with a view to which time, this Pfalm seems to have been penned. Their kingdom is extinct many ages ago; and the grandeur of that family, according to the flesh is quite funk. But the promise made to David in the covenant of royalty, still Aourisheth, and will Hourish for ever in Jesus Christ, the topbranch of the family of David. How then can it be, but that, in the perpetual building of mercy, mentioned verse 2. and the establishing of David's feed, and building up his throne to all generations, verse 4. Christ himself is chiefly aimed at? And indeed he only was the mighty One, fit for the vast undertaking in this covenant, verse 19. : and him the Father points out to us, as his elect or chosen One, Isa. xlii, ..
III. As to the making of this covenant between the contracting parties: The Father made it with his own Son, I have made a covenant with iny Chofen, and that before the world began, Tit. i. 2. By their mutual agreement thereto, this covenant was completely made from eternity, even as the covenant of works with the first Adam was, before we were in being. The original text calls it cutting off a cove
nant; which phrafe is taken from that antient usage of cutting off a beast, by cutting it asunder, at the making of a covenant, Jer. xxxiv. 18. It intimates this covenant to be a covenant by facrifice; wherein the party contractor on man's side was the facrifice, and divine Justice the sword that cut it affunder, according to Zech, xiii. 8. Awake, O sword, against my Shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, faith the Lord of hosts: smite the shepherd. And withal it imports the inviolableness and perpetuity of the covenant made; no more for ever to be dissolved, than the parts of the beast cut off one from the other, to be joined together as formerly.
IV. For the nature of the covenant: There are five things belonging thereto that appear from the texts; namely, 1. The being of a representation in it; 2. The design for which it was set on foot ; 3. That there are in it a condition, and 4. A promise; and 5. Into whose hands the administration of it is put.
1. There is a representation taking place in this covenant. As it was in the first covenant, so it was likewise in the second; the party-contractor and undertaker on man's fide, was a representative, representing and sustaining the persons of others. This appears, in that the chosen One with whom the co. venant was made, is called the last Adam : for it is plain, he is so called in relation to the first Adam, who was the figure (or type) of him, Rom. v. 14. ; nainely, in that likeas the first Adam representing his feed in the covenant of works, brought sin and death on them; fo he representing his, brings righteousness and life to them ; as the Apostle teacheth at large in that chapter.
2. The design of this covenant was life, the most valuable interest of mankind. The last Adam was made a quickening Spirit, to wit, to give life to his seed. So it is a covenant of life, as the covenant of Levi, a type thereof, is expresly called, Mal. ij. 5.
The first covenant was a covenant of life too; but there is this difference, to wit, that the first was for life in perfection to upright man having life before ; the second, for life in perfection to sinful man legally and morally dead. The parties contracted for in this second covenant, were considered as under the bands of death, absolutely void of life; and there. fore utterly incapable to act for helping themselves. They lay like dry bones scattered about the grave's mouth, before the parties-contractors; justice forbid. ding to give them life, but upon terms consistent with and becoming to its honour.
3. The condition of the covenant, the terms of that life, agreed to by the representative, is implied in that he was the last Adam, namely, to go through with what the first Adam had stuck in. Adam, in the covenant of works, stumbled in the course of his obedience, and fell ; and by his fall was quite dif. abled to begin it anew: he thereby came under the penalty of that covenant also, but was utterly unable to discharge it. So the last Adam coipes in the room of the firīt, not as the first Adam stood in his inte. grity; for in that case there was no place for a second Adam ; but as he lay a broken man under the firlt bargain. And coming in his room in this case, his business was to satisfy the demands of the first covenant, in behalf of his feed. These demands were now run up high, quite beyond what they were to . innocent Adam: the penalty was become payable, as well as the principal fum. Wherefore the fir covenant being ingrofled in the second, is declared broken; and the principal and penalty being summed up together, the clearing of the whole is laid upon the last or second Adam, as the condition of the second covenant.
4. The promise of the covenant to be, upon that condition, performed by the party-contractor on Heaven's fide, is implied in these words, I have made
a covenant with (in the original, to) my chofen; that is, “ I have made a covenant, binding and obliging
myself by folemn promise to my chosen One, for « such and such benefits, upon the condition there. “ in stated and agreed to." Compare the following clause, I have tworn unto David my servant. The nature of this promife will be enquired into in the
5. Lastly, the administration of this covenant is put into the hands of the party.contractor on man's side: The last Adam was made a quickening Spirit. Each of the contracting parties being God, it was not possible that either party should fail, or that the last Adam should break, as the first had done. Whereupon the time of Christ's fulfilling of the condition of the covenant being prefixed by the Father, God took Christ's single bond for fufficient security, and thereupon constituted him Administrator of the covenant. Those whom he represented, were considered as being under death, which, in the language of the covenant, is a very extensive term: the Spirit and life were to be purchased by him, and did belong to the promise of the covenant. So, upon the credit of his fulfilling the condition of the covenant in due time, the fulness of the Spirit, and eternal life, were lodged in him, to be commuricated by him : Rev. iii. 1. These things faith he that hath the seven Spirits of God. i John v. 11. God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. John xvii. 2. As thou haft given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life. Thus was he made a quickening Spirit.
Now the Doctrine of these texts thus compared and explained, is,
That the covenant of grace for life and salvation
to loft" finners of mankind, was made with JeSUS CHRIST the last ADAM; and be constituted Administrator of it.