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privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

EXCLUSION FROM OFFICE.

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

REVENUE BILLS.

SEC. VII. 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.

MANNER OF PASSING BILLS &C.

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to re-consider it. If, after such re-consideration, two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be re-considered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sunday excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

ORDERS, RESOLUTIONS AND VOTES.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on the question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the United States, and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

GENERAL POWERS OF CONGRESS.

Sec. VIII. The Congress shall have power:

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises, shall be uniform throughout the United States. [See 5 Wheaton, 317].

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States.

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes. (See 9 Wheaton, 1, 2. Hall's Am. L. Journ., 255, 272. Johns., 488.]

4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout the United States. [See 4 Wheaton, 122, 193, 203, 2 Wheaton, 266 20 Johns., 93.)

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coins, and fix the standard of weights and measures.

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and correct coin of the United States.

7. To establish post offices and post roads.

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and inventions. (See Wheaton's app., n. 2, p. 13. 7 Wheaton, 356.] 9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court.

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations. [5 Wheaton, 184, 153, 76. Wheaton, 336.]

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water. [8 Cranch, 110, 154,]

12. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use shail be for a longer term than two years

13. To provide and maintain a navy. (See 1 Mason, 79, 81. 4 Binn., 487.]

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces.

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions. [See 5 Wheaton, 1. 19 Johns., 7.]

16. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States, respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress. [3 S. & R., 169. 5 Wheaton, 1. 19 Johns., 7.]

17, To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever over such districts (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government of the United States; and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards and other needful buildings; and-[See 2 Mason, 60. 5 Wheaton, 217, 234. 6 Wheaton, 440. Jour. of Juris., 47, 156. 17 Johns., 225.]

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper, for carrying into execution the foregoing powers and all other powers vested by the Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof. [4 Wheaton, 313. 6 Wheaton, 204.]

LIMITATIONS OF THE POWERS OF CONGRESS.

Sec. IX. 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the Congress, prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and cight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless, when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

3. No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law shall be passed. [See 3 Dallas, 387, 396. 6 Binn., 271.]

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration, hereinbefore directed to be taken. (See 5 Wheaton, 317. 3 Dall., 171.]

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. No preference shall be given, by any regulation of commerce or revenue, to the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States, and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign State.

LIMITATIONS OF THE POWERS OF INDIVIDUAL STATES.

Sec. X. 1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of nobility. See 8 Wheat., 84, 92, 256, n. 464. 5 Wheat., 420. 4 Wheat., 519, 1,209. 6 Wheat., 131. 16 Johns., 233. 13 Mass., 16. 17 Johns., Ch. R., 297. 2 Cowen, 626.

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congre any duty of tonnage, troops or ships

of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE II.

OF THE PRESIDENT-OF THE EXECUTIVE POWER.

SECTIO I. 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

MANNER OF ELECTING.

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in Congress; but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. [Altered, see Amendments, Article XII.)

3. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot, for two persons, of whom one, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate, The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then, from the five highest on the list, and said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two

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