Imágenes de páginas

MARCH 1, 1831. )

The Turkish Mission.

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the present amendment. If these commissioners were to Mr. CONDICT asked for a division of the question, so be paid at all, it should be out of the secret service fund. that it might be put first on the appropriation, and then They had been appointed by the President, under that on the proviso. power of the Executive which gives him control over this The SPEAKER replied, that, if the appropriation fund, and, if so, they ought to be paid in that way. Mr. should be stricken out, there would remain nothing to I, said he thought he perceived where the difficulty of which the proviso could adhere—the division, therefore, the gentleman lay; the gentleman was apprehensive that could not take place. the secret service fund had been exhausted. Tíow that Mr. BURGES observed that he could not see why may be, Mr. I. said, he did not know; the gentleman no persons who had been in the service of the country should doubt knew better than he did. All that he could say not be paid. Why ought the appropriation to be stricken was, that he thought the House ought to take a question out? Did gentlemen intend that the agents of the Go. on the point now before it, and thereby settle the question vernment should not be paid? Why not paid? Had they of the disputed power of the Executive.

rendered no service? or was the service which they had Mr. STORRS, of New York, professed not to under- rendered illegal? If they had not rendered any service, stand the debate. He did not know what gentlemen how came this clause in the bill, if the service had been meant when they talked about the secret service fund rendered in an illegal or unconstitutional manner? Yet, being exhausted; he was completely in the dark. His so far as the country was bound in equity, why should not colleague, from the Committee of Ways and Means, [Mr. this House say, with the Senate, this does not justify us VERPLANCK,] told the House that that committee had no in withholding their pay? Why was tlie clause to be information-another gentleman told them that the com- stricken out? Was any gentleman prepared to say that missioners had been appointed by somebody, and that the President had the right, without consulting the Senate, some provision would be made for them by somebody, to send abroad envoys to negotiate treaties, unless under nobody knew who. For himself, he was not in the the pressing exigencies of war? Can hc consummate this secrets of the cabinet; neither was the House in those act without consulting the Senate? Are we going to say

If any public ministers or chargés were to be that the President may not only filla vacancy which occurs provided for, let the Government send the House some during the recess of the Senate, but that he may, without information--let it send the treaties that had been made, the Senate, originate any mission he pleases? Mr. B. let it tell the House who the commissioners are. For his said he had no doubt that the President could send out an own part, he did not find such persons enumerated among agent for the purpose of examining the state of our relaour diplomatic agents. The House was asked to act in tions with a foreign Power, but this must be done secretly. the dark--somebody said they wanted money, but the Such agents never were accredited. The President Government had not condescended to tell the people of might, in this manner, discover by what means our relathe United States what it was wanted for. The House tions with a foreign Power might be improved; but he hal received no estimatc, no report: the Government might not appoint and send abro:d higli public envoys gave it no information but this--that it wanted money. without first consulting the Senate. Mr. B. called upon The House had no facts to go upon, and he therefore all who heard him to say whether they were prepared to loped it would strike out the whole appropriation. The sanction such a power in the President of the United itein of $25,000 for contingent expenses was intended States. He trusted there were none. Did the Ilouse for some other purpose, he did not know what; he hoped then intend to deprive these agents of their pay? Were that would be stricken out, too, unless some further in- they to be left to chance for their remuneration? Would formation was given. When he voted away money, he the House indulge a disposition to employ services when liked to do it understandingly. This sum was not for the they were needed, and then leave the scrvants to get their ordinary contingent fund; if it was to be spent in presents pay how they could? No, sir, said Mr. B.; the laborer's to the Grand Turk, he should like to know the fact. He wages shall never sleep with me. I trust there is no man wished to know what he was doing. Were tliese $25,000 here who will vote to put these agents off to another to be paid for gold snuff boxes, diamond headed daggers, Congress. Mr. Rhind was our consul to Odessa--lie is horses, urns, or what was it for?

known to be poor, and to possess nothing but what the Mr. VERPLANCK asked his colleague, (Mr. Stonas,] Government gires him. He believed himself to be emwhether the object of his inquiry was to obtain a list of ployed by a competent power--let us pay him for the the special contingent expenses of the Turkish legation services he performed-but lct us, at the same time, take The present sum of $15,000 was proposed to be added to care to say that the power which employed him wiis not the sum of $25,000, provided for general contingent ex- competent. penses. It was not usual to lay the particulars of foreign Mr. McDUFFIE said that the Committee of Ways and intercourse ilirectly or indirectly before the House. Means had no intention of being understood as saying that

Mr. WAYNE asked gentlemen to state whether, if this these agents were not entitled to compensation for their article was stricken out, certain persons who had rendered services--the committee were unanimousin the contrary public service would not be left to take their chance for opinion; but they had fuiled in accomplishing the object being paid before next Congress; and he again asked they had in view in recommending that this item be whether there was not any other part of the bill on which stricken out, which was to avoid debate. They desired an amendment could be grafted to secure the payment to present the question in such a way as might conciliate of agents, the value of whose public services has been all. He agreed that the simple striking out of this apacknowledged by the highest act which any Government propriation might, at first view, appear like the expresa couli perform, viz. the ratification of the treaty which sion of an opinion that the individuals in question are not they had made.

entitled to compensation; but such was not his opinion, Mr. McDUFFIE observed that the question now was nor that of the committee. They were, doubtless, enti. only as to one portion of the Senate's amendment--to the tled to compensation; and if the House could provide a remainder the gentleman might add what he pleased. fund out of which they might be paid, he should be glad.

Mr. WILLIAMS inquired whether, if the House should | He had no wish to appear as if avoiding a vote on the agree to the amendment recommended by the Committee principle contained in the Senate's amendment, but he of Ways and Means, and thus strike out a part of the did wish to avoid discussion. Ilis opinion was, and he Senate's amendment, the residue might not afterwards be presumed there were few but would agree with him that stricken out.

the President did not possess power to appoint ministers The SPEAKER replied in the affirmative.

plenipotentiary during a recess of the Senate, without Vol. VII.--53

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nominating them to the Senate at its next succeeding was a redemption of the pledges given by them before session. But, if he was compelled to vote, he should not they were in office. We are called on to send a chargé hesitate to say that he was unwilling to give a vote which to disgrace the American people before all Europe, and might be construed into a censure of the President for to pay $25,000 out of our treasury for this privilege

. what he had done. He was satisfied that the affair had There has been no information communicated to this happened through mere oversight, without any bad intent. House to call for this appropriation; and he would not The Senate had deemed it proper to vindicate its own consent to make any appropriation, without sufficient powers, by inserting the proviso. The House had no such knowledge communicated in a proper manner. He had object, and no such obligation. The Senate had now heard much of this treaty out of doors. He had hcard done what they desired, and what they had a perfect that parts of it are very exceptionable; and it was rumorright to do, and he hoped that further debate would be ed that it had not been ratified. We had been told by avoided.

the President, in his opening message, of a liberal treaty Mr. ELLSWORTH observed that the House was now with Turkey. He did not understand the term. Was it brought back to the question which had been stated by not a reciprocal treaty? He had heard that Captain Bid. the gentleman from Rhode Island, [Mr. Burges.] Certain dle had written a long letter reprobating public agents had performed important services; they had the treaty. He had also heard of Mr. Rhind and his acts, the fairest claim to be indemnified, and indemnified at But he desired that the treaty should be communicated this time; and, unless the House intended to compensate to the House before the appropriation is given. He them in some other mode, they ought not to strike out thought it necessary that we should know for what we this appropriation. If gentlemen did not like the proviso, are called on to give this money. let them strike it out; but the claim to compensation was Mr. CARSON said it always gave him pleasure to listen certainly just and fair, and he could never consent to strike to the gentleman from New York, who had just taken his out a just appropriation because of the proviso that was seat, because of the ability which he always manifested attached to it.

when addressing that House. It was matter of deep Mr. DRAYTON said that he deprecated argument as regret that talents of so high an order should be enlisted much as any gentleman, and he should make none, unless on the wrong side. The powers of that gentleman were be felt bound in duty to do so-he should not vote for admitted by all, insomuch that he was acimitted to be striking out the clause, even if he thought that the ap- capable of making any cause which he chose to adi pt pointment of the commissioners was illegal or uncon- appear to be right, by the exertion of his elevated abilistitutional. But he thought it was the exercise of a ties. But, on the present occasion, Mr. C. was constrained constitutional power, so far as any construction of the to confess that he never heard the gentleman from New constitution could derive force from precedent. This was York make a speech on that floor which he himself seemed supported by numerous examples. He was not for strik- less to feel. The honorable gentleman had set out with ing out the proviso. He considered these agents as telling the House that he was perfectly in the dark; that entitled to salaries. There was a fund out of which they he could not at all understand the debate; but what a demight be paid, and therefore there was not the smallest velopment had the House witnessed, and on what authoobjection to the amendment.

rity had it been made? The first thing the gentleman Mr. McDUFFIE, in reply to Mr. Ellsworth, observed, had discovered was the establishment of a new mission, that if that gentleman's vote to strike out this clause which was to cost the country God knows how much. depended on the House providing some other mode of Each new minister, it seemed, was to be furnished with compensation, his difficulty might easily be removed; for new snuffboxes, and every subsequent Congress was to as soon as the House should vote to strike out this amend-be bound to make new and further appropriations. The ment, the gentleman from Georgia [Mr. WAYNE) would ministers, too, were to make themselves ridiculous, by introduce another clause to cover the same object. The appearing in an inferior grade; and the gentleman's motion question was then taken on agreeing with the Committee would go to render them still more ridiculous. The Preof Ways and Means in their proposed amendment, going sident had submitted the treaty to the Senate, and Mr. C. to strike out the amendment of the Senate, and it was had understood that the treaty had been ratified with an carried in the affirmative.

amendment which went to strike out one offensive article. Mr. STORRS, of New York, then moved to amend the He was not sure that this was the case, but he had been amendment of the Senate, by striking out the $25,000 for so informed. In the discharge of his executive duty, the the contingent expenses of the mission, and substituting President had submitted to the Senate the propriety of $5,000. Mr. S. said that this $25,000, was intended to establishing a diplomatic mission to the Ottoman Porte

. provide the tribute customarily given to the Grand Seignior, The bill at first provided for the outfit of a full minister, as he understood it." The old Governments of Europe but the committee (consisting of the gentleman's friends) may feel it their interest to procure, by these means, the bad reduced the minister to a chargé, and had thereby friendship of the Sublime Porte. Turkey lays under afforded the gentleman an opportunity of holding up to tribute every nation with which she has intercourse, by the House a very entertaining spectacle, where our min her policy of requiring presents. He asked if it was ister appeared dancing attendance out of doors among proper for us, while keeping up friendly relations with servants and drogomen, but never admitted to the brightRussia, without any minister at St. Petersburg, to ac-ness of the Sultan's sublime presence. The gentleman quiesce in this course. He considered it unsound policy, appeared to have thought a good deal on the subject, and after keeping ourselves, for half a century, without asso- he was sorry he had not obtained any information as to ciating with the politicians at Constantinople, to send a the political consequences arising from this difference of chargé, when a consul would be as efficient to secure our grade in our minister. Probably another agent might be interests. He stated that in sending a chargé we shall needed; but that was the business of the Senate, as they only make our country appear ridiculous, because, while had the exclusive appointment of new ministers

. The the plenipotentiaries of other courts are admitted to the gentleman from New York, if he recollected right, had “brightness of the sublime presence,” our chargé will advocated the Panama mission. Did the gentleman at be compelled to stand at the door among the servants that time ask for the instructions given to our minister? and understrappers, and thus would the majesty of the Far from it. All then was to be confidence in the Execu• American people be represented. He took a view of the tive. The House was to repose an official confidence in the accumulating expenses of the diplomatic corps since the Executive. It was not its duty to ask too many questicks. present administration came into power, and asked if this All was to be submitted to the Executive. Why did not

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# March 1, 1831.]

The Turkish Mission.

(H. OF R.

the House now hear from him the same language? The gentleman had endeavored to cast ridicule on the propo& gentleman had professed great ignorance; but, whatever sition, and upon the Government of his own country.

might be his disclaimers, the House all knew full well that the offering of presents appeared to him an unworthy $the gentleman was acquainted with the manner in which (object of expenditure, and calculated to degrade the na

Turkish treaties were usually negotiated. He knew perfect- tion. But why should we be degraded by doing that 1 ly well that presents were always made by every nation who which had been done, at all times, by all Governments ki wished to maintain diplomatic relations, or obtain commer- that had any connexion with the Ottoman Porte?

cial advantages, or hold any intercourse with the Turkish If it was good that we should hold commercial relations E court. The commercial benefits to be obtained by the pre- with the boundless territories of the Turk, (relations "sent arrangement the gentleman had taken great care to which had heretofore extended but a short distance around

throw into the shade; yet, if any commercial advantage was Smyrna,) was the country to refuse this advantage, beto be derived to the country, what city or what State of the cause the gentleman from New York thought it degrading Union was so likely to share in it as that from which the to make presents to the Grand Seignior, to the amount of

gentleman came? The city of New York, to which he $25,000?" If we held such an opinion, we should be the sunderstood the gentleman had lately removed his resi. only Power who thought so; all other nations have acted

dence, being the great commercial emporium of the otherwise. If the country was to have political and com

country, had the deepest interest in a question of this mercial relations with the Porte at all, it could do more sp kind. The gentleman had said a great deal about paying have them without presents than without ministers. No

tribute, and presenting diamond snuffboxes to an infidel minister would have been received, nor permitted to open Power. This language might, perhaps, take with the his credentials, till he had offered the customary presents. Dutch of New York, (to use a phrase which he had heard This Government once received a mission from a Turkish

the gentleman employ,) and it showed the gentleman's Power, and we paid the ambassador a regular stipend a great deference for the sense and information of his con- every week, although he came only to make an apology

stituents. But, if the gentleman could impose upon his for a threat which had been uttered by his country against own constituents, it did not follow that he could, with ours. We paid all the expenses of his embassy, and equal ease, deceive the American people. They possess allowed him $200 per week during his stay. Was that too much intelligence for such an operation. Mr. C. expenditure considered extravagant then? Was the counsaid that Andrew Jackson had discharged his duty. The try, for such a reason, to refuse the apology of a foreign House could not yet have the treaty laid before it, but it Power, and thereby to avert the necessity of a war? Mr. opened a prospect of great pecuniary advantage to the Jefferson was wiser than that. The long and the short of nation, from a participation in the commerce of the Black this matter was, that here were presented to us real and Sea. All this the gentleman well understood; and if, great commercial advantages. Extensive regions, among with the full understanding of it, be chose to take the some of the richest on the globe, were about to be opened responsibility of defeating such a measure, on him, and on to the United States. We were to hold commercial relathose who acted with him, let it rest, and not upon Andrew tions with all the countries round the Black Sea; and we Jackson, or the Senate of the United States.

were to have this advantage in the most economical form Mr. WHITTLESEY now moved that the committee --at the expense of maintaining a single chargé. As to rise, report progress, and have leave to sit again.

the other items, they were merely the necessary appen. The motion was negatived-yeas 61, nays 75.

dages of such a mission. A drogoman and presents were Mr. ARCHER said that he had at first meant to go into matters of course at the court of Turkey. "If the House a full answer to the speech of the gentleman from New thought with the gentleman from New York, let them York, but he relinquished this purpose, believing that the abolish the treaty; if not, let them make the appropriation. gentleman's chief object had been to discharge a feeling; Mr. STORRS replied; when he would, therefore, confine himself to two or three re

The question was taken on the amendment of Mr. marks, by way of explanation. The gentleman had com- STORRs, and decided in the negative by a large majority. menced by supposing that the object of this treaty was Mr. WAYNE then moved the amendment he had be. to put the country in a degrading attitude—to grant a tri- fore proposed, viz. to insert after the item of $25,000, the bute, to buy a treaty of the Sublime Porte.

But such following: had been no part of the object. The treaty was made. “ And $15,000 for defraying the expenses of foreign It had been ratified, with the exception of one article. intercourse heretofore incurred." So far from soliciting or begging a treaty, the treaty had The amendment was adopted-yeas 70, nays 65. been made and ratified, and the object was to open com Mr. WILLIAMS now moved to insert the proviso, but mercial connexions between the United States and some the motion was rejected-yeas 62, nays 100. of the richest countries of the old world; and the present Mr. DRAYTON moved an item of $1,500 dollars for

appropriation was asked in order that our country might the salary of a student of languages, but the amendment 1* realize these benefits. Our interest in those seas was was rejected. * great and extended, and the question was, whether we The amendment of the Senate, as amended on motion

ought not to bave commercial agents to supervise the of Mr. WAYNE, was then agreed to, and the debate interests of the United States. But gentlemen ask, why closed. The committee then rose, and reported the not entrust this duty to our consuls? If the bill had done amendments to the House. so, the expense would have been the same. The Govern Mr. VANCE moved for a division of the question on the ment now pays our consul at Algiers $4,000; and the sa- amendment which had been so long debated in committee. lary of a chargé was but $4,500. Nothing would be Mr. WICKLIFFE explained the state of the question, gained, therefore, by substituting the consul; the only and showed that, as an appropriation to the same amount, difference would be, that the latter appointment would and for the same object, had been inserted in another part not be productive of such good effects. But to show of the bill, unless the present clause should be stricken that the gentleman would be satisfied with no conduct of out, the bill would have two appropriations, of $15,000 the administration, and that he held it a duty to find fault, each, for the pay of the same persons. the gentleman had told the House, that, if we were to Mr. VANCE said that his object in having the question have any mission to Turkey, it ought to be an embassy divided was, that a separate vote might be taken, by year extraordinary. That was what the Executive had asked for, and pays, upon the proviso. and what the Senate had refused. If the present plan The SPEAKER said that the question should be dia was wrong, the fault was not with the President. The vided, inasmuch as the proviso was so worded as to relate

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The Cumberland Road.

[MARCH 1, 1831.

to the whole bill, and there would, therefore, be some of the liberality of his Government, and of the fidelity thing for it to stand on, should the appropriating clause with which its engagements are fulfilled. But, important be stricken out.

13 the proposition is conceded to be, in this view of it, Mr. MERCER explained, and, adverting to the course as well as from the large amount, its real magnitude is which had been pursued in Committee of the whole, only perceived when we look at it in reference to its insisted that the amendment which had been inserted was effect on the future internal improvement of the country, different from that in view of which the appropriation as it may be decided the one way or the other. and proviso were stricken ont; so that gentlemen could Do you believe, sir, that if roads and canals are to be not vote in the House as they had voted in committee. sustained at the expense of the treasury, they will be ex

The CHAIR replied that the llouse had adopted the tended or long continued? amendment, and had no power to retrace the step. If the United States are to repair as well as to make, my

The question was accordingly divided, and, being put word for it, they will soon cease to make. If this Cuin on the appropriating clause, it passed in the affirmative. berland road system is to be persevered in, and annual

The question then recurring on striking out the proviso of calls are to be made upon the treasury for the repair of the Senate,

public works, we shall soon have funds for no other purMr. MERCER failed in an attempt to modify it. pose. How many of these projects have been already

And the yeas and nays, having been demanded by Mr. submitted for consideration? How many are every day VANCE, and ordered by the House, were taken, and originating and bringing forth? They can scarcely be stood as follows:

reckoned; but if you take one in many of them, as acivisa. YEAS.-Messrs. Alexander, Alston, Anderson, Angel, ble or fit, and calling for the exercise of the United States' Archer, Barringer, James Blair, Bockee, Boon, Borst, power, you will soon liave as many as your treasury can Brodhead, Brown, Cambreleng, Carson, Claiborne, Clay, sustain, and the funds which should be applied to the esConner, Crawford, Crocheron, Daniel, Davenport, De tension of their benefits, by laying down and constructing berry, Denny, Drayton, Dudley, Earll, Findlay, Ford, others, will be exhausted in preserving those which have Gilmore, Gordon, Hall, Halsey, Harvey, Haynes, Holland, been alreally made. Is any forecast required to see that Hoffman, Howard, Hubbard, Thomas Irwin, William W. this course will be destructive to the whole system of inIrvin, Jarvis, Richard M. Johnson, Cave Johnson, Kennon, ternal improvement, and that those opposed to it will find Perkins King, Lamar, Lea, Leavitt, Lent, Lewis, Loyall, it more effectual in checking and finally arresting this Lumpkin, Magee, Thomas Maxwell, McCreery, McCoy, country in her rapid strides to the most prosperous conMcDuffie, McIntire, Aliller, Mitchell, Mullenberg, Patton, lition, than any other legislation likely to take place here? Pearce, Pettis, Polk, Potter, Sanford, Scott, Wm. B. The road from Cumberland to Wheeling is one hundred Shepard, Aug. H. Shepperd, Shields, Smith, Speight, and thirty miles long. What will be required for its reAmbrose Spencer, Richard Spencer, Stephens, Suther-pair when it sirall have reached Jefferson that is, I believe, land, 'Taylor, John Thomson, Trezvant, Tucker, Wayne, its name-the seat of Government of Missouri, however, is Wilde. -83.

the place I mean. If I were the enemy, as I am the friend NAYS.-Messrs. Allen, Armstrong, Arnold, Barnwell, f internal improvement, I would desire no surer mode of Baylor, Beekman, Butman, Campbell

, Childs, Chilton, undermining the system-no more, ultimately, and at 1:0 Coke, Cooper, Coulter, Cowles, Craig, Crane, Crockett, distant day, fatal course, to be pursued in relation to it. Creighton, Desha, Draper, Eager, Ellsworth, George This policy is now popular with a large proportion of this Evans, Horace Everett, Finch, Gaither, Gurley, Hawkins, nation; I mean when properly pursued; when the power Hodges, Hughes, Hunt, Huntington, Johns, Lecompte, that has been consecrated by time, and the opinions of Lyon, Martindale, Lewis Maxwell, Mercer, Nuckolls, the fathers of whatever is valuable in this Government

, Overton, Pierson, Reed, Rencher, Richardson, Russel, its history or administration, is put forth for great, lealStanbery, Swift, Taliaferro, Test, Vance, Varnum, Vinton, ing, and national purposes, and judiciously drawn into Washington, Whittlesey, Edward D, White, Williams, operation even for them. But popular as this policy, so Yancey. -57.

pursued, undoubtedly is with a majority of those by So the House agreed with the Committee of the Whole whose authority we stand here, it must, it will soon cease in striking out the proviso which the Senate liad inserted, to be so if fun ds are continually demanded, not to and which is in the words following:

construct roads and canals, but to preserve from ruin and Provided always, That nothing in this act contained decay those which have been, or those which shall brave shall be construed as sanctioning, or in any way approv- been inade, at an immense expense of treasure, instead ing, the appointment of these persons, by the President of drawing the means of support from the accommodation alone, during the recess of the Senate, and without their which they afford the traveller. Already has this system advice and consent, as commissioners to negotiate a treaty of treasury depletion been pursued too far; even now it with the Ottoman Porte."

is the subject of complaint. What will be the effect of

it, when you shall liave communications from north to THE CUMBERLAND ROAD.

south, and not one, but many avenues from east to west? The House then took up, in Committee of the Whole, It will require the revenue of the Government beyond its the bill from the Senate for the continuation of the Cum- necessary and ordinary wants, if dissatisfaction is not creberland roa:l in the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. ated with, and a consequent abandonment does nct take

Mr. IRWIN, of Pennsylvania, proposed the following place of this wise and hitherto popular policy. Ne:hing section as an amendment thereto:

that its enemies can do will half so much endanger it, as And be it further enacted, That the sum of one hundred these preserving and repairing appropriations. I call thousand dollars be, and the same is hereby, appropriated, upon the friends of internal improvement to take their out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriat- stand now, unless they wish to retard or prevent its fured, for the purpose of repairing the Cumberland road east ther progress. So long as you continue to grant these of Wheeling"

appropriations for repair, so long will the erection of Mr. CRAWFORD, of Pennsylvania, rose in opposition gates upon any plan be declined or refused. to the amendment. He said the amendment proposed I have been informed by honorable gentleman, whose was of general concern, as regarded the preservation of service here has been of some length, that repeated the great public work to which it related. This, said Mr. pledges have been given that each of several appropria C., must be a desirable object with all; no gentleman tions shoull be the last; and that of the appropriation of gurely wishes the destruction of this monument, at once one hundred thousand dollars, granted on the ud day of

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MARCH 1, 1831.)

The Cumberland Road.

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March, 1829, it was particularly said it should be the last;| 1829, and that now asked, are severally larger than any and yet, within a shorter time than one year, and at the appropriation for the construction of this road between very next session of Congress, we are asked for another 1806, when it was first authorized, and 1813. They are one hundred thousand dollars, and a bill reported for as follows: them. And here I will ask, why has this bill, reported March 29, 1806,

$30,000 at the last session, not been acted on? Why has it been February 14, 1810,

60,000 suffered to sleep upon this table? Is it because it was too March 3, 1811,

50,000 weak to stand alone! I do not affirm that this was the May 6, 1812,

30,000 consideration which governed those who had it in charge; Nay, sir, they are each larger than the sum provided but, now and forever, I protest against the practice of by the very bill to which this amendment is proposed, for attaching to appropriations that are deemed indispensable, the continuation of this road in Indiana-larger than that propositions of weak or doubtful policy-of making a nu- proposed for the same purpose in Illinois, and equal to the cleus of what almost all approve, to which to append mea- sum named for Ohio, west of Zanesville, as appears by sures that cannot sustain themselves. Are we thus to the following abstract of its provisions: proceed forever?

For Indiana,

$60,000 It may not be amiss to take a retrospect, and see what For Illinois,

60,000 the repair of this Cumberland road has cost within the West of Zanesville,

100,000 seven years preceding 1830. No less a sum than one Let us, then, at once, refuse this appropriation, and auhundred and seventy one thousand two hundred and fifty- thorize the erection of gates to collect toll, for present nine dollars.

and future repair; thus shall we oblige those who use the February 28, 1823,

$25,000 road to preserve it-economize funds for other, and, if March 25, 1826,

7-19 not equally valuable, certainly very valuable and desirable March 2, 1827,


improvements, and retain for the system the strength and March 2,

30,000 support of public opinion. Is this unjust to those who March 3, 1829,

100,000 are specially interested in the road or use it? May 31, 1830,

15,000 other facility for travel or transportation in the country, that

is not so burdened, and to a much greater extent than will $171,259 be required here? How are your State or corporation

roads and canals supported? By tolls, which must be so And of this sum, fifteen thousand dollars, granted the high as not only to preserve and repair, but to furnish 31st day of May, 1830, besides two smaller sums previous- funds for the payment of dividends to stockholders, or the ly given, were extracted from us by considerations of interest of money borrowed for their construction.

llere humanity for the contractor, whose expenditure exceeded all that is required is to repair; and a reasonable toll will by so much the sum placed at his disposal. I will here repair present dilapidations, and be equal to future preremark that these repairs must be most injudiciously con- servation. To this you must come; you had better do it ducted, for I presume the grant of one hundred thousand now. Pursue the course I advise, and, in addition to the dollars, in 1829, must have been made on some friendly other reasons that abundantly justify the step, you will do estimate; and yet, after it has been expended with fifteen justice to the public and private avenues to the West that thousand dollars more, we are called on for another sum come into competition with this road. They are compelof like amount. How large an expenditure within so led to collect heavy tolls, and enter into a very unequal short a period! More than one-tenth of what the road struggle with this favorite, and perhaps deservedly favororiginally cost, and almost equal to one-fourth of what it ite structure, which so far has been free of charge. should have cost, or what much better roads have been Sir, a persistance in this course will not only paralyze since made for; and yet this work is now in a worse con- and ultimately check improvement by United States' means, dition than that in which it was before one dollar was but its tendency is to discourage private and State effort expended in its repair, as I have learned from the best for the extension of those communications which add so authority. It will never be in a better situation for the much to the beauty, so much augment the strength, and refusal of an appropriation. The argument of the neces- multiply the resources of any country. Can corporations sity of putting it in thorough repair, before you collect or joint stock companies invest their moneys in enterprises tolls upon it, will be always in your way. Let'those who which must compete for business and use with those that advocate internal improvements consider how much they are regulated on the free trade plan? Can States even, put the whole system to hazard by such measures, and that in the ordinary condition of their revenues, engage in the the adoption of this amendment will be fostering and che constructing of roads and canals without reckoning upon rishing this road, at the expense of other sections of the interest for the sums so embarked? And what hope can country having cqual claims upon the notice of the Go- they have of its receipt, if the United States shall continue vernment. The fountain will afford an abundant supply, to lay down as good, perhaps better, means of intercourse, and the stream be copious and strong, diffusing fertility to which resort can be had without expense. Justice, and exuberance throughout its course, provided you main- then, to States, to corporate bodies, and to individual intain its embankments, and preserve them so firm and hard terests, calls upon you to change your course. that the water cannot waste and sink through fissures, and money be taken to construct a road that may be worn out escape by rivulets; but if your inattention suffers its di- free of charge, to the destruction of an investment that I version at various points, it becomes so sluggish and weak have made elsewhere under State permission? Refuse a as to be unequal to the purposes which it would otherwise further grant of money; erect, or allow to be erected, toll

So if the treasury is made to bleed at every gates, and you will thus aid the great cause of internal impore, for the purpose of supporting our public works, the provement, and preserve for it the only foundation on funds which might be adequate to the embellishment and which it can long rest--the favorable opinion of our conirrigation of the country by means of roads and canals, stituents; you will at least not throw any obstaclus in the will, perhaps, be unequal, under any system of expendi- way of enterprise from other quarters, and will act justly ture that the public agents have heretofore adopted, to by those exertions which have been successfully made the repair of those which have been made. The sums elsewhere. that will be asked for preservation would make much I again entreat the House to pause and reflect before original improvement, if judiciously and economically ex- this appropriation for repair is granted. Those honorapended. It is worthy of note, that the sum granted in ble gentlemen who favor the improvement of the country

Shall my


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