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Gradual Weakening of the latter by astronomical Facts, and the Riso

of Scientific Geology.

Impersonal Manner in which the Problem was eventually solved, chiefly

through Facts connected with Heat.

Proofs of limitless Duration from inorganic Facts.Igneous and Aqueous

Rocks.

Pronfs of the same from organic Facts. ---Suocessive Creations and E.c-

tinctions of living Forms, and their contemporaneous Distribution.

Evidences of a slowly declining Temperature, and, therefore, of a long

Time.-The Process of Events by Catastrophe and by Law. - Analogy

THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF

EUROPE.

CHAPTER I.

THE AGE OF FAITH IN THE WEST. THE THREE ATTACKS: NORTHERN OR MORAL; WESTERN OR

INTELLECTUAL; EASTERN OR MILITARY.

THE NORTHERN OB MORAL ATTACK ON THE ITALIAN SYSTEM, AND ITS

TEMPORARY REPULSE.

Geographical Boundaries of Italian Christianity.---Attacks upon it.
The Northern of moral Attack.- The Emperor of Germany insists on a

reformation in the Papacy.Gerbert, the representative of these Ideas,

is made Pope.They are both poisoned by the Italians. Commencement of the intellectual Rejection of the Italian System.-It

originates in the Arabian doctrine of the supremacy of Reason over Authority. - The question of Transuhstantiation.-Rise and develop ment of Scholasticism.-Mutiny among the Monks. Gregory VII. spontaneously accepts und enforces a Reform in the Church,

- Overcomes the Emperor of Germany. - Is on the point of establishing a European Theocrucy.The Popes seize the military and monetary Resources of Europe through the Crusades.

The realm of an idea may often be defined by geometrical lines.

If from Rome, as a centre, two lines be drawn, one of which passes eastward, and touches the Asiatic shore of the Bosphorus, the other westward, and phical bound crosses the Pyrenees, nearly all those Mediterra- aries of Latin

Christianity. nean countries lying to the south of these lines were living, at the time of which we speak, under the dogma, “ There is but one God, and Mohammed is his prophet;" but the countries to the north had added to the

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