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met with Mr Clarkson at the Inn, and was, you may believe, rejoiced to hear his voice at the coach door. We supped together, and immediately after supper I went to bed, and slept well, and at 8 o'clock next morning went to Trinity Chapel. There I stood for many minutes in silence before the statue of Newton, while the organ sounded. I never saw a statue that gave me one hundredth part so much pleasure -but pleasure, that is not the word, it is a sublime sensation-in harmony with sentiments of devotion to the Divine Being, and reverence for the holy places where He is worshipped. We walked in the groves all the morning and visited the Colleges. I sought out a favourite ash tree which my brother speaks of in his poem on his own life-a tree covered with ivy. We dined with a fellow of Peter-House in his rooms, and after dinner I went to King's College Chapel. There, and everywhere else at Cambridge, I was even much more impressed with the effect of the buildings than I had been formerly, and I do believe that this power of receiving an enlarged enjoyment from the sight of buildings is one of the privileges of our later years. I have this moment received a letter from William


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(See p. 239).

S. T. Coleridge is thus described as he was in his schoolboy days, by Charles Lamb, in his "Christ's Hospital Five and Thirty Years ago." (See The Essays of Elia.)

"Come back into memory, like as thou wert in the dayspring of thy fancies, with hope like a fiery column before thee-the dark pillar not yet turned-Samuel Taylor Coleridge-Logician, Metaphysician, Bard!How have I seen the casual passer through the Cloisters stand still, entranced with admiration (while he weighed the disproportion between the speech and the garb of the young Mirandula), to hear thee unfold, in thy deep and sweet intonations, the mysteries of Jamblichus, or Plotinus (for even in those years thou waxedst not pale at such philosophic draughts), or reciting Homer in his Greek, or Pindar-while the walls of the old Grey Friars re-echoed to the accents of the inspired charityboy-Many were the 'wit-combats' (to dally awhile with the words of old Fuller) between him and C. V. Le G―, which two I behold like a Spanish great galleon, and an English man-of-war: Master Coleridge, like the former, was built far higher in learning, solid, but slow in his performances; C. V. L., with the English man-of-war, lesser in bulk, but lighter in sailing, could turn with all tides, tack about, and take advantage of all winds, by the quickness of his wit and invention."


(See p. 374.)

The following extract from a letter of Mr Rawnsley's casts important light on a difficult question of localization. Dr Cradock is inclined now to select the Outgate Crag, the second of the four places referred to by Mr Rawnsley. But the first may have been the place, and the extract which follows will show how much is yet to be done in this matter of localizing poetical allusions.

"As to

'The crag,

That from the meeting-point of two highways
Ascending, overlooked them both, far stretched,'

there seems to be no doubt but that we have four competitors for the honour of being the place to which the poet

'impatient for the sight

Of those led palfreys that should bear them home,'

repaired with his brothers

'one Christmas time,

As the glad eve of its dear holidays.'

And unless, as it seems is quite possible, from what one sees in other of Wordsworth's poems, he really stood on one of the crags, and then in his description drew the picture of the landscape at his feet from his memory of what it was as seen from another of the vantage places, we need a high crag, rising gradually or abruptly from the actual meetingplace of two highways, with, if possible at this distance of time, a wall— or traces of it quite at its summit. (I may mention that the wallers in this country still give two hundred years as the length of time that a dry wall will stand.) We need also traces of an old thorn tree close by. The wall, too, must be so placed on the summit of the crag that, as it faces the direction in which the lad is looking for his palfrey, it shall afford shelter to him against

'The sleety rain,

And all the business of the elements.'

It is evident that the lad would be looking out in a north-easterly direction, i.e., towards the head of Windermere and Ambleside. So that

"The mist,

That on the line of these two roads

Advanced in such indisputable shapes,'

was urged by a wind that found the poet at his look-out station, glad to have the wall between him and it. Further, there must be in close proximity wood and the sound of rushing water, or the lapping of a lake wind-driven against the marge, for the boy remembers that 'the bleak music from that old stone wall' was mingled with the noise of

wood and water.' The roads spoken of must be two highways, and must be capable of being seen for some distance; unless, as it is just. possible, the epithet 'far-stretched' may be taken as applying not so much to the roads, as to the gradual ascent of the crag from the meetingplace of the two highways.

The scene from the crag must be extended, and half plain half woodland; at least one gathers as much from the lines

'as the mist

Gave intermitting prospect of the copse
And plain beneath."

Lastly, it was a day of driving sleet and mist, and this of itself would necessitate that the poet and his brothers should only go to the place close to which the ponies must pass, or from which most plainly the roads were visible.

The boys too were

'feverish, tired, and restless,'

and a schoolboy, to gain his point on such a day and on such an errand, does not take much account of a mile of country to be travelled


"So that it is immaterial, I think, to make the distance from Hawkshead of either of the four crags or vantage grounds a factor in decision. "The farther the lads were from home when they met their ponies, the longer ride back they would have, and this to schoolboys is matter of consideration at such times.

"Taking then a survey of the ground of choice, we have to decide whether the crag in question is situated at the first division or main split of the road from Ambleside furthest from Hawkshead, or whether at the place where the two roads converge again into one nearer Hawkshead.

"Whether, that is, the crag above the Pullwyke quarry, at the junction of the road to Water Barngates and the road to Wray and Outgate is to be selected, about two miles from Hawkshead; or whether we are to fix on the spot you have chosen, at the point about a mile north-east of Hawkshead, 'called in the ordnance map Outgate.'

"Of the two I incline to the former, for these reasons. The boys could not be so certain of not missing the ponies, at any other place than here at Pullwyke.

"The crag exactly answers the poet's description, a rising ground, the meeting-place of two highways. For in the poet's time the old Hawkshead and Outgate road at the Pullwyke corner ran at the very foot of the rising ground (roughly speaking) parallel to and some 60 to 100 yards west of the present road from the Pull to Wray.

"It is true that no trace of wall is visible at its summit, but the summit has been planted since with trees, and walls are often removed at time of planting.

"The poet would have a full view of the main road, down to, and

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round the Pullwyke Bay; he would see the branch road from the fork, as it mounted the Water Barngates Hill, to the west, and would see the other road of the fork far-stretched and going south.

"He would also have an extended view of copse and meadow land. He might, if the wind were south-easterly, hear the noise of Windermere, sobbing in the Pullwyke Bay, and would without doubt hear also the roar of the Pull Beck water, as it passed down from the Ironkeld slopes on his left towards the lake.

"It might be objected that the poem gives us the idea of a crag which, from the Hawkshead side at anyrate, would require to be of more difficult ascent than this is, to justify the idea of difficulty as suggested in the lines

'thither I repaired

Scout-like, and gained the summit;'

but I do not think we need read more into the lines than that the boy felt as he scanned the country with his eyes, on the qui vive at every rise in the ground--the feelings of a scout, who questions constantly the distant prospect

"And certainly the Pullwyke quarry crag rises most steeply from the meeting-point of the two highways.

"Next as to the Outgate crag, which you have chosen. I am out of love with it. First, if the lads wanted to make sure of the ponies, they would not have ascended it, but would have stayed just at the Hawkshead side of Outgate, or at the village itself, at the point of convergence of

the ways.

"Secondly, the crag can hardly be described as rising from the meetingpoint of two highways; only one highway passes near it.

"The crag is of so curious a formation geologically, that I can't fancy the poet describing his memory of it, without calling it a terraced hill, or an ascent by natural terraces.

“Then, again, the prospect is not sufficiently extended from it. The stream not near enough, or rather not of size enough, to be heard. Blelham Tarn is not too far to have added to the watery sound, it is true, but the wind we suppose to have been north-east, and the sound of the Blelham Tarn would be much carried away from him.

"The present stone wall is not near the summit, and is of comparatively recent date. It is difficult to believe from the slope of the outcrop of rock that a wall could ever have been at the summit.

"But there are two other vantage grounds intermediate between those extremes, both of which were probably in the mind and memory of the poet as he described the scene, and

'The intermitting prospect of the copse,
And plain beneath,'

allowed him by the mist. One of these is the High Crag, about threequarters of a mile from the divergence or convergence of the two highways, which Dr Cradock has selected.

"There can be no doubt that this is the crag par excellence for a wide and extended look-out over all the country between Outgate and Ambleside. Close at its summit there remain aged thorn trees, but no trace of a wall.

"But High Crag can hardly be said to have risen at the meetingpoint of two highways,' unless we are to understand the epithet 'farstretched' as applying to the south-western slopes or skirts of the hill; and the two highways, the roads between Water Barngates on the west, and the bridle road between Pullwyke and Outgate at their Outgate junction, and this is rather too far a stretch.

"It is quite true that if bridle paths can be described as highways, there may be said to be a meeting-point of these close at the northeastern side of the crag.

"But, remembering that the ponies came from Penrith, the driver was not likely to have had any intimate knowledge of these bridle paths; while, at the same time, on that misty day, I much question whether the boys on the look-out at High Crag could have seen ponies creeping along between walled roads at so great a distance as half a mile or more.

"And this would seem to have been the problem for them on that day. "I ought in fairness to say that it is not likely that the roads were then (as to-day) walled up high on either side. To-day, even from the summit of High Crag, only the head and ears of a pony could be seen as it passed up the Water Barngates Road; but at the end of last century many of the roads were only partially walled off from the moorlands they passed over in the Lake Country.

Still, as I said, High Crag was a point of vantage that the poet, as a lad, must have often climbed, in this part of the country, if he wanted to indulge in the delights of panoramic scene.

"There is a wall some hundred yards from the summit, on the southwesterly flank of High Crag; near this—at a point close by, two large holly trees-the boy might have sheltered himself against the northeastern wind, and have got a closer and better view of the road between Barngates and Outgate, and Randy Pike and Outgate.


'Here, too, he could possibly hear the sound of the stream in the dingle or woody hollow immediately at his feet; but I am far from content with this as being the spot the poet watched from.

"There is again a fourth possible look-out place, to which you will remember I directed your attention, nearer Randy Pike. The slope, covered with larches, rises up from the Randy Pike Road to a precipitous crag which faces north and east.

"From this, a grand view of the country between Randy Pike and Pullwyke is obtained, and if the bridle paths might-as is possible, but unlikely-be called two high ways, then this crag could be spoken of as rising from the meeting place of the two high-ways. For the old Hawkshead Road passed along to the east, within calling distance (say ninety yards), and a bridle road from Pullwyke, now used chiefly

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