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DECEMBER, 1815.

President's Message.

SENATE.

result a disposition is manifested on the part of that decision by the standard of comparative merit could nation, corresponding with the disposition of the Uni- seldom be attained. Judged, however, in candor, by ted States, which, it may be hoped, will be improved a general standard of positive merit, the Army register into liberal arrangements on other subjects, on which will, it is believed, do honor to the establishment; the parties have mutual interests, or which might en while the case of those officers, whose names are not danger their future harmony. Congress will decide included in it, devolves, with the strongest interest, on the expediency of promoting such a sequel, by giv- upon the Legislative authority, for such provision as ing effect to the measure of confining the American shall be deemed the best calculated to give support and navigation to American seamen; a measure which, at solace to the veteran and the invalid ; to display the the same time that it might have that conciliatory ten- beneficence, as well as the justice, of the Government; dency, would have the further advantage of increasing and to inspire a martial zeal for the public service upon the independence of our navigation, and the resources every future emergency. for our maritime defence.

Although the embarrassments arising from the want In conformity with the articles in the Treaty of of an uniform National currency have not been dimin Ghent, relating to the Indians, as well as with a view ished since the adjournment of Congress, great satis. to the tranquillity of our Western and Northern fron- faction has been derived in contemplating the revival tiers, measures were taken to establish an immediate of the public credit, and the efficiency of the public repeace with the several tribes who had been engaged sources. The receipts into the Treasury, from the va, in hostilities against the United States. Such of them rious branches of revenue, during the nine months end. as were invited to Detroit acceded readily to a renewal ing on the 30th of September last, have been estimated of the former treaties of friendship. Of the other tribes at twelve millions and a half of dollars; the issues of who were invited to a station on the Mississippi, the Treasury notes of every denomination, during the same greatest number have also accepted the peace offered period, amounted to the sum of fourteen millions of to them. The residue, consisting of the more distant dollars; and there was also obtained upon loan, during tribes, or parts of tribes, remain to be brought over by the same period, a sum of nine millions of dollars; of further explanations, or by such other means as may be which the sum of six millions of dollars was subscribed adapted to the dispositions they may finally disclose. in cash, and the sum of three millions of dollars in

The Indian tribes within, and bordering on the Treasury notes. With these means, added to the sum Southern frontier, whom a cruel war on their part had of one million and a half of dollars, being the balance compelled us to chastise into peace, have latterly shown of money in the Treasury on the first of January, there a restlessness, which has called for preparatory mea- has been paid, between the first of January and the first sures for repressing it, and for protecting the Commis- of October, on account of the appropriations of the presioners engaged in carrying the terms of peace into ceding and of the present year, (exclusively of the execution.

amount of the Treasury notes subscribed to the loan, The execution of the act for fixing the Military and of the amount redeemed in the payment of duties Peace Establishment, has been attended with difficul- and taxes,) the aggregate sum of thirty-three millions ties which even now can only be overcome by Legis- and a half of dollars, leaving a balance then in the lative aid. The selection of officers ; the payment Treasury estimated at the sum of three millions of dol. and discharge of the troops enlisted for the war; the lars. Independent, however, of the arrearages due for payment of the retained troops, and their re-union military services and supplies, it is presumed that a from detached and distant stations; the collection and further sum of five millions of dollars, including the security of the public property in the Quartermaster, interest on the public debt payable on the first of Jan. Commissary, and Ordnance Departments; and the uary next, will be demanded at the Treasury to comconstant medical assistance required in hospitals and plete the expenditures of the present year, and for garrisons, rendered a complete execution of the act which the existing ways and means will sufficiently impracticable on the first of May, the period more im- provide. mediately. contemplated. As soon, however, as cir- The National debt, as it was ascertained on the first cumstances would permit, and as far as it has been of October last, amounted in the whole to the sum of practicable, consistently with the public interests, the one hundred and twenty millions of dollars, consisting reduction of the Army has been accomplished ; but of the unredeemed balance of the debt contracted bethe appropriations for its pay and for other branches fore the late war, (thirty-nine millions of dollars, the of the military service, having proved inadequate, the amount of the funded debt contracted in consequence earliest attention to that subject will be necessary; of the war, (sixty-four millions of dollars,) and the and the expediency of continuing, upon the Peace Es- amount of the unfunded and floating debt, (including the tablishment, the staff officers who have hitherto been various issues of Treasury notes,) seventeen millions provisionally retained, is also recommended to the con uf dollars, which is in a gradual course of payment. sideration of Congress.

There will, probably, be some addition to the public In the performance of the Executive duty upon this debt, upon the liquidation of various claims, which are occasion, there has not been wanting a just sensibility depending; and a conciliatory disposition on the part to the merits of the American Army during the late of Congress may lead honorably and advantageously war: but the obvious policy and design in fixing an to an equitable arrangement of the militia expenses in. efficient Military Peace Establishment did not afford curred by the several States, without the previous sancan opportunity to distinguish the aged and infirm, on tion or authority of the Government of the United account of their past services; nor the wounded and States; but when it is considered that the new, as disabled, on account of their present sufferings. The well as the old portion of the debt has been contracted extent of the reduction, indeed, unavoidably involved in the assertion of the national rights and indepenthe exclusion of many meritorious officers of every rank dence; and when it is recollected that the public exfrom the service of their country; and so equal, as well penditures, not being exclusively bestowed upon subas so numerous, were the claims to attention, that ajects of a transient nature, will long be visible in the

SENATE.

President's Message.

DECEMBER, 1815.

number and equipments of the American navy, in the ally, the physical power of the Union in the cases demilitary works for the defence of our harbors and our signated by the Constitution. frontiers, and in the supplies of our arsenals and maga- The signal services which have been rendered by zines, the amount will bear a gratifying comparison our Navy, and the capacities it has developed for sucwith the objects which have been attained, as well as cessful co-operation in the national defence, will give with the resources of the country.

to that portion of the public force its full value in the The arrangements of the finances, with a view to eyes of Congress, at an epoch which calls for the conthe receipts and expenditures of a permanent Peace stant vigilance of all Governments. To preserve the Establishment, will necessarily enter into the deliber- ships now in a sound state ; to complete those already ations of Congress during the present session. It is contemplated; to provide amply the imperishable matrue that the improved condition of the public revenue terials for prompt augmentations, and to improve the will not afford the means of maintaining the faith of existing arrangements into more advantageous estabthe Government with its creditors inviolate, and of lishments, for the construction, the repairs, and the prosecuting, successfully, the measures of the most security of the vessels of war, is dictated by the soundliberal policy, but will also justify an immediate alle est policy. viation of the burdens imposed by the necessities of In adjusting the duties on imports, to the object of the war. It is, however, essential to every modifica- revenue, the influence of the tariff on manufactures tion of the finances, that the benefits of an uniform will necessarily present itself for consideration. HowNational currency should be. restored to the commu. ever wise the thcory may be, which leaves to the sanity. The absence of the precious metals will, it is gacity and interest of individuals the application of believed, be a temporary evil; but, until they can again their industry and resources, there are in this, as in be rendered the general medium of exchange, it de- other cases, exceptions to the general rule. Besides volves on the wisdom of Congress to provide a substi, the condition which the theory itself implies, of a retute, which, shall equally engage the confidence, and ciprocal adoption by other nations, experience teaches accommodate the wants of the citizens throughout the that so many circumstances must concur in introducing Union. If the operation of the State banks cannot pro- and maturing manufacturing establishments, especiduce this result, the probable operation of a National ally of the more complicated kinds, that a country Bank will merit consideration; and if neither of these may remain long without them, although sufficiently expedients be deemed effectual, it may become neces- advanced, and, in some respects, even peculiarly fitted sary to ascertain the terms upon which the notes of for carrying them on with success. Under circumthe Government (no longer required as an instrument stances giving a powerful impulse to manufacturing of credit) shall be issued, upon motives of general industry, it has made among us a progress, and exhibpolicy, as a common medium of circulation.

ited an efficiency, which justify the belief that, with a Nothwithstanding the security for future repose, protection not more than is due to the enterprising which the United States ought to find in their love of citizens whose interests are now at stake, it will bepeace, and their constant respect for the rights of other come, at an early day, not only safe against occasional nations, the character of the times particularly incul- competitions from abroad, but a source of domestic cates the lesson, that, whether to prevent or repel dan- wealth, and even of external commerce. In selecting ger, we ought not to be unprepared for it. This con- the branches more especially entitled to the public sideration will sufficiently recommend to Congress a patronage, a preference is obviously claimed by such liberal provision for the immediate extension and gra- as will relieve the United States from a dependence dual completion of the works of defence, both fixed and on foreign supplies, ever subject to casual failures, for floating, on our maritime frontier, and an adequate articles necessary for the public defence, or connected provision for guarding our inland frontier against dan- with the primary wants of individuals. It will be an gers to which certain portions of it may continue to be additional recommendation of particular manufactures, exposed.

where the materials for them are extensively drawn As an improvement in our Military Establishment, from our agriculture, and consequently impart and init will deserve the consideration of Congress, whether sure to that great fund of national prosperity and indea corps of invalids might not be so organized and em- pendence an encouragement which cannot fail to be ployed, as at once to aid in the support of meritorious

rewarded. individuals, excluded by age or infirmities from the Among the means of advancing the public interest, existing establishment, and to procure to the public the occasion is a proper one for recalling the attention the benefit of their stationary services, and of their ex. of Congress to the great importance of establishing emplary discipline. I recommend, also, an enlarge throughout our country the roads and canals wbich ment of the Military Academy, already established, can be best executed, under the national authority. and the establishment of others in other sections of the No objects within the circle of political economy so Union. And I cannot press too much on the atten- richly repay the expense bestowed on them; there are tion of Congress, such a classification and organization none, the utility of which is more universally ascerof the militia as will most effectually render it the safe- tained and acknowledged; none that do more honor guard of a free State. If experience has shown, in the to the Governments whose wise and enlarged patriotrecent splendid achievements of militia, the value of ism duly appreciates them. Nor is there any country this resource for the public defence, it has shown also which presents a field, where nature invites more the the importance of that skill in the use of arms, and art of man, to complete her own work, for his acthat familiarity with the essential rules of discipline, commodation and benefit. These considerations are which cannot be expected from the regulations now strengthened, moreover, by the political effect of these in force. With this subject is intimately connected facilities for intercommunication, in bringing and bindthe necessity of accommodating the laws, in every re-ing more closely together the various parts of our exspect, to the great object of enabling the political au- tended confederacy. Whilst the States, individually, thority of the Union to employ, promptly and effectu- with a laudable enterprise and emulation, avail them.

DECEMBER, 1815.

President's Message.

Senate.

selves of their local advantages, by new roads, by navi- The Message was read, and one thousand and gable canals, and by improving the streams susceptible fifty copies thereof ordered to be printed for the of navigation, the General Government is the more use of the Senate. urged to similar undertakings, requiring a national The resolution, authorizing Mountjoy Bayly jurisdiction, and national means, by the prospect of to employ one assistant and iwo horses, was read thus systematically completing so inestimable a work. the second time, and considered as in Committee And it is a happy reflection, that any defect of Consti- of the Whole; and no amendment having been tutional authority, which may be encountered, can be proposed, the President reported it to the House supplied in a mode which the Constitution itself has accordingly; and the resolution was ordered to providently pointed out.

be engrossed, and read a third time. The present is a favorable season also for bringing

The resolution, for the appointment of Chapagain into view the establishment of a National seminary of learning within the District of Columbia, and lains, was read the second time, and considered with means drawn from the property therein subject to

as in Committee of the Whole; and no amendthe authority of the General Government. Such an ment having been proposed, ihe President reinstitution claims the patronage of Congress, as a mon ported it to the House accordingly; and the ument of their solicitude for the advancement of know. resolution was ordered to be engrossed, and read ledge, without which the blessings of liberty cannot be a third time. fully enjoyed, or long preserved; as a model, instructive in the formation of other seminaries; as a nursery

WEDNESDAY, December 6. of enlightened preceptors; and, as a central resort of youth and genius from every part of their country,

James TURNER, from the State of North Car. diffusing, on their return, examples of those national olina, and John Condit, from the State of New feelings, those liberal sentiments, and those congenial Jersey, respectively took their seats in the Senate. manners, which contribute cement to our union and Mr. ROBERTS presented the petition of Joseph strength to the great political fabric, of which that is C. Morgan, attorney in fact for Xaverio Nandi, the foundation.

late Chargé d'Affaires al Tripoli, stating that In closing this communication, 1 ought not to repress difficulties had arisen which prevented the seta sensibility, in which you will unite, to the happy lottlement of said Xaverio Nandi's account, and of our country, and to the goodness of a superintend- praying that the proper officer of the Governing Providence, to which we are indebted for it. Whilst ment may be authorized to settle and discharge other portions of mankind are laboring under the dis- the same; and the petition was read, and referred tresses of war, or struggling with adversity in other to a select committee, to consider and report forms, the United States are in the tranquil enjoyment thereon by bill or otherwise; and Messrs. ROBof prosperous and honorable peace. In reviewing the ERTS, SANFORD, and Horsey, were appointed scenes through which it has been attained, we can re the committee. joice in the proofs given, that our political institutions,

Mr. HUNTER presented the petition of Jacob founded in human rights, and framed for their preser: Babbit, merchant, of the port of Bristol, in the vation, are equal to the severest trials of war, as well State of Rhode Island, praying the remission of as adapted to the ordinary periods of repose. As fruits duries secured to be paid on a large quantity of of this experience, and of the reputation acquired by the American arms, on the land and on the water, the sugar, which was totally destroyed by the unprenation finds itself possessed of a growing respect cedented storm on the 23d of September last, as abroad, and of a just confidence in itself, which are

therein stated; and the petition was read, and among the best pledges for its peaceful career. Under referred to a select committee, to consider and other aspects of our country, the strongest features of report thereon by bill or otherwise ; and Messrs. its flourishing condition are seen, in a population rap- HUNTER, BIBB, and Howell, were appointed the idly increasing, on a territory as productive as it is ex- committee. tensive ; in a general industry and fertile ingenuity, The resolution for the appointment of Chapwhich find their ample rewards ; and in an affluent lains, was read the third time, and passed as revenue, which admits of a reduction of the public bur. follows: dens, without withdrawing the means of sustaining the Resolved, That two Chaplains, of different depublic credit, of gradually discharging the public debt, nominations, be appointed to Congress, during of providing for the necessary defensive and precau- the present session, one by each House, who shall tionary establishments, and of patronizing, in every interchange weekly. authorized mode, undertakings conducive to the aggre- The resolution authorizing Mountjoy Bayly gate wealth and individual comfort of our citizens. It remains for the guardians of the public welfare, a third time and passed.

to employ one assistant and two horses, was read to persevere in that justice and good will towards other nations, which invite a return of these sentiments towards the United States; to cherish institutions which

THURSDAY, December 7. guarantee their safety and their liberties, civil and religious; and to combine, with a liberal system of for the Legislature of the Siate of Connecticut, for

Samuel W. Dana, appointed a Senator by eign commerce, an improvement of the national ad- the term of six years, commencing on the 4th vantages, and a protection and extension of the inde- day of March last, produced his credentials

, was pendent resources of our highly favored and happy qualified, and he took his seat in the Senate. country. In all measures having such objects, my faithful co

JEREMIAH MORROW, from the State of Ohio, operation will be afforded. JAMES MADISON.

also took his seat in the Senate. WASHINGTOX, December 5, 1815.

Mr. HORSEY, from the joint committee appoint

SENATE.
President's Message.

DECEMBER, 1813 for the accommodation of Congress may be ob- A message from the House of Representative tained, until the Capitol may be ready for their informed the Senate, that a quorum of the Hous reception.

of Representatives is assembled, and have electe Resolved, That Messrs. HORSEY, Lacock, and HENRY Clay, one of the Representatives for th FROMENTIN, be the committee on the part of the State of Kentucky, their Speaker, and TROMA Senate.

DOUGHERTY, their 'Clerk, and are ready to pro On motion, by Mr. VARNUM,

ceed to business. They have appointed a com Resolved, That each Senator be supplied, dur- mittee on their part, to join the committee ap ing the present session, with three such newspa- pointed on the part of the Senate, to wait on the pers, printed in any of the States, as he may President of the United States, and inform

him choose; provided the same be furnished at the that a quorum of the two Houses is assembled, usual rate for the annual charge of such papers; and ready to receive any communications he and provided, also, that- if any Senator shall may be pleased to make to them. They concur choose to take any newspapers other than daily in ihe resolution of the Senate for the appointpapers; he shall be supplied with as many such mept of a joint committee on the arrangements papers, as shall not exceed the price of three for the library, and have appointed a committee daily papers.

on their part. They also concur in the resolu. On motion, by Mr. Lacock, a committee was tion of the Senate for the appointment of a joint appointed agreeably to the forty-second rule for committee, to inquire and report of the state of conducting business in the Senate; and Messrs. the new building on Capitol Hill, offered for the LACOCK, HOWELL, and DAGGETT, were appointed accommodation of Congress, and have appointed the committee.

a committee on their part. On motion, by Mr. FROMENTIN, a committee Mr. VARNUM reported, from the joint commitwas appointed agreeably to the twenty-second tee, that they had waited on the President of the rule for conducting business in the Senate; and United States, and that the President informed Messrs. FROMENTIN, SANFORD, and Tichenon, the committee, that he would make a communiwere appointed the committee.

cation to the two Houses this day at 12 o'clock. Mr. FROMENTIN submitted the following motion for consideration, which was read, aod or

PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. dered to the second reading:

The following Message was received from the Resolved, That a committee of three members be PRESIDENT OF TAE UNITED STATES: appointed, who, with three members of the House of Fellow-citizens of the Senate Representatives, to be appointed by that House, shall and House of Representatives : have the direction of the money appropriated to the I have the satisfaction, on our present meeting, of purchase of books and maps, for the use of the two being able to communicate to you the successful termiHouses of Congress.

nation of the war which had been commenced against On motion, by Mr. Lacock, it was read a sec- the United States by the Regency of Algiers. The ond time by unanimous consent, and considered squadron in advance on that service, under Commoas in Committee of the Whole, and no amend- dore Decatur, lost not a moment after its arrival in the ment having been proposed, the President re- Mediterranean, in seeking the naval force of the enemy ported it to the House accordingly; and on the then cruising in that sea, and succeeded in capturing question,." Sball this resolution be engrossed and two of his ships, one of them the principal ship, comread a third time?" it was determined in the affir- manded by the Algerine Admiral. The high character mative. It was then read a third time by unani- of the American commander was brilliantly sustained mous consent, and passed; and Messrs. FROMEN- action with that of his adversary, as was the accus

on the occasion, which brought his own ship into close TIN, HUNTER, and GOLDSBOROUGH, were ap- tomed gallantry of all the officers and men actually pointed the committee. Mr. Howell submitted a motion for the ap- stration of American skill and prowess, he hastened to

engaged. Having prepared the way by this demonpointment of two Chaplains, of different denomi- the port of Algiers, where peace was promptly yielded nations, to Congress, during the present session, to his victorious force. In the terms stipulated, the one by each House, who shall interchange week- rights and honor of the United States were particularly ly; which was read, and passed to the second consulted, by a perpetual relinquishment, on the part reading.

of the Dey, of all pretensions to tribute from them. Mr. Lacock submitted the following motion The impressions which have thus been made, strengthe for consideration, which was read:

ened as they will have been,

by subsequent transacResolved, That Mountjoy Bayly, Doorkeeper and tions with the Regencies of Tunis and of Tripoli, by Sergeant-at-Arms to the Senate, be, and he hereby is, the appearance of the larger force which followed unauthorized to employ one assistant and two horses, for der Commodore Bainbridge, the chief in command of the purpose of performing such services as are usually the expedition, and by the judicious precautionary ar. required by the Doorkeeper of the Senate ; which ex. rangements left by him in that quarter, afford a reapense shall be paid out of the contingent fund. sonable prospect of future security, for the valuable Ordered, That it pass to the second reading. portion of our commerce which passes within reach

of the Barbary cruisers.

is another source of satisfaction that the Treaty of Tuesday, December 5.

Peace with Great Britain bas been succeeded by a William W. BIBB, from the State of Georgia, Convention on the subject of commerce, concluded by took his seat in the Senate.

the Plenipotentiaries of the two countries. In this

DECEMBER, 1815.
President's Message.

SENATE. result a disposition is manifested on the part of that decision by the standard of comparative merit could nation, corresponding with the disposition of the Uni- seldom be attained. Judged, however, in candor, by ted States, which, it may be hoped, will be improved a general standard of positive merit, the Army register into liberal arrangements on other subjects, on which will

, it is believed, do honor to the establishment; the parties have mutual interests, or which might en while the case of those officers, whose names are not danger their future harmony. Congress will decide included in it, devolves, with the strongest interest, on the expediency of promoting such a sequel, by giv- upon the Legislative authority, for such provision as ing effect to the measure of confining the American shall be deemed the best calculated to give support and navigation to American seamen; a measure which, at solace to the veteran and the invalid ; to display the the same time that it might have that conciliatory ten- beneficence, as well as the justice, of the Government; dency, would have the further advantage of increasing and to inspire a martial zeal for the public service upon the independence of our navigation, and the resources every future emergency. for our maritime defence.

Although the embarrassments arising from the want In conformity with the articles in the Treaty of of an uniform National currency have not been dimine Ghent, relating to the Indians, as well as with a view ished since the adjournment of Congress, great satisto the tranquillity of our Western and Northern fron- faction has been derived in contemplating the revival tiers, measures were taken to establish an immediate of the public credit, and the efficiency of the public repeace with the several tribes who had been engaged sources. The receipts into the Treasury, from the va, in hostilities against the United States. Such of them rious branches of revenue, during the nine months endas were invited to Detroit acceded readily to a renewal ing on the 30th of September last, have been estimated of the former treaties of friendship. Of the other tribes at twelve millions and a half of dollars; the issues of who were invited to a station on the Mississippi, the Treasury notes of every denomination, during the same greatest number have also accepted the peace offered period, amounted to the sum of fourteen millions of to them. The residue, consisting of the more distant dollars; and there was also obtained upon loan, during tribes, or parts of tribes, remain to be brought over by the same period, a sum of nine millions of dollars; of further explanations, or by such other means as may be which the sum of six millions of dollars was subscribed adapted to the dispositions they may finally disclose.

in cash, and the sum of three millions of dollars in The Indian tribes within, and bordering on the Treasury notes. With these means, added to the sum Southern frontier, whom a cruel war on their part had of one million and a half of dollars, being the balance compelled us to chastise into peace, have latterly shown of money in the Treasury on the first of January, there a restlessness, which has called for preparatory mea- has been paid, between the first of January and the first sures for repressing it, and for protecting the Commis- of October, on account of the appropriations of the presioners engaged in carrying the terms of peace into ceding and of the present year, (exclusively of the execution.

amount of the Treasury notes subscribed to the loan, The execution of the act for fixing the Military and of the amount redeemed in the payment of duties Peace Establishment, has been attended with difficul- and taxes,) the aggregate sum of thirty-three millions ties which even now can only be overcome by Legis- and a half of dollars, leaving a balance then in the lative aid. The selection of officers; the payment Treasury estimated at the sum of three millions of dol. and discharge of the troops enlisted for the war; the lars. Independent, however, of the arrearages due for payment of the retained troops, and their re-union military services and supplies, it is presumed that a from detached and distant stations; the collection and further sum of five millions of dollars, including the security of the public property in the Quartermaster, interest on the public debt payable on the first of Jan. Commissary, and Ordnance Departments; and the uary next, will be demanded at the Treasury to comconstant medical assistance required in hospitals and plete the expenditures of the present year, and for garrisons, rendered a complete execution of the act which the existing ways and means will sufficiently impracticable on the first of May, the period more im- provide. mediately contemplated. As soon, however, as cir.

The National debt, as it was ascertained on the first cumstances would permit, and as far as it has been of October last, amounted in the whole to the sum of practicable, consistently with the public interests, the one hundred and twenty millions of dollars, consisting reduction of the Army has been accomplished ; but of the unredeemed balance of the debt contracted bethe appropriations for its pay and for other branches fore the late war, (thirty-nine millions of dollars, the of the military service, having proved inadequate, the amount of the funded debt contracted in consequence earliest attention to that subject will be necessary ; of the war, (sixty-four millions of dollars,) and the and the expediency of continuing, upon the Peace Es- amount of the unfunded and floating debt, (including the tablishment, the staff officers who have hitherto been various issues of Treasury notes, seventeen millions provisionally retained, is also recommended to the con- of dollars, which is in a gradual course of payment. sideration of Congress.

There will, probably, be some addition to the public In the performance of the Executive duty upon this debt, upon the liquidation of various claims, which are occasion, there has not been wanting a just sensibility depending; and a conciliatory disposition on the part to the merits of the American Army during the late of Congress may lead honorably and advantageously war: but the obvious policy and design in fixing an to an equitable arrangement of the militia expenses in. efficient Military Peace Establishment did not afford curred by the several States, without the previous sancan opportunity to distinguish the aged and infirm, on tion or authority of the Government of the United account of their past services; nor the wounded and States; but when it is considered that the new, as disabled, on account of their present sufferings. The well as the old portion of the debt has been contracted extent of the reduction, indeed, unavoidably involved in the assertion of the national rights and indepenthe exclusion of many meritorious officers of every rank dence; and when it is recollected that the public exfrom the service of their country; and so equal, as well penditures, not being exclusively bestowed upon subas so numerous, were the claims to attention, that a jects of a transient nature, will long be visible in the

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