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able active added adverbs analogy ancillary aorist appear auxiliary become causal cause classical comes common compound conjugation conjunctive connected construction corresponding definite derived dialects double employed ending examples existence expressed fall final frequently further future give given Grammar Gujarati hear Hindi idea imperative imperfect implies infinitive inserted instances languages latter literally Marathi meaning modern naturally neuter noun occurs ordinary origin Pali Panjabi pass passive past participle perhaps person phrase plural poets Prakrit present present participle preserved preterite probably referred regarded remains respectively root Sanskrit seems seen sense shortened side similar simple Sindhi sing singular sometimes speak stand stem suffixes syllable tenses terminations thou traces verb verbal vowel whence write written
Página 130 - If a person speaks with the greatest humility of himself, or with the greatest contempt of another, he employs this form, but it is not found in good composition. From these strictures, however, the third person must be exempted, as it is used in all good composition for expressing common facts or events, and will on that ground in future be embodied in the honorific form of conjugation.
Página 75 - Gujarati ughaad- /ughad-), mod- 'break (tr, intr)', samadz- 'understand/be understandable'. According to Beames (1872:75), these are distinguished conjugationally. The latter writer, however, was also moved to say that "Marathi stands 65 alone in respect of its causal, and as in so many other points, exhibits a hesitation and confusion which confirm the impression of its being a backward language which has not so thoroughly emancipated itself from the Prakrit stage as the others.
Página 229 - Next morning he woke and arose, bathed, ate, dressed, collected his goods, loaded them on his camel, bade farewell to his friend, and started on his journey," the Indian languages would say, "Having woken, having risen, having bathed, having eaten, having dressed, having collected his goods, having loaded them on his camel, having bidden farewell to his friend, having started on his journey, he went.
Página 178 - This is a case of forgetfulness of the •origin of a word leading to its use being extended to cases where it has no right to be, for is clearly derived from ^rfW, the Pr. form of ^rf^I with <rf prefixed, and thus, strictly speaking, belongs only to the 3 sing.
Página 205 - There is perhaps implied the idea of the action having been performed some time ago and being still in force, so that it harmonized with the usually continuative meaning of ho as an auxiliary in Panjdbi.
Página 215 - ... -ives. It would, perhaps, be simpler not to seek to invent names for all, or any of them, but merely to note the combinations that exist with their meanings. Indeed, it is hardly possible to group them into classes, because, in practice, some ancillaries may be combined with any verb in the language, while others again can only be combined with one or two specific verbs. Moreover, there are exceptions to the general rule that a verb with an ancillary runs through the whole range of tenses, for...
Página 149 - suppose that д^я is in some way a metathesis of us ne Icitd. The Instrumental however of uh is not us ne, but un. Ue ne is Hindi, and it would hardly have been resorted to in the formation of a pure dialectic type like this. Moreover in the J 1st plural we have such expressions as qfe JJT, which is evidently íhánde san for asá=asmáh.
Página 183 - The aphaeresis of an initial consonant is rare. In scenic Prakrit it is confined almost entirely to the root 'TJ (jana), as in dndsi =jdndsi, dnabedi = djndpayati, etc. Also in uno =punah, and a few other words.