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States, without the previous sanction or authority of the government of the United States: but when it is considered that the new, as well as the old, portion of the debt has been contracted in the assertion of the national rights and independence; and when it is recollected, that the public expenditures, not being exclusively bestowed upon subjects of a transient nature, will long be visible in the number and equipments of the American navy, in the military works for the defence of our . harbours and our frontiers, and in the supplies of,
our arsenals and magazines; the amount will bear a gratifying comparison with the objects which have been attained, as well as with the resources of the country.
The arrangements of the finances, with a view to the receipts and expenditures of a permanent peace establishment, will necessarily enter into the deliberations of congress during the present session. It is true that the improved condition of the public revenue will not only afford the means of maintaining the faith of the government, with its creditors inviolate, and of prosecuting, successfully, the measures of the most liberal policy ; but will, also, justify an immediate alleviation of the burdens imposed by the necessities of the war. It is, however, essential to every modification of the finances, that the benefits of an uniform national currency should be restored to the community. The absence of the precious metals will, it is believed, be a temporary evil; but, until they can again
effectual, it may
be rendered the general medium of exchange, it devolves on the wisdom of congress, to provide a substitute, which shall equally engage the confidence, and accommodate the wants, of the citizens throughout the union. If the operation of the State banks cannot produce this result, the probable operation of a National Bank will merit considera tion; and, if neither of these expedients be deemed
become necessary to ascertain the terms upon which the notes of the government (no longer required as an instrument of credit) shall be issued, upon motives of general policy, as a common medium of circulation.
Notwithstanding the security for future repose, which the United States ought to find in their love
and their constant respect for the rights of other nations, the character of the times particularly inculcates the lesson, that, whether to
prevent or repel danger, we ought not to be unprepared for it. This consideration will sufficiently recommend to congress a liberal provision for the immediate extension, and gradual completion, of the works of defence, both fixed and floating, on our maritime frontier; and an adequate provision for guarding our inland frontier against dangers to which certain portions of it may continue to be exposed.
As an improvement in our military establishment, it will deserve the consideration of congress, whether a corps of invalids might not be so organized and employed, as at once to give support. to meritorious individuals, excluded by age or infirmities, from the existing establishment, and to preserve to the public, the benefit of their stationary services, and of their exemplary discipline. I recommend, also, an enlargement of the military academy, already established, and the establishment of others in other sections of the union. And I cannot press too much on the attention of congress, such a classification and organization of the militia, as will most effectually render it the safeguard of a free state. If experience has shewn in the recent splendid achievements of militia, the value of this resource for the public defence, it has shewn also the importance of that skill in the use of arms, and that familiarity with the essential rules of discipline, which cannot be expected from the regulations now in force. With this subject is intimately connected the necessity of accommodating the laws, in every respect, to the great object of enabling the political authority of the union, to employ, promptly and effectually, the physical power of the union, in the cases designated by the constitution.
The signal services which have been rendered by our navy, and the capacities it has developed for successful co-operation in the national defence, will give to that portion of the public force, its full value in the eyes of congress, at an epoch which calls for the constant vigilance of all governments, To preserve the ships now in sound state ; to complete those already contemplated; to provide amply the imperishable materials for prompt aug, mentations, and to improve the existing arrangements into more advantageous establishments, for the construction, the repairs, and the security of vessels of war, is dictated by the soundest policy.
In adjusting the duties on imports, to the object of revenue, the influence of the tariff on manufactures, will necessarily present itself for consideration. However wise the theory may be, which leaves to the sagacity and interest of individuals the application of their industry and resources, there are in this, as in other cases, exceptions to the general rule. Besides the condition which the theory itself implies, of a reciprocal adoption by other nations, experience teaches that so many circumstances must concur in introducing and maturing manufacturing establishments, especially of the more complicated kinds, that a country may remain long without them, although sufficiently advanced, and in some respects even peculiarly fitted for carrying them on with success. Under circumstances giving a powerful impulse to manufacturing industry, it has made among us a progress, and exhibited an efficiency, which justify the belief, that with a protection not more than is due to the enterprising citizens whose interests are now at stake, it will become, at an early day, not only sase against occasional competitions from abroad, but a source of domestic wealth, and even of external commerce. In selecting the branches more especially entitled to the public patronage, a preference is obviously claimed by such as will relieve the United States from a dependence on foreign supplies, ever subject to casual failures, for articles necessary for the public defence, or connected with the primary wants of individuals. It will be an additional reeommendation of particular manufactures, where the materials for them are extensively drawn from our agriculture, and consequently impart and insure to that great fund of national prosperity and independence, an encouragement which cannot fail to be rewarded.
Among the means of advancing the public interest, the occasion is a proper one for recalling the attention of congress to the great importance of establishing throughout our country the roads and canals which can best be executed, under the national authority. No objects within the circle of political economy so richly repay
the stowed on them; there are none, the utility of which is more universally ascertained and acknowledged; none that do more honour to the
governments whose wise and enlarged patriotism duly appreciates them. Nor is there any country which presents a field, where nature invites more the art of man, to complete her own work for his accommodation and benefit. These considerations are strengthened, moreover, by the political effect of these facilities for intercommunication, in bringing and binding more closely together the various parts of our extended confederacy. Whilst the States, individually, with a laudable enterprise and emulation, avail themselves of their local advantages, by