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the cold ice-king, the enemy and despoiler of the planted crops of man. In whatever Tawis'kara' did, he was instigated and abetted by his grandmother E-ya'-ta-hěn'-tsik, the goddess of night and the earth. The effects of frost and cold are best seen in the morning, when the god of ice and cold has accomplished his nefarious work under cover of darkness."
13 (p. 145).—The Tobacco Nation adjoined the Huron territory on the west (vol. v., note 18).
14 (p. 153). This legend, in one form or another, was current among all the Algonkin nations. Moore's ballad, "The Lake of the Dismal Swamp," preserves in outline the version of the Powhatans or some kindred tribe in Virginia. The version found among the Ottawas in Ontario is known by the name of "The White Stone Canoe;" and the Manitoba Algonkins held it in remembrance in the beautiful legend of "Qu'appelle ?" ("Who calls ?").- See Maclean's Indians; their Manners and Customs (Toronto, 1889), p. 179. The occurrence of this legend among the Hurons, in the form given by Brébeuf in the text, suggests their long residence near the Algonkins.-A. F. HUNTER.
15 (p. 159). The offering of tobacco was one of the commonest rites among the Indian tribes, especially the Algonkins. Several places on the east shore of Georgian Bay are still shown where until recent years they made these offerings; that located about twenty miles north of Parry Sound, rather than another on Christian Island, suggests the place mentioned in the text.-A. F. HUNTER.
Cf. Hariot's Brief and true report of Virginia (De Bry's ed., Frankfort, 1590), p. 16: "This Vppówoc [tobacco] is of so precious estimation amongest them, that they thinke their gods are maruelously delighted therwith: Wherupon sometime they make hallowed fires & cast some of the pouder therein for a sacrifice: being in a storme vppon the waters, to pacifie their gods, they cast some vp into the aire and into the water: so a weare for fish being newly set vp, they cast some therein and into the aire: also after an escape of danger, they cast some into the aire likewise: but all done with strange gestures, stamping, some dauncing, clapping of hands, holding vp of hands, & staring vp into the heauens, vttering therewithal and chattering strange words and noises."
Cf. also Perrot (Tailhan's ed.), p. 20: “In journeys that they undertake, whether short or long, they utter invocations after this fashion: Thou who art the master of the winds, be favorable to our journey, and give us calm weather.' This is said while smoking a pipe of tobacco, the smoke of which they toss into the air. . . . If in winter they have to make an extraordinary journey upon the ice, there is a certain spirit that they invoke for this pur
pose, called by the Algonkins Mateomek, to whom they similarly offer tobacco-smoke, praying him to be favorable to them and propitious during their march."
Of interest in this connection are the following statements regarding the tobacco used in religious rites: Smith says, "It may be worthy of remark that the tobacco burnt as an offering to the Hondő'-i, and in other religious ceremonies, is not the ordinary tobacco of commerce, but the original tobacco of the Iroquois, which they still cultivate for that purpose. I have not yet been able to ascertain whether this plant is identical with that (N. quadrivalvis ?) which the Prince of Neuwied cites as being raised in his time, and used only for similar purposes and for smoking on solemn occasions by the Mandans and Meunitarris of the Upper Missouri.” Beauchamp says, "The small tobacco which the New York Onondagas raise, and which all seem to prefer, is called O-yen-kwa honwe, or 'real tobacco.' It is N. rustica (Linn.), introduced by the Indians in Western New York, and sparingly naturalized there. It may be the old kind from which the Tobacco Nation of Canada had its name."-See Jour. of Amer. Folk-Lore, vol. i., pp. 193, 196.
16 (p. 165).—This superstition as to drowning is remarkably similar to that current among the Mississagas and other Algonkin tribes of this region before their Christianization in recent years. Susanna Moodie, a Canadian authoress, writing half a century ago of the Mississagasin Roughing it in the Bush (London, 1850; Canad. reprint, Toronto, 1870), p. 302—says: "The soul of an Indian that has been drowned is reckoned accursed, and he is never permitted to join his tribe in the happy hunting grounds, but his spirit haunts the lake or river in which he lost his life. His body is buried on some lonely island, which the Indians never pass without leaving a small portion of food, tobacco, or ammunition, to supply his wants; but he is never interred with the rest of his people.”—A. F. HUNTER. 17 (p. 177). — This passage is obscure in meaning-as regards both the French phrase, qui retire au Lyon par la queue, and the myth related of the origin of the Hurons. J. N. B. Hewitt explains it as follows: "It is probable that Brébeuf here refers to a legend (imperfectly comprehended by him) that is found to this day, in several versions, among the tribes of the Six Nations,—which may be briefly stated thus: It was the invariable custom of a certain noted hunter to sacrifice to the fowls of the air and the beasts of the forest the first game animal he might kill, in every hunting expedition. This was very acceptable to the fowls and the beasts. One day it came to pass that the enemies of the hunter's people made an incursion, and killed, among many others, this famous hunter. His death becoming known to the birds and beasts of prey, they greatly
mourned his loss; and at a grand council held by them, their chiefs resolved to restore their friend to life. The legend relates that their purpose was accomplished at a great feast. The several versions of the legend differ as to the chief actors in this alleged resuscitation of a human being; but they all agree that it was the chiefs of the beasts and birds of prey who took part in the affair. In the story here told by Brébeuf, the panther, the wolf, and the owl are the conspicuous figures. The sovereign remedy used on this occasion was, chiefly through the instrumentality of the wolves, bestowed by the assembly on man, as a gift, and is still in great repute and use among the Iroquois; it is called Kanu ta'. It cures wounds and internal injuries. It is difficult to identify the animal called Ontarraoura. The Hurons probably had, like the Iroquois, several versions of this legend, in which different animals were given preëminence."
W. M. Beauchamp suggests another interpretation: "The whole is a fable, though a reference to the Petun Wolf tribe is ingenious. I have little doubt that Ontarraoura is the panther, which alone of our Northern quadrupeds draws near or is allied to the lion by its tail (its distinguishing feature to a primitive people),—so much so, that it is sometimes called the American lion. It is a nocturnal animal, and so the owl would be the one to observe it. The Jesuits never mention this animal elsewhere, and perhaps the Hurons seldom saw it, as it frequents mountains. Professor Baird says that its habitat extends as far as 50° or even 60° N. lat., in mountains; but De Kay thinks its present northern (limits in the East) do not extend beyond New York. The latter also says that 'the screams attributed to this animal during the night are supposed by many hunters to proceed from some species of owl'—an odd coincidence, in view of the legend related by Brébeuf."
18 (p. 179).—The village of Andiata was notable for the feasts and minor councils held there,- chiefly because of its central location (near the center of Tiny township). This place and Onentisati were close to the fork of the forest trail- one of its branches leading to Ossossané, the other to St. Michael and St. Joseph.— A. F. HUNTER.
19 (p. 185).- Crosse (from Lat. crux, through L. Lat. crucia; Eng. "crozier," in allusion to the shape of the implement used in the game) was a favorite sport of many North American tribes. It is thus described by Perrot (Tailhan's ed.), pp. 43-46: "There is among them a certain game, 'crosse,' which has much similarity to ours of tennis. In playing this, it is their custom to set tribe against tribe, in equal numbers. Each person is equipped with a crosse,- that is, a staff which has a great curve at the end, laced
like a racket; the ball that they use in playing is of wood, and nearly the shape of a turkey's egg. The goals of the game are marked off on a level surface, and face the points of the compass. In order to win the game, one of the two parties must, in its progress, carry its ball beyond the eastern and western goals-the other, beyond the northern and southern. Men, women, girls, and boys are admitted to the games that take place, and bet against one another—the wagers being more or less valuable, according to the means of each. These games usually begin after the melting of the winter's ice, and last until seed-time.
All assemble in a body, in the middle of the place selected; and one of the chiefs of the two parties, who holds the ball in his hands, throws it in the air. Each player undertakes to send it to that side for which he is bound; if it fall to the ground, he endeavors to draw it toward him with his crosse; and if it is sent outside the crowd of players, this is an opportunity for the most alert to distinguish themselves beyond the others by closely following it. One can hear the noise they make in striking against one another, while they strive to ward off the blows in order to send the ball in a favorable direction. If one keeps it between his feet, without letting it escape, it is for him to avoid the blows that his adversaries rain incessantly upon his feet; and if, in this encounter, he happens to be wounded, that is his own affair. Some of them are seen with broken legs or arms, and some even have been killed. It is very common to see them crippled for the rest of their days.”
Charlevoix gives the following account of the game (Journ. Hist.. p. 319), as played by the Miamis: "It is played with a Ball, and with Staffs recurved and terminated by a sort of Racket. Two Posts are set up, which serve as Bounds, and which are distant from each other in proportion to the number of Players. For instance, if there are eighty of these, there will be a half-league between the Posts. The Players are divided into two bands, each having its own Post; and it is a question of driving the Ball as far as the Post of the opposing Party, without falling upon the ground or being touched by the hand. If either of these happens, the Game is lost,— unless he who has committed the mistake repairs it, by driving the Ball with one stroke to the Bound, which is often impossible. These Savages are so adroit in catching the Ball with their Crosses, that these Games sometimes last several days in succession."
Lafitau (Mœurs des Sauvages, part 2, p. 356) quotes Pollux to show that crosse is precisely the same as the Greek game of episkyros; Tailhan thinks it resembles the palican of the Chilean aborigines; and Clapin (Dict. Canad.-Fran.) says that it is almost the same as the soule of the Ardennes mountaineers in France, and,
in the opinion of many, is but a modification of the latter game as brought hither by the first French colonists of America.
Crosse (in modern phrase, "lacrosse ") has been the national game of Canada since 1859-adopted from the Indian game, with modifications and improvements which have rendered it less dangerous and more scientific. For description and history of the modern game, see Lowe's "Lacrosse," in Athletic Sports in America, England, and Australia (Phila., 1889), pp. 519-543. The earlier form of the game, as played by the Indians, is described by one of their own race, George Copway, in his Traditional History of the Ojibway Nation (London, 1850), pp. 42-47. Cf. Hoffman's account of this sport among the Menomonees, in Bur. Ethn. Rep., 1892-93, pp. 127-136; and Mooney's, among the Cherokees, in Amer. Anthrop., vol. iii., pp. 105–132.
A game of ball was made, by stratagem, the opportunity for the capture of old Fort Mackinac from the English, during the Pontiac uprising (June 4, 1763).
20 (p. 203).- Angwiens (also written Angoutenc) was the nearest of all the towns to the capital, Ossossané, and was situated on the trail leading thence to the mission towns in northern Tiny. In 1636, Angwiens was but newly laid out.-A. F. HUNTER.
21 (p. 219).—Concerning the use of tobacco, see vol. vi., note 25. Much curious information about this plant, and its history, culture, use, manufacture, and commerce, is given in Tatham's Essay on Tobacco (London, 1800); Billings's Tobacco (Hartford, 1875); and Fairholt's Tobacco (London, 1876). For bibliography of the subject, see Bragge's Bibliotheca nicotiana (Birmingham, Eng., 1880). 22 (p. 235).- Arendoronnons: see vol. viii., note 24.
23 (p. 285).—The village of Aronté (where was established the mission of Ste. Madeleine) is located by Du Creux's map on the west shore of Tiny township, near Dault's Bay. Taché seems to have regarded it as farther inland, although Du Creux's location corresponds much better with the references in the text. Remains of sites have been found, however, agreeing with both positions cited.-A. F. HUNTER.