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New occasions teach new duties,

Time makes ancient good uncouth; They must upward still and onward

Who would keep abreast of Truth.

Lo, before us gleam her camp-fires !

We ourselves must pilgrims be; Launch our Mayflower and steer boldly

Through the desperate winter sea.

When a deed is done for Freedom,

Through the broad earth's aching breast Runs a thrill of joy prophetic,

Trembling on from east to west.

For mankind is one in spirit,

And an instinct bears along,
Round the earth's electric circle,
The swift flash of Right or wrong.

JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL. у

PREFACE

I

N the month of May, 1920, the author attended a convention at Palo Alto and Stanford University

Memorial Church, California. At this convention it was impressed upon all present that there was a great need of teaching Righteousness to the children in the schools.

This teaching was called the Fourth “R” as distinguished from the three “R's” (Readin', 'Ritin', and 'Rithmetic), representing intellectual culture.

For two days business was neglected and the spirit of the convention grew upon the writer. He was moved by the great injustice to the children by the failure of the schools of our country to teach them the fundamentals of character looking to the best citizenship and the higher ideals of Americanism, so he began immediately to solve the problem.

A resolution was drawn covering the program and was presented to one of our distinguished judges of the State Supreme Court for amendment or change. After looking over the resolution he suggested that it did not need any change. He then recommended that the resolution be sent to one of our leading statesmen for consideration. This was done.

As a result of the correspondence begun at that time many letters of approval were received from leading educators, statesmen, professional and business men scattered throughout the country, and even from South America and India.

The following is the resolution first written:

RESOLUTION WHEREAS, one of the outstanding lessons of the great war, as observed by keen visioned men and women of the land, is the large need of adding to the intellectual culture and education of our schools and colleges a moral and spiritual atmosphere leading to righteousness with proper conceptions of life, duty and obligation, so that the future electorate of our country may be qualified to perform the functions of government with wisdom and a larger American spirit.

And WHEREAS, there is a general desire on the part of educators to provide the means and common ground by which such education may be given, we would recommend that the government urge the insertion into our text-books, teachings to develop such sentiment consistent with the higher ideals of Americanism.

We would also recommend that the basis of said instruction be the goodness of God with the view that men should honour Him: and that altruism should prevail among men without regard to creed or sect with the purpose of establishing a permanent peace.

Believing that there is need for a treatise on the subject of the "Fourth 'R'" as differentiated from the “Three 'R's'" (Readin', 'Ritin', and 'Rithmetic) which represent intellectual culture, and that the “Fourth 'R'” Righteousness, or Right Relations, should find a place in our school system, the writer has undertaken to point out some of the higher ideals of life which should be taught without infringing upon any creed or sect.

The ideals and lessons coming under this head are such as would be considered wholesome to men of all creeds, and, if followed, would certainly form a fiber of character worthy of emulation by men, women and children of all denominations, races and governments.

The higher ideals of Americanism fall under the teachings of “The Fourth 'R'" and should find a place in the lives and character of every American citizen.

Our country has been very neglectful in failing to teach our children these principles, and, as a result, many of the older and adult citizens have grown up without these higher ideals which would promise better citizenship.

Before beginning to write this book, the great need of such work was pointed out by the writer to many leading citizens of the country-practically all conceded the need, and expressed a hope that something might be done to relieve the situation.

Several prominent educators and authors were asked to write a book such as might be acceptable without infringing upon the various sects and creeds. But all appeared to be engaged in other work, with time so occupied in their several spheres of life that they could not be persuaded to undertake the task.

The writer was so impressed with the great need, and feeling that the pupils and students of our schools were suffering a great wrong at the hands of their seniors, he was impelled to undertake the work.

As this book is practically a pioneer in the field, it is hoped that other writers may see their way clear to follow with more elaborate and scientific findings along the lines herein indicated.

By the advice of a leading educator this treatise is framed as a reading book; but so arranged in chapters that it may be taken up for study under the various heads for use as a text-book.

As a further explanation as to the meaning and scope of the “Fourth ‘R,'” the writer would point out its province and purpose in the following pages relative to the Declaration of Independence, and the higher ideals of Americanism.

In the Declaration of Independence we have not only a political document-declaring the purposes of the Colonists to separate themselves from the mother country and to establish a new and independent government, but we have a Spiritual Declaration, recognizing Divine Providence, the Altruistic Purposes of Justice, and Democracy, and recognition of equality of men looking to the purpose of establishing the “right to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness," pledging, as it were, each to other to carry out this declaration.

We have then a spiritual law or declaration woven into the political purpose as a background, setting forth the aspirations and objects of the proposed new government. We have here also the nuptials of the two declarations, the spiritual and the political, to carry out the purposes of which the political constitution was framed later: and it appears that the constitution was framed to support and carry out the objects and purpose of the former.

After the political purposes of the Declaration of Independence had been accomplished and the Colonists had acquired their independence, George Washington, as an exponent of the spiritual purposes of the Declaration declared himself as standing upon the platform of Divine Providence (Goodness of God), Justice, and Altruism, when he took the oath of office and placed his hand upon the Scripture passage, Micah sixth chapter, eighth verse, “What doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy and walk humbly with thy God.”

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