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trial of Sacheverell. The dissolution was an appeal from the Queen to her subjects, against the dictation of the Whigs: an appeal from the friends of the Church, to be delivered from the yoke of those who were believed to be the enemies of the Church. The Tories were the peace party, and the country was tired of the war; and, with these mingled recommendations to popular support, the triumph of the new Government was a foregone conclusion. The Tory majority of 1710 was so far from being a freak,' that in 1713 it was renewed; and in 1716 the Government was obliged to pass the Septennial Act, to prevent it from being renewed again. It was not till Sir Robert Walpole came to an understanding with the Church, on what Lord Beaconsfield called “the best-bargain principle,' that the Tories ceased to be formidable.

The key to the whole situation was the Church question, and unless we recognize this truth, we shall never understand the history of that period. During the thirty years that followed the Revolution, the mission of the Tory Party was the defence of the Church of England. That there was a party in the country which would have willingly made great alterations in her constitution and ritual, is as certain as that the bulk of the nation. was devotedly attached to both. The Tory party was therefore in this respect the national party; and it is idle to say that their vigilance was unnecessary, because no attack was made, or that nothing was intended, because nothing was done. Who shall say that it was not the consciousness of a strong Tory party existing throughout the whole kingdom, ready to rise as

man in defence of the Church, that kept her enemies inactive? Whether the undisputed supremacy of the Church of England throughout the greater part of the eighteenth century was for good or for evil; whether the sober piety' which she is thought to have fostered be a subject for reverence or derision; whether the affection and respect which she inspired in the people was due to her own merits or to their ignorance : however these questions may be answered, the fact that she has come down to us as she now is, and that we have preserved intact her ordinances, ceremonies, and Liturgy, is due to the Tory party under William, Anne, and George I.

Nothing in Godolphin's career became him so little as. the ending of it. He clung to power with a tenacity which seems to have excited the contempt of some of his colleagues ; and it is said that he implored the Dutch and Austrian Ambassadors to intercede for him. According to Mr. Elliot, Godolphin was only too glad to go, and his attempts to retain office were solely on account of the Duke of Marlborough, and



contrary to his own intentions. We should be glad to think that this was true; and we can, indeed, easily believe that anxiety for his friend's interests was coupled with anxiety for his own, for Godolphin does not seem to have been either a heartless or a selfish man. To speak positively about the motives and conduct of a man who lived two hundred years ago; to call one thing incontestably right, and another thing incontestably wrong, is not only presumptuous, but silly. Apparently, there was some want of dignity in Godolphin's retirement from power; and he did not take any leading part in public affairs afterwards. He was dismissed on the 8th of November, 1708, and he died at Holywell House, Marlborough's seat, near St. Albans, on the 15th of September, 1713.

Of his public character very different estimates have been formed. M. Remusat likens him to Chatham ; but there is more resemblance between Lord Liverpool and Lord Godolphin, than between Godolphin and any other English Minister. If we add to the financial abilities, the gravity, the modesty, and the conciliatory manners of Lord Liverpool, the sporting and amatory propensities of Lord Palmerston, we have Godolphin before us.

To what extent his Jacobitism extended we shall never know, till the family archives mentioned by Mr. Elliot are explored, if we do then. He is reported to have told Lord Arran, the Jacobite agent, that, if he had been left alone, he eould have restored James III. at the death of Queen Anne without any help from France. The violence of the high Tories, he used to say, drove him into the arms of the Junto. But what he could have done, and what he would have done, are two different things. The worst charge ever brought against him in his public capacity is his privity to an alleged plot, in which Prince Eugene was the chief figure, the object of which was to get up a riot in London, set fire to St. James's Palace, and carry off the Queen to France. Swift professes to believe it, and we are to suppose from him that Harley believed in it too. But most modern historians have agreed to treat it with contempt.

Whatever blame may attach to Godolphin on the score of political dishonesty, it is not denied that from the corruption and nepotism, which were hardly thought vices in the reign of Queen Anne, he was honourably free. Burnet speaks of his having been thirty years at the Treasury, and nine years at the head of it, without ever being accused of a job. He praises his clear head and unsullied integrity,' and calls him the worthiest and wisest man that has been employed in our time.” Horace Walpole says much the same of him, and a foreign states

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man declared he was the only honest man in a Cabinet of rogues.

He seems to have lived two different lives. At the Treasury or in Parliament he was the heavy, sagacious, wary man of business, immersed in finance, and seemingly wedded to his duties. But admirably as he discharged them, his heart was not really in his work. His heart was on the race-course, or at the gaming-table, or else with the Cynthia of the minute. We wonder that Mr. Elliot forgot to quote the lines of Pope, familiar as they are to every student of the period :

• Who would not praise Patritio's high desert,
His hand unstained, his uncorrupted heart,
His comprehensive head! all interests weighed,
All Europe saved, for Britain not betrayed ?
He thanks you not, his pride is in piquet,
Newmarket fame, and judgment at a bet.'

This tribute to Godolphin's political honesty from Pope, who was the friend of Harley, is especially valuable, and decidedly outweighs ‘Sid Hamet's Rod,' perhaps the poorest satire which Swift ever wrote.

The Minister was at Newmarket when he heard of the Queen's dismissal of Lord Kent, and the appointment of the Duke of Shrewsbury. But he only wrote to her from the spot; he did not think it necessary to come to town. Swift says that love and play were his two master passions, and that in them alone he was ambitious of distinction. He was often in earlier days to be found in the Duchess of Mazarin's Drawing-room; and he had some pretension to the character of a man of wit and pleasure. • He could scratch out a song,' says Swift, ‘in praise of his mistress with a pencil and a card.' He is said to have formed a romantic attachment for Mary of Modena, whose Chamberlain he had been in early days; and when the opportunity occurred, he used to send her little presents to Paris, 'such things as ladies like,' says the same Diarist—whatever that may mean.

We have to thank Mr. Elliot for a very interesting book, though there are many questions in which we cannot entirely agree with him ; more particularly the question of Party government in the reign of Anne, and the scheme of Godolphin and Marlborough for superseding it. It appeared to some of the ablest heads of that day, that parties ought to have expired at the Revolution, and were kept alive by artificial means afterwards. This was Lord Bolingbroke's view; and a view, which had practically in its favour two such heads as Bolingbroke's and Marlborough's, can hardly have been the absurdity which Mr. Elliot represents it.


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ART. VIII.-1. The Story of the Universities' Mission to Central

Africa. By Rev. H. Rowley. London, 1866. 2. The Zambesi and its Tributaries. By David and Charles

Livingstone. London, 1865. . 3. Memoir of Bishop Mackenzie. By Harvey Goodwin, D.D.,

Dean of Ely. London, 1864. 4. Livingstone's Last Journals. London, 1874. 5. Memoir of Edward Steere, third Missionary Bishop in Central

Africa. By Rev. R. M. Heanley. London, 1888. 6. Tropical Africa. By Henry Drummond. London, 1888. 7. Reports on Slave Trade on the East Coast of Africa, 1887–8.

Presented to both Houses of Parliament, Nov. 1888. 8. Mission to Nyassa. By E. D. Young, R.N. London, 1877. 9. Central Africa, a Monthly Record of the Universities Mission.

London, 1888. 10 walk in front of the strange implements gathered

at our Colonial and Industrial Exhibitions is in itself a valuable lesson. A whiff of the prairie here, the stifling fusty smell of the sugar plantation there, the dust of the Diamond Fields, all bring back vividly to the memory of the traveller scenes never to be forgotten. But the lesson is also useful to him who stays at home. He sees the apparatus for heaving down' the gigantic trees of the primeval forest, hitherto undisturbed throughout their generations by the hand of man.

There too is the stump-extractor' in its place, ready for the sinewy wrist of the colonist 'out West'; and gazed at with awe by many a “cold-land’ farmer of the Shires stands the massive prairie plough, built to tear and rend, to jump what it can't get over, and go round what it can't get under in the hitherto untouched waste. Here at all events men can realize for themselves what the beginning of things means. Reverence is begotten for the enterprise and determination which have called these things into existence, and for the firm hope which has planned and forged, and welded and tempered tools, for the tremendous task.

Some such awe and reverence was accorded to David Livingstone, as the men of Oxford and Cambridge scanned him in 1857. Fresh from his marvellous travels in Central Africa, pale with fever-poison, struggling with nervousness, Livingstone, nevertheless, won all hearts with his simple addresses. The face of the plough-share might be seamed and cut into, the framne might be wrung and twisted, but he stood there, the hard unflinching instrument, who had gone through lands and tribes and tough problems, and had cut furrows in

a wilderness

a wilderness of human life which no one had heard of or dreamed of. The appeal was not in vain; I have opened the door, I leave it to you to see that it does not close after me.' The Universities Mission to Central Africa, the direct result of Livingstone's appeal to the Universities, was a new departure, and a very bold one; it was launched against a special evil, rather than dedicated to the heathendom of a geographical tract.

Livingstone in more than one direction had come face to face with the avant-courriers of the East Coast slave-trade, which was fomented by the Arabs and the Portuguese. He met Zanzibar Moslim at Linyanti buying boys in exchange for muskets in 1853, and the Portuguese along the Zambesi were actively at work sending slaves to markets which no cruiser ever heard of or suspected. His idea was to develop the capabilities of those lands he had travelled through, simultaneously introducing Christianity. His practical eye quickly took in the fertility of the Shiré highlands. The current price of boys and girls, around the Lake Nyassa of his discovering, was from two to three yards of American calico apiece (for your slave-dealer fights shy of stuff which is bedaubed with size), whilst a few strings of beads would fill any slave-stick : why then should the wretched people not be taught that coffee, cotton, sugar, and wool might take the place of their own flesh and blood ?

To Bishop Mackenzie, second wrangler' of his year, and already known for missionary work in the young colony of Natal, he commended the problem. So in 1860 we plunge into the day of small things. With one fellow-Cambridge man, the Rev. H. Scudamore, a member of the Durham University, a lay superintendent, and some mechanics, Charles Frederick Mackenzie sailed for Africa in October 1860, hoping to meet Livingstone, who had previously returned to the rivers at the head of the Zambesi Expedition. It was now Livingstone's desire to see the Mission settled in healthy quarters, and to give it a fair start by personally making the new-comers acquainted with the natives, who had already received him well. The • Expedition and the Mission' met at the Kungoné mouth of the Zambesi in May 1861, for the ascent of the rivers. Unluckily the Pioneer' steamer, which the Admiralty had sent, out was ill-fitted for the shallow waters she had to navigate. The next three months were spent in fighting all the difficulties of sandbanks, snags, and rocks. However, all reached the upper waters of the Shiré in due time, and anchored where the navigation is interrupted by rapids, in August 1861, at Chibisa's village. Within twenty-four hours of their first start towards some table land which their leader knew of and believed


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