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a run of bad luck is sure to come sooner or later. And, as both skill and chances are against the man who bets, the evil time, with him at least, cannot be long put off. He will grow more and more absorbed in the task of regaining his lost ground. And, sad to say, he will grow less and less scrupulous about the method of doing it. This sacrifice and that will be made. Little by little, he will recede from the standard of behaviour to which he once clung. Gradually will he whittle away the high moral sense which once controlled his actions. Slowly his character is undermined, and happy is he if the whole structure does not fall with a crash which whelms him in its ruin.

This is no imaginary picture. The records of the courts of law abound with cases in point. In some of them bankruptcy alone has followed failure. In many more a heavier penalty is incurred. The present state of things is a scandal to our cities, a grave danger to our position as a nation. It loudly calls for the anxious thought of all, who care for the welfare of the people. And well would it be if some of the energy devoted to more questionable reforms were employed in an attempt to remedy a mischief which, serious as it is, is not beyond cure.


ART. VI.Lives of Twelve Good Men :-1. Martin Joseph Routh.

II. Hugh James Rose. III. Charles Marriott. IV. Edward Hawkins. V. Samuel Wilberforce. VI. Richard Lynch Cotton. VII. Richard Greswell. VIII. Henry Octavius Core. IX, Henry Longueville Mansel. X. William Jacobson. XI. Charles Page Eden. XII. Charles Longuet Higgins. By John William Burgon, B.D., Dean of Chichester. Sometime Fellow of Oriel College and Vicar of S. Mary-the-Virgin's,

Oxford. Second edition. In two volumes. London, 1888. IT T is impossible for a writer in this · Review' to transcribe

the foregoing title without an emotion of sincere regret. For many years the late Dean of Chichester had been a frequent and a valued contributor to these pages. It was here that by his brilliant series of articles on • The Revision Revised 'he so effectually discomfited the authors of the Revised Version of the New Testament, and led the public to estimate more moderately, and therefore more accurately, the value of their handiwork. It was here that several of the Essays, which compose the volumes before us, were first given to the world. Their worth and interest were immediately recognized, and a desire was widely expressed that, together with some similar writings from the same pen, they should be collected and preserved in some permanent and compendious form. The desire was in entire consonance with the Dean's personal inclination, and for some time past it had been known that he was preparing a book of Ecclesiastical Biography. Its appearance was anxiously awaited by those who are interested in the history of the Anglican Communion during the last} fifty years. After repeated delays, caused by the illhealth of the writer, the book at length appears; but it appears alas! as a posthumous work; and its devout and accomplished author is numbered with those good men' whom he has himself commemorated; who, having loyally served the English Church in their day and generation, now enjoy the reward of their faithful service, while they cheer and stimulate their successors by the memory of their high example.

On the announcement of Dean Burgon's lamented death, there appeared in the daily and weekly press a considerable number of obituary notices, conceived indeed in a friendly spirit, but for the most part dealing rather with his peculiarities than with his excellences. We leave it to other pens to describe his many eccentricities of speech and demeanour, the strength of his political and theological prejudices, the unconventional vehemence of his controversial method. We claim the more grateful


and more gracious task of recording his servent piety, his affectionate and generous nature, his profound attainments in sacred science, and his passionate devotion to the interests of that Church of which it was his chief pride to be a son and servant.

Whether we range the lives of the Dean's • Twelve Good Men’in accordance with their public importance as affecting the work and progress of the Church, or with their private and individual interest as exhibitions of human character, the first place in our notice, as in the Dean's volumes, must be assigned to the venerable Dr. ROUTH.

We presume, that no inconsiderable proportion of our readers is to be found among men, who were undergraduates at Oxford before the year 1854. To such it may not be uninteresting to see revived the personal traits, the literary and theological services, of the extraordinary man who, at that period, presided over Magdalen College, and who, buried in his library, had already become in his lifetime a historical personage. To the greater part of the University the President of Magdalen had been for many years before his death little more than a clarum et venerabile nomen ; but this · Review' may possibly pass into the hands of somemost probably they will be members of the beautiful College on the Cherwell—who can still recal, by the eye and ear of memory, the bowed figure in its canonical garb, the parchment skin, the bonnet-like wig tied under the chin, the punctilious courtesy of demeanour, the strange old-world phraseology, which reminded those who were brought in contact with him that in dealing with Dr. Routh they were dealing with a man whose habits, sentiments, and style were formed the best part of a century before. Of the life thus marvellously prolonged we propose to record some of the chief incidents. And here we may remark that, having regard to the singular interest and importance of Dr. Routh's career, as bringing down into the modern Church of England the traditions bequeathed by the best period of Anglican divinity, we propose in his case to reproduce rather more fully than in others the details given by Dean Burgon in a former number of this · Review.' While relying on the Dean as our historical authority, we shall, for our reader's convenience, present the facts in a slightly more compendious form, and, as far as is practicable, in their chronological order.

Martin Joseph Routh was born on the 18th of September, 1755, at South Elmham in Suffolk, of which place his father was rector. • When I was young,' he used to say in old age, • I had a delicate stomach, and my mother had great difficulty in rearing me. When Martin Routh was three years old, his father removed to Beccles, and subsequently became the Master


of the Fauconberge Grammar School there. The education of little Martin was conducted entirely by his father. In 1770, being not yet fifteen years old, Martin Routh went up to Oxford as

a Commoner of Queen's College, and in the following year he was elected a Demy of Magdalen, on the nomination of the President, Dr., subsequently Bishop, Horne. It is worthy of remark that, when Routh began his connection with a Society, over which he was destined to preside till the year 1854, less than thirty years had elapsed since the death of its former President, Dr. Hough, whose deprivation did so much to precipitate the Revolution of 1688.

Details of Martin Routh's undergraduate life are necessarily scanty. In his early correspondence with his father, and in records of his later conversation, we catch glimpses of a little fellow in blue stockings,'travelling to Oxford from Suffolk by the • Yarmouth Machine,' which he is cautioned not to enter without moonlight, the dark nights having produced more than one overthrow. We find him sensitive about the outlandish fashion of his home-made surplice, though cut to the best pattern ' at Beccles; needing on account of his delicate constitution more than ordinary precaution in the matter of good fellowship;' and enjoined by his father to counteract the debilitating effects of excessive application by air, exercise, and, above all, the cold bath.' His studies, of course, had been mainly classical. His father, who, as we have seen, was his sole instructor before he came up to Oxford, was an admirable scholar of the Cambridge type; and in the Long Vacation young Routh acted as his father's assistant at the Grammar School. During these years he seems to have laid deep the foundations of that solid learning, on which he subsequently reared so massive a superstructure. In his studies we must presume that, like other Oxford men of that remote date, he was obliged to rely almost completely on his own diligence and acumen, and derived but little assistance from the tutorial system. His curriculum appears even at this early age to have embraced other than strictly classical subjects, for we find his father urging him to study Locke, not without Dr. Watts's Philosophical Essays,' to guard against some ill prejudices apt to be contracted from the former.

In 1774, Martin Routh took his degree of B.A., and in the following year he was elected to a Fellowship at Magdalen. In 1777 he was ordained deacon. In 1784 he was Senior Proctor, and in his correspondence with his father about the Latin speech which, according to custom, he delivered on the expiration of his year of office, he displays that happy knack of


terse and elegant latinity for which his later works were so justly admired.

In the same year he brought out his first book. It was a critical edition of the Euthydemus' and «Gorgias' of Plato. But pure scholarship did not long retain the chief hold over his affections. He was, alike by natural bent and by hereditary influence, a theologian. His first step in sacred science was to acquire a minute and scholarlike knowledge of the text of the Old and New Testaments. Then he went on to the acts of the early Councils and the ecclesiastical historians; and then he read resolutely through the chief of the Greek and Latin Fathers, taking them, as far as practicable, in their chronological order. In 1787 his father writes, Your acquaintance with the Fathers is leaving me far behind.' The proficiency which the young divine had already made in theological study is well illustrated by the following incident.

In 1783 Dr. Samuel Seabury came to London from America, in hopes of obtaining episcopal consecration as the first native Bishop of America. The English Bishops were unwilling or afraid to consecrate, and he was recommended to consult Martin Routh as to the best method of obtaining valid consecration, and especially as to the question whether the titular bishops of Denmark, to whom he had been recommended to apply, could really lay claim to the Apostolic Succession. Dr. Routh was wont in later years to relate, with pardonable satisfaction, his reply to Seabury and his friends. I ventured to tell them, sir, that they would not find there what they wanted.' And he supplemented this salutary warning by urging an application to the Scotch Bishops, about the validity of whose succession, no doubt, he said, could exist. His advice was taken, and it is interesting to reflect, that the modern American Church owes its apostolic continuity with the past to the sage counsel of an English divine, who, at the time of giving it, had not yet reached his thirtieth year. Even more surprising is it to know, that the same divine lived to send, in the last year of his life, a token of affection to the Church of America through the President of its FORTY bishops. Well might the venerable theologian express his devout joy at hearing, that the infant over whose birth he had watched had grown to be so prolific a mother.'

But to return. The visit of Seabury to England took place, as we have seen, in 1783. In 1788 Martin Routh put forth the prospectus of the great work, which mainly occupied the energies of his working life, which solaced his declining years, and which has secured for his name a permanent place among the most erudite of English divines. In this book, published


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