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GEOLOGICAL RELATIONS:

A TILEORY OF

SECULAR CHANGES OF THE EARTH'S CLIMATE,

BY

JAMES CROLL,

or HER MAJESTY's Geological Sulivey of scorland.

NEW YORK :
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.,
1, 3, a N D 5 B O N D STREET.
1890.

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In the following pages I have endeavoured to give a fu.. and
concise statement of the facts and arguments adduced in sup-
port of the theory of Secular Changes of the Earth's Climate.
Considerable portions of the volume have already appeared in

substance as separate papers in the Philosophical Magazine and
other journals during the past ten or twelve years. The theory,
especially in as far as it relates to the cause of the glacial epoch,
appears to be gradually gaining acceptance with geologists.
This, doubtless, is owing to the greatly increased and con-
stantly increasing knowledge of the drift-phenomena, which
has induced the almost general conviction that a climate such
as that of the glacial epoch could only have resulted from

cosmical causes.

Considerable attention has been devoted to objections, and to the removal of slight misapprehensions, which have naturally arisen in regard to a subject comparatively new and, in many respects, complex, and beset with formidable difficulties.

I have studiously avoided introducing anything of a hypothetical character. All the conclusions are based either on known facts or admitted physical principles. In short, the aim of the work, as will be shown in the introductory chapter, is to

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prove that secular changes of climate follow, as a necessary effect, from admitted physical agencies, and that these changes, in as far as the past climatic condition of the globe is con cerned, fully meet the demand of the geologist.

The volume, though not intended as a popular treatise, will be found, I trust, to be perfectly plain and intelligible even to readers not familiar with physical Science.

I avail myself of this opportunity of expressing my obligations to my colleagues, Mr. James Geikie, Mr. Robert L. Jack, Mr. Tobert Etheridge, jun., and also to Mr. James Paton, of the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art, for their valuable assistance rendered while these pages were passing through the press. To the kindness of Mr. James Bennie I am indebted for the copious index at the end of the volume, as well as for many of the facts relating to the glacial deposits of the West of Scotland.

EDIRBURGH, March, 1876.

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