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brates;” and now comes its second edition. price of each dish, of each meal, of the To Elliott Coues must always be given the three daily meals, and the total meals of the merit of leading grandly on this line by the week. The dishes are wholesome, attrac“Key to American Birds.” Prof. Jordan tive, and by no means stinted, and their has, in this new book of over 400 pages, very moderate cost conveys an instructive put the amateur student in the classifica- lesson to lax and thriftless housekeepers. tion of the home vertebrates under a great Miss Coreon's little work is opportune in debt of gratitude. The manual is a very these stringent times, and its wide circulation efficient analyst of animal forms. It is tru- would be productive of much public benefit. ly multum in parvo, but perhaps a little too condensed.

BULLETIN OF THE MINNESOTA ACADEMY OF

NATURAL SCIENCES (1877). Minneapolis: TWENTY-FIVE-CENT DINNERS FOR FAMILIES

Young & Winn print. Pp. 126. Price,

50 cents. OF Six. By JULIET Corson, Office of the New York Cooking-School, 35 East This number of the Bulletin contains, Seventeenth Street, Union Square, 72 besides the annual address of the president, pages. Price, 15 cents.

a report on the “Mycological Flora of MinMiss Corson has published various use- nesota,” another on “Ornithology," a paper ful books on the subject of cookery, and, on “Tornadoes and Cyclones," and the among others, a little brochure entitled Curator's “Report.” The additions to the “Fifteen-Cent Dinners for Working-Men's Academy's Museum were larger in 1877 Families.” This attracted a good deal of than in any previous year, besides being attention, and set many people to thinking much more valuable. about the possibilities of living cheaply and well, if they only knew how to do it. Having thus raised the question of economical

PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. diet in a practical way, Miss Corson was applied to by letters from numerous parties to Short Studies of Great Lawyers.

By J. show what could be done on a little more

Browne. Albany: Law Journal print. Pp. 382. liberal scale of expense, and “Twenty-five- The Nature of Thioge. By J. G. Macvicar, Cent Dinners” is the result. There is a large D.D. Edinburgh: Blackwood. Pp. 120.

How to take care of our Eyes. By H. C. Anamount of valuable, well-digested informa. gell, M. D. Boston: Roberts Brothers. Pp. 70.

50 cents. tion in this pamphlet. Miss Corson not only

Handbook of Modern Chemistry. By C. M. speaks from experience, both in cooking and Tidy. Philadelphia : Lindsay & Blákiston. Pp. teaching (as she is superintendent of the New

795. $5.

Report of the Commissioner of Education York Cooking-School), but from a special

(1876). Washington: Government Printing-Ofstudy of culinary economics, or how to get fice. Pp. 1162.

The Native Flowers and Ferns of the United good food in sufficient allowance at the low

States. Parts 3, 4, 6. Illustrated by Chromoest cost. Her results will excite some sur- lithographs. Boston: L. Prang & Co. 50 cents

each. prise in people of careless habits in these

New Encyclopædia of Chemistry. Parts 31 matters, and who would be astonished to be to 35 inclusive. Philadelphia: Lippincott. 50

cents each. told that good cookery would give them

The Dance of Death. By W. Herman. New better diet than they are in the habit of get- York: American News Company. Pp. 131. ting, at half the cost. Miss Corson begins ton: Houghton, Osgood & Co. Pp. 176.

In the Wilderness. By C. D. Warner, Bogwith some serviceable hints on marketing,

Dosia. By H, Greville. Boston: Estes & and the economical selection of articles of Lauriat. Pp. 260. $1.50. food, and then offers various valuable sug- Eclipse

of July, 1878. Instructions for observing the Total Solar

Washington: Governgestions on the best methods of cooking to ment Printing-Office, Pp. 30, with Plates. make them go the farthest. Several chap- tion (1878). Madison : Atwood print. Pp. 150.

Report of the Wisconsin Dairymen's Associaters follow of well - selected receipts for Sound and the Telephone. By C. J. Blake, economical dishes, and the whole is fully M.D. Pp. 14. indexed at the close. Besides her sugges. D. From American Journal of Insanity. Pp. 36.

True and False Experts. By E. Gissom, M. tive preface, addressed “To Economical Report of the New York Meteorological ObHousewives,” she offers at the outset the servatory (1877). New York: Lees print. Pp. daily bills-of-fare for one week, with the Follies of the Positive Philosophers. By T.

Pp. 25.

L. Clingman. Raleigh, N. C. : Nichols priut. , lines in the corona, but none were observed.

Twenty-five Cent Dinners for Families of Six. Young,” he adds, “ telegraphed that there By J. Corson. Pp. 72. 15 cents.

were no lines observed in the ultra-violet Separation and Subsequent Treatment of Pre

at Denver.” Again, most of the spectrocipitates. By F. A. Gooch. From “Proceedings of the American Academy." Pp. 8. scopic observers report the presence of

Vortrag über den Mexicanischen Calender: bright lines in the coronal spectrum, Prof. Stein. Von Prof. Ph. Valentine. New York: Marrer und Sohn. Pp. 33, with Plates.

Young seeing several bright bands, and in Instinctive Operations of the Human System. particular the Kirchhoff line 1447. This By J. F. Hibberd, M. D. Cincinnati: Lancet print. Pp. 16.

observation, too, is negatived by that of Dr. Malaria and Struma. By L. P. Yandell, M. D. Draper, whose photographs of the corona From American Practitioner. Pp. 15.

The Honest Money. By T. M. Nichol. Chicago: exhibit none of these bright lines. The Honest Money League of the Northwest world of science will await with profound Pp. 56.

interest the minute examination of all these Report of the Board of Schools, St. Louis (1876-77). St. Louis: Daly & Co. print. Pp. coronal photographs; the result will decide 280.

whether, in accordance with the almost Notes from the Chemical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University. Nos. 9--12.

unanimous opinion of physical astronomers, Duty of Literary Men. By Rev. T. A. Good the corona is a self-luminous liquid or solid win. New York: Burnz & Co. Pp. 16.

body, or only reflected sunlight. Spelling Reformer. Vol. I., No. 5. Same publishers. Pp. 6.

Prof. Langley, stationed at Pike's Peak, The Currency. By J. Johnston. Chicago: Colorado, reporis that he “saw the corona Honest Money League of the Northwest. Pp. 38.

Physical Exercise and Consumption. By Dr. elongated;" that it“ resembled the zodiacal R. B. Davy. Cincinnati: From the Lancet and light.” Further, that he “ followed it a disObserver. Pp. 16.

tance of twelve diameters of the sun on one side and three on the other." This observation, if confirmed (and we may observe that

none of the other astronomers appear to POPULAR MISCELLANY.

have confirmed it), would go to prove an exThe Recent Solar Eclipse.—The tele- tension of the corona into space about five graphic reports from the various stations times greater than the highest estimate hithfor observing the solar eclipse of July 29th

erto made. Search was made during the are of necessity meagre and confused. The eclipse for an intramercurial planet. Hereatmospheric conditions were eminently fa- in only one of the observers, Prof. Watson, vorable along the line of totality, indeed in claims to have been successful: he reports the whole region west of the Mississippi, having discovered an intramercurial planet, while throughout the East clouds generally of magnitude four and a-half, in right asconcealed the phenomenon from view. Dr. cension eight hours twenty-six minutes ; decHenry Draper, stationed at Rawlins, Wyo- lination north 18°. The solar protuberming Territory, took four photographs of ances were much less prominent than in the corona, two of them with his large spec

most recent eclipses. troscope. These latter are declared to be Prof. Colbert, of Chicago, stationed at

very sharp and full of detail.” This is a Denver, Colorado, reports that his observavery fortunate circumstance, for it will ena- tions tend to show that the moon's path in ble scientific men to ascertain the precise the heavens lay a little farther to the southtruth touching a very important difference ward than is indicated by the lunar tables, between the observations of Dr. Draper and

or else that the estimate of the moon's dithose of the other astronomers. Dr. Draper ameter is too large. Possibly both supreports that he finds the corona spectrum positions are correct. Of Edison's “tasimarked with the usual Fraunhofer's lines of meter,” Mr. Lockyer writes from Rawlins : the sun's spectrum. These lines were not

“The tasimeter, the new instrument on seen by the other observers, whether at the which Edison has been working unceasingly same station or at the many other stations in here, has proved its delicacy. During the eclipse the track of the total eclipse. Mr. Lockyer, which was get to zero. When the telescope

he attached it to Thomson's galvanometer, in a dispatch, says that “Newcomb's party carrying the tasimeter was pointed several deand Barker made careful search for dark grees from the sun, the point of light rapidly protection. the superiority of electricity over gas as an illuminating agent. In the Lontin machine

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left the scale as the corona was brought upon diving, the disease may affect the drumthe fine slit by which the tasimeter itself was

head and middle ear. Whenever water is protected."

forced from the mouth and nostrils into the Progress of the Electric Light.—Prog- middle ear through the Eustachian tube, inress is being steadily made with the electric flammation of the middle ear is almost sure light, both in the sense of improving the

to occur, even though the water be warm. apparatus needed for utilizing it and in According to the author, several thousand

severe cases of aural disease result annualfinding for it practical application. In Paris the railway-station Gare St.-Lazare is now

ly from bathing in New York City alone. very effectively lighted with the aid of the The bather, when in the surf, should take instrument known as Lontin's distributing

the water on his chest or back, with mouth machine. The contrast between the pure,

and nostrils closed, and never presenting

A firm clear white electric light and the dull-yel the ear to the in-coming wave. low gaslights in the surrounding streets is pledget of cotton-wool in the ears is some enough to convince the most skeptical of

The Carpet-Beetle.--Notices have apordinary prepared carbon-wicks are em

peared from time to time during the last ployed, which are regulated by a Lontin four or five years of a new carpet-beetle burner: the light is remarkably steady, and said to be far more destructive than the the wicks burn in the open air without familiar carpet-moth. This insect has been globes or shades of any kind. A strong identified by Dr. J. L. Le Conte as Anthre. objection to this machine, unfitting it for nus scrophulariæ, a European species. A use in private houses, is the hissing noise good account of it is given in the American it makes when in operation. The electric Naturalist by Mr. J. A. Lintner, who has candle invented by Jobloshkoff is used for studied this insect attentively since its first illuminating the Place de l'Opéra in the appearance on our shores. The larva, he same city. Across the open area of the says, measures at maturity about threePlace, and extending toward the new Ave- sixteenths of an inch in length, and it is in nue de l'Opéra, there is a double row of large this stage of its existence that Anthrenus lamp-posts down each side, each surmounted

preys upon carpets. A number of hairs by a large cylindrical lamp of clouded glass, radiate from its last segment in nearly a and containing twelve electric candles. The semicircle, forming a tail-like appendage whole space is lighted as bright almost as

almost as long as the body. The front part day. As soon as a candle burns down, an

of the body, which has no distinct head, is other is moved by mechanism into its place thickly set with short brown hairs and a few without much appreciable disturbance of the longer ones. Similar short hairs clothe the general effect. There is no flickering. The body. The body has the appearance of begreat drawback to the Jabloshkoff candle is ing banded in two shades of brown, the its costliness, the illumination being as ex- darker one being the central portion of each pensive as when gas is used.

ring, and the lighter the connecting portion

of the rings. Having attained its full larval Bathing as a Cause of Ear-Disease.—In- growth, it prepares for its pupal change flammation of the middle ear, often resulting without forming a cocoon, but merely seekin chronic deafness, is a not infrequent con- ing some convenient retreat. Here it resequence of bathing. The damage, accord- mains motionless until it has completed its ing to Dr. Sexton, in the Medical Record, pupation, when the skin is rent along the consists in the admission of water to the back and through the fissure the pupa is ear, either through the external auditory seen. A few weeks later the pupal skin is canal or the Eustachian tube. When water split down the middle of its dorsal aspect, finds admittance to the former, if cold or and the brightly-colored wing-covers of the salt, inflammation of the meatus alone may beetle are disclosed. Soon after their emerresult; or, if violently injected, as in surf gence from the pupal case during the fall, bathing, or long retained in the canal from / winter, and spring, the beetles pair and the

46

females lay their eggs for another brood of discovered a very short time previously. larvæ. The Anthrenus once introduced into Here he found himself below a precipitous a house quickly infests it in every part. mass of rock two or three hundred feet Thus, in a house at Cold Spring, New York, high, at the foot of which immense numbers which had remained shut up for twelve of fallen bowlders had formed crevices and months, they “took complete possession caves innumerable. But the new cave was from the cellar to the attic, in every nook the largest of all. The floor of the cave and crevice of the floors, under matting and was everywhere covered with fallen rocks. carpets, behind pictures, eating everything The newspaper accounts tell of powerful in their way." No effectual means of com- currents of ice-cold air ” issuing from bating this insect pest has yet been discov. the caverns; but Prof. Clarke found no ered; they are said to grow fat” on cam strong currents, and a difference of only phor, pepper, tobacco, turpentine, carbolic four degrees of temperature between the acid, and the other ordinary applications. inside and the outside air. The "smoke

of the Bald Mountain volcano" is not smoke The Earthquake-Scare in North Caro- at all, but fine dust formed by the grindlina.-Bald Mountain, in Western North ing and clashing of the rocks. Prof. Carolina, forming part of the Blue Ridge of

Clarke next visited “the Crack," a crevice the Alleghanies, has for two or three years very probably of quite recent origin. This been receiving a good deal of attention in is merely a rent in the rock about one hunthe newspapers. Rumbling noises have

dred feet in length, seventy-five in depth, now and then been heard in the mountain, and nowhere over ten in width. The exand these were by the people of the sur planation given of these cracks and the rounding country taken to be conclusive noises is found in the geological constituevidences of volcanic action. As is usual tion of the mountain, which is built up of in such cases, these actual phenomena were

sheets of an easily decomposable gneiss, magnified enormously by the popular im- inclined at a slight angle and sliding down. agination, and to them were added others ward. These sheets of gneiss are full of which had no objective existence. Prof. cracks running at approximately right an. Clarke, of the University of Cincinnati, gles to the pseudo-stratification. The caves having devoted the early days of his sum

are merely spaces which have been left mer vacation this year to investigating

when an upper sheet of rock has slidden the causes of these rumblings, declares, in off and become inclined against a lower. a letter to the New York Tribune, that Nowhere is any sign of volcanic action to “ Bald Mountain is no more an earthquake

be seen. As for earthquakes, the surcentre than is Central Park," and that “it rounding country is as free from them as is merely a locality in which some large any other in the whole country. Prof. rock-slides of an exceedingly gradual char

Clarke accounts as follows for the rumacter are going on.” Nevertheless, the bling noises : The rocks, as we have seen, mountain is an object well worthy of study.

are cracked across their stratification. It forms one side of a pass through the When a large sheet of gneiss is gradually Blue Ridge, Chimney Rock forming the sliding down, there comes eventually upon other. While the latter mountain is made

some part of it a strain sufficient to produce up of smooth sheets of what appears to be

a fracture. This breaking is, of course, gneiss, Bald Mountain is all over cracked attended by a noise, to which the immense

caves and crevices serve and fissured, the fissures in some places

as resounding forming large caves. The recent disturb

chambers. ances have chiefly affected a low spur of the mountain, rising about one thousand feet Material Kesources of European Russia. above the valley. From below the appear- -Russia in Europe, considered with regard ance is as if the whole side of the spur was to its economic products, may be divided sliding down.

into five distinct zones or regions, viz. : Prof. Clarke first climbed up the side Starting from the north, the tundras, the forof this spur to a cave which had been est and agricultural regions (forming three

zones), and the steppe. The peculiarities, seen in our backwoods. The output of of each of these are described by a writer coal in the Moscow district rose from 1,500,in the Geographical Magazine, who derives 000 puds in 1860 to 9,000,000 puds in 1872; his information from authentic sources. in the same year the Polish yield was 17,Of the tundras, those bare, damp, arctic 600,000 puds. The coal-deposits on both wastes, mostly situated between the arctic sides of the Ural, though rich and easily circle and the polar ocean, he says that in worked, are only used for the neighboring winter they are frozen, and that in summer iron and copper works. The southern agrithey thaw to the depth of a foot or so. cultural zone is so destitute of timber that The tundra area is about 144,820 square the only fuel obtainable there, besides the miles, and almost the sole vegetable pro- droppings of cattle, is dry, half-wooded ductions are turf-moss and reindeer-moss. grain-stalks. The total area of the “ black This region does not promise ever to be earth” is estimated at 250,760 square miles, of any considerable economic value. The extending over twenty-two governments, forest zone extends from the limit of trees eight of which belong to the steppe region. southward to 60° north latitude, and em- In addition to these, six of the West Rusbraces the greater part of Finland, the sia governments and Poland are noted for governments of Olonetz, Vologda, most of their fertility. The wheat produced in the Archangel, and the northern districts of black-earth country amounts to more than Novgorod, Vyatka, and Perm. Area, 816,- two-thirds of Russia's total yield, while 790 square miles. Population, between potatoes are chiefly grown in the Polish thirteen and fourteen souls per square and Baltic provinces. The population of the mile. The economic products are fur, tim- black-earth region forms 63 per cent. of the ber, tar, and potash. The four northern entire population of the country, and its governments of Archangel, Vologda, Olo- crops 68 per cent. of the total yield. The netz, and Uleaborg, cannot expect ever to manufacture of sugar from the beet is car. attain a much higher degree of cultivation ried on extensively in the Kiev government. than at present. The inhabitants prefer The crying want of this region is good the chase to agriculture, and devote only roads. The chief vegetation found on the three months in the year to the latter. The steppe is grasses, spiniferous and leafless agricultural zone extends from the sixtieth plants, bulbous plants, etc. Forest-growth parallel to the steppe. Of this zone, the and cultivation are found only near the northern and central portions are a diluvial rivers ; fuel is very scarce. The population deposit, forming a thin, sandy soil that re- of the steppe zone is very sparse, and the quires plentiful manuring; but the south- chief dependence of the inhabitants is on ern zone, the “ black-earth” region, yields their cattle. In the south and southeast rich harvests without manuring or labor. portions of the empire horses are bred in Thus this zone may be divided into two great numbers. The steppe zone is also belts, northern and southern. The north- rich in oxen and sheep. The grape is cultiern belt includes fifteen entire governments vated here to a considerable extent. Southand parts of others, with a total area of ern Russia is furthermore the chief source 371,900 square miles ; average population of salt-supply to the other governments of fifty-four to the square mile. The region the empire. yields too little wheat for the support of its inhabitants, i. e., of the minimum allowance, Meteorological Notes.-Prof. Loomis's 2.3 chetverts per head, only 1.7 chetvert is ninth paper on meteorology in the Ameriproduced at home. The industrial wealth can Journal of Science and Arts for July is of Russia is mostly confined to this north-based on the observations of the United ern agricultural zone, the centre of manu- States Signal Service made between Sepfacturing industry being the government of tember, 1872, and October, 1874. Moscow. The forests are gradually being In tracing the rise and phenomena of diminished, through supplying fuel to carry the great storms which traverse the northern on these industries, and there is the same United States and British America, observaimprovident waste of timber which is to be tions made at Portland, Oregon, were stud.

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