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tion in the sciences. Many of the teach- | education quantitatively, if we may so ers in our schools know something of speak, for the production of permanent these sciences, and do what they can to effects, we must recognize the law of expound them. This, of course, is use- mental limitations that is educible from ful, but it is the lowest agency for the cerebral physiology. In an essay treatdiffusion of science. Of the uses of ing of the philosophy of mental disciscience to themselves as professors of pline we said: the art of teaching, or of its value in

“It no longer admits of denial or cavil guiding the processes of education, it that the Author of our being has been fit to is not too much to say that the mass of connect mind and intelligence with a nerteachers as yet know nothing. This, vous mechanism ; in studying mental phehowever, is the main and essential thing nomena, therefore, in connection with this now to be imperatively demanded, and mechanism, we are studying them in the which, when attained, will do more tow- therefore in the only true relation. Noth

relation which God has established, and ard the universal promotion of science ing is more certain than that, in future, mind than all other modes of influence com- is to be considered in connection with the bined. Scientific education is far less organism by which it is conditioned. When a question of the number of hours per it is said that the brain is the organ of the week that are to be devoted to this mind, it is meant that in thinking, rememkind of study than a question of bring- of educability, and hence of mental disci

bering, reasoning, the brain acts. The basis ing scientific knowledge to bear upon pline, is to be sought in the properties of the operations of the school-room. that nervous substance by which mind is

We took this ground decisively manifested. When it is perceived that what twenty years ago. When applied to

we have to deal with in mental acquirement by Mr. Greeley to write some articles is organic processes which have a definite for the Tribune on "Scientific Educa- ously the cerebral currents are sustained by

time-rate of activity, so that, however vigortion,” we devoted them to a statement keeping at a thing, acquisition is not inof the ground that science requires all creased in the same degree; when we seo intelligent teachers to take in the pur- that new attainments are easiest and most suit of their profession. We illustrated rapid during early life-the time of most and enforced the position that, to de- vigorous growth of the body generally;

that thinking exhausts the brain as really velop the mind and form the character,

as working exhausts the muscles, while rest the starting-point of the teacher must and nutrition are as much needed in one be a knowledge of the brain and of case as the other; when we see that rapidity nervous physiology, and that all teach- of attainment and tenacity memory ining without this knowledge must be volve the question of cerebral adhesions, empirical, is certain to be faulty, and and note how widely constitutions differ in liable to be injurious. The discussion blood, stock, and health, and vary with

these capabilities, how they depend upon was premature. We sowed upon un

numberless conditions—we become aware prepared ground. It was objected that how inexorably the problem of mental atall beyond the bare introduction of more tainment is hedged round with limitations, chemistry and physics in the schools and the vague notion that there are no

bounds to acquisition except imperfect apwas impracticable and fanciful; wbile to

plication disappears forever.” talk of “brain" instead of “mind” was dreaded as dangerous, and condemned as The general view (here illustrated in leading“straight down to materialism.” a special application) has been main

In a work published a dozen years tained in THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHago, “On the Culture demanded by Ly from the outset. We have published Modern Life," this view was reaffirmed papers from the ablest scientific men of and more fully illustrated. It was in different countries, illustrating the consisted that to gain definite ideas of the trol of physiological and psychological laws of mind so as to work the forces of principles over the objects and methods of education. These able discussions, that a brain cannot arrive at healthy matuwe are happy to say, have been increas-rity excepting by the assistance of a sufficient ingly appreciated ; and it is gratifying supply of healthy blood ; that is to say, of to note that the view we have steadily known that the power of a brain will ulti

good food and pure air. It also became urged for these many years begins to mately depend very much upon the way in be widely accepted as the basis of a new which it is habitually exercised, and that departure in the progress of scientific the practice of schools in this respect left a education. A conspicuous illustration great deal to be desired. A large amount of this has recently been afforded by mally for

no other reason than because it is

of costly and pretentious teaching fails disthe course of the most influential jour- not directed by any knowledge of the mode nal in England. There has been a sys- of action of the organ to which the teacher tematic movement in that country to get endeavors to appeal ; and mental growth, a larger share of scientific study in the in many instances, occurs in spite of teach

Educalower schools; and, under the vigor- ing rather than on account of it.

tion, which might once have been defined ous leadership of Sir John Lubbock,

as an endeavor to expand the intellect by in the House of Commons, efforts have the introduction of mechanically compressed been made to modify school legislation facts, should now be defined as an endeavor so as to enforce this result. A majority favorably to influence a vital process; and, has not yet been gained, but the op- when so regarded, its direction should manposition is giving way, and the end ifestly fall somewhat into the hands of those sought will undoubtedly soon be at- been most completely studied.

by whom the nature of vital processes has

In other tained. Upon the last and recent de- words, it becomes neither more nor less feat of Sir John Lubbock's measure, than a branch of applied physiology; and the London Times came out with a physiologists tell us with regard to it that leading editorial on the right side, and the common processes of teaching are open which is chiefly remarkable for the ad

to the grave objection that they constantly vanced and unqualified position which appeal to the lower centres of nervous func

tion, which govern the memory of and the it takes. We reprint this article of the reaction upon sensations, rather than to Times in the present number of the those of higher ones which are the organs MONTHLY, together with the comments of ratiocination and of volition. Hence a of the editor of Nature upon it. How great deal which passes for education is completely the writer sustains the views really a degradation of the human brain to

efforts below its natural capacities. This that we have long labored to inculcate, applies especially to book-work, in which is well shown in the following instruc- the memory of sounds in given sequences is tive passage:

often the sole demand of the teacher, and As soon as physiologists had discov- , in which the pupil, instead of knowing the ered that all the faculties of the intellect, meaning of the sounds, often does not know

what meaning' means. As soon as the however originating or upon whatever exercised, were functions of a material organ- ing remains, and we are then confronted by

sequence of the sounds is forgotten, nothism or brain, absolutely dependent upon its integrity for their manifestation, and

a question which was once proposed in an upon its growth and development for their inspectorial report : "To what purpose in improvement, it became apparent that the

after-life is a boy taught, if the intervention

of a school vacation is to be a sufficient true office of the teacher of the future would be to seek to learn the conditions

excuse for entirely forgetting his instruc

tion?'" by which the growth and the operations of the brain were controlled in order that he might be able to modify these condi

THE CLASSICS IN GERMANY. tions in a favorable manner. The abstrac

Those of our readers who have petion of the mind' was so far set aside as

rused the previous portions of Prof. to make it certain that this mind could only act through a nervous structure, and

Du Bois-Reymond's article on Civilithat the structure was subject to various in- zation and Science” will hardly need fluences for good or evil. It became known that we should call their attention to

66

the concluding part herewith published. drilled so long, though ineffectually, in After a survey of the progress of the Latin and Greek, he says, “For the human mind as illustrated in the great most part these young people wrote in scientific movement of modern times, ungrammatical and inelegant German." 'he comes to the practical question of They “did not even suspect that any German education, considered in rela- one could care about purity of language tion to those extreme utilitarian ten- and pronunciation, force of expression, dencies of the age against which he brevity, or pointedness of style.” The protests. How is the Americanization study of classical authors is again arof European culture to be withstood in raigned with us as obstructing the Germany ?—that is his question. The proper study of the great English clasreply has been, through the liberalizing sics; and Prof. Du Bois-Reymond reinfluence of classical studies. The pro- marks, “ This neglect of the motherfessor acknowledges himself a devotee tongue in the youth of the present day to these studies, and has a high opinion is accompanied by a lack of acquaintof their educational value ; but he ad- ance with the German classics that is mits that, although prosecuted with oftentimes astounding." It is again great vigor, they have failed to produce said that the classical students of Engthe desired effect. " What other coun- lish and American colleges very rarely try can boast of imparting so thorough acquire any permanent interest in these and so learned a classical education, studies, so as to keep them up as a part and that to so large a proportion of its of the mental occupation in after-life. youth, even of the less wealthy class. The same complaint is made in Geres ? ” But all this is a humiliating fail- many. The professor says: ure. They neither acquired a critical

" There are but few students, indeed, familiarity with Latin and Greek vo

who in later years ever open an ancient aucabularies, nor did they arrive at any thor. So far from having any warm love such conception of the thought of the for the classics, most persons regard them ancients as to see in what way we are with indifference; not a few with aversion. their intellectual descendants. “Their They are remembered only as the instruindifference toward broad ideas and ments by means of which they were made historic sequence makes it difficult for familiar with the rules of grammar, just as me to believe that they are permeated sal history is that of learning by rote insig

the only conception they retain of univerwith the spirit of antiquity, or that nificant dates. Was it for this that these they had received a sound historical youths sat for thirty hours weekly on a training." This, it will be remem- school-bench till their eighteenth or twenbered, is the complaint everywhere—in tieth year? Was it for this that they dethe English universities and the Amer- voted most of their time to studying Greek, ican colleges : not one in ten of those Latin, and history? Is this the result for

the attainment of which the gymnasium rewho consume years in the study of morselessly englooms the life of the Gerclassics gets any intelligent acquaint- man boy ?" ance with the subject. It is, moreover, an old and cogent objection to the usual Prof. Du Bois-Reymond therefore study of Latin and Greek, both in Eng. acknowledges a serious modification of land and in this country, that, so far opinion in regard to the employment of from favoring a critical knowledge of classical studies in the German schools. English, it hinders and defeats the The gymnasia, or higher schools, have mastery of the mother-tongue. Prof. failed with their classics, and the indusDu Bois-Reymond alleges that the same trial schools in which these studies are effect is produced in Germany. Of the but little taught are entitled to increasgraduates of the gymnasia who had | ing consideration. Classical studies, he

urges,

should be retrenched in the gym- was arrested by death. It is to be nasia, and greater attention given to hoped that his manuscript notes may mathematics and the physical sciences. have been sufficiently full to make it This conflict, therefore, belongs to no practicable and desirable for his friends nation, but is as broad as the inter- to print them in a collected form. ests of science and the course of civilization itself.

LITERARY NOTICES. Prof. William Monroe Davis, of LESSONS IN COOKERY: Hand-Book of the

NATIONAL TRAINING-SCHOOL FOR COOKCleveland, Ohio, died on the 21st of July,

ERY (South Kensington, London). To at the age of seventy years. He was born which is added THE PRINCIPLES OF DIET in New Hampshire, and his ancestry on

IN HEALTH AND DISEASE, by Thomas K.

CHAMBERS, M. D. Edited by Eliza A. the father's side went back to the Pil

YOUMANS. New York: D. Appleton & grims of the Mayflower, while on the Co. Pp. 382. Price, $1.50. mother's side he was closely related to Two things closely connected are much the family of President Monroe. He and justly complained of in this countrywent to Cincinnati in his boyhood, and the everlasting multiplication of new cookgrew up there with but a limited edu- books and the general badness of cookery. cation. It was only when married and Publications of every form and variety having children to be trained that he abound upon this subject, with no correfirst began the study of science; but sponding improvement in the art by which such was his native genius that he food is prepared. It would be going too soon mastered a position as an original far to ascribe the low state of our culinary thinker and investigator in astronomy. practice to the qualities of the literature The distinction he had won could not that deals with it, for in many cases cookbe better shown than by the fact that,

books have no influence at all upon kitchen when Prof. Mitchell abandoned science

operations; but it is equally certain that

the current manuals do much to perpetuate and took to the vocation of

war,
Mr.

the bad methods to which they are con. Davis was called to succeed him as di- formed. The reason of their failure to efrector in the Cincinnati Observatory, a

fect much improvement is obvious enough, position which he filled with satisfac- for our popular manuals of cookery make tion and credit. His health failing five no provision for learning the business in the years ago, he came to Cleveland to re- way all other arts have to be learned if side with his son-in-law, Mr. A. J. Rick- they are to be successfully prosecuted. off, the eminent educationist of Ohio. They proceed upon the false principle that He constructed a very valuable tele- a practical vocation, depending upon a scope, the lenses of which were ground knowledge of the properties of numerous by his own hands. He published in the substances, involving constant manipulation July number of THE POPULAR SCIENCE and the production of delicate and compli. MONTHLY a paper containing an able cated effects, can be learned by simply and profound discussion of the nebular reading about it. This mischievous error, hypothesis and the phenomena of plan- various quarters, and it is seen that cook

however, is beginning to be recognized in etary rings and satellites, the immediate

ery, like all other subjects, must be studied occasion of the article being the recent in a rational way, in accordance with the discovery and apparently anomalous

nature of the subject. England has the motions of the moons of Mars. Prof. honor of taking the lead in a vigorous Davis had worked out his own views movement to make the art of practical on these recondite questions, and ex- cookery a branch of common education. pected to develop them in a series of The effort has been successful in so emi. essays for the MONTHLY, when his work | nent a degree that it promises to be perma

VOL. XIII.—40

nent and to become of immense advantage, fast and tea, together with a most valuable to the community. But no important step set of directions how to prepare food for of advancement can be taken in this direc- the sick. The aim has been to meet the tion without a wide diffusion of its advan-wants of the great mass of people who are tages; whatever has been gained by English not rich enough to abandon their kitchen experience is ours as well as theirs. One to the management of professional cooks, of the fruits of the establishment of the and who must keep a careful eye to exLondon Training-School is that we have at pense. But, while the costly refinements last got a hand-book of cookery upon the of artistic and decorative cookery are right method, and which, if used as it can avoided, there has been a constant refer. be everywhere, will be certain to elevate ence to the simple requirements of good this hitherto neglected branch of domestic taste in the preparation of food for the economy. The claims of this work upon table. American households are so important, and “But the especial merit of this volume, so clearly presented by the editor in her and the character by which it stands alone preface to the American edition, that we among cook-books, is the superior method cannot better serve the interested readers it offers of teaching the art of practical of the MONTHLY than by quoting the main cookery. It is at this vital point that all portions of the statement:

our current cook-books break down; they “The present work on cookery appeared make no provision for getting a knowledge in England under the title of “The Official of this subject in any systematic way. So Hand-Book of the National Training-School much in them is vague, so much taken for for Cookery,' and it contains the lessons on granted, and so much is loose, careless, and the preparation of food which were prac- misleading, in their receipts, that they are tised in that institution. It has been re- good for nothing to teach beginners, good printed in this country with some slight for nothing as guides to successful pracrevision, for the use of American families, tice, and only of use to those who already because of its superior merits as a cook- know enough to supply their deficiencies book to be consulted in the ordinary way, and protect themselves against their errors. and also because it is the plainest, simplest, In fact, the hand-book required to teach and most perfect guide to self-education in cookery effectually cannot be made by any the kitchen that has yet appeared. In this single person in the usual manner, but it respect it represents a very marked advance must be itself a product of such teaching. in an important domestic art hitherto much “The present volume originated in this neglected.

way, and embodies a tried and successful “A glance at its contents will show the metbod of making good practical cooks. ground it covers, and how fully it meets the The lessons given in the following pages general wants. The dishes for which it came from a training-kitchen for pupils of provides have been selected with an unusual all grades, and the directions of its receipts degree of care and judgment. They have are so minute, explicit, distinct, and combeen chosen to meet the needs of well-to-do plete, that they may be followed with ease families, and also those of more moderate by every person of common-sense who has means, who must observe a strict economy. the slightest desire to learn. They are the Provision is made for an ample and varied results of long and careful practice in teachdiet, and for meals of a simple and frugal ing beginners how to cook, and have grown character. Receipts are given for an excel- out of exercises often repeated with a view lent variety of soups, for cooking many of making them as perfect as possible. It kinds of fish in different ways, for the prep. is commonly regarded as a good thing in a aration of meats, poultry, game, and vege-cook-book that its compiler has tested some tables, and for a choice selection of entrées, of its receipts, and points out the troubles soufflés, puddings, jellies, and creams. Be- and failures likely to occur in early trials. sides the courses of a well-ordered dinner, But the completeness of the instructions in there are directions for making rolls, bis. this work was attained through the stupidicuits, bread, and numerous dishes for break- / ties, blunders, mistakes, questionings, and

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