« AnteriorContinuar »
On a New Sub-Class of Fossil Birds (Odontornithes) (American Journal of Science (3), vol. v., pp. 161, 162, February, 1873).
Or the Structure and Affinities of the Brontotheridæ (American Journal of Science (3), vol. vii., pp. 81–86, January, 1874).
Notice of New Equine Mammals from the Tertiary Formation (American Journal of Science (3), vol. vii., pp. 247–258, March, 1874).
New Order of Eocene Mammals (American Journal of Science (3), vol. ix., p. 221, March, 1875).
On the Odontornithes, or Birds with Teeth (American Journal of Science (3), vol. x., pp. 403-408, November, 1875).
Principal Characters of the Dinocerata (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xi., pp. 163–168, February, 1876).
Principal Characters of the Tillodontia (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xi., pp. 249–251, March, 1876).
Principal Characters of the Brontotheridæ (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xi., pp. 335–340, April, 1876).
On a New Sub-Order of Pterosauria (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xi., pp. 507–509, June, 1876).
Recent Discoveries of Extinct Animals (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xii., pp. 59–61, July, 1876).
Notice of New Tertiary Mammals; Part V. (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xii., pp. 401-404, November, 1876).
Principal Characters of American Pterodactyles (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xii., pp. 479, 480, December, 1876).
Notice of a New and Gigantic Dinosaur (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xiv., pp. 87, 88, July, 1877).
Principal Characters of the Coryphodontidæ (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xiv., pp. 81-85, July, 1877).
Characters of the Odontornithes, with Notice of a New Allied Genus (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xiv., pp. 85–87, July, 1877).
Address on Introduction and Succession of Vertebrate Life in America (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xiv., pp. 338-378, November, 1877).
A New Order of Extinct Reptilia (Stegosauria) from the Jurassic of the Rocky Mountains (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xiv., pp. 513, 514, December, 1877).
New Species of Ceratodus, from the Jurassic (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xv., p. 76, January, 1878).
Notice of New Dinosaurian Reptiles (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xv., pp. 241–244, March, 1878).
Notice of New Fossil Reptiles (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xv., pp. 409–411, May, 1878).
Fossil Mammal from the Jurassic of the Rocky Mountains (American Journal of Science (3), vol. xv., p. 459, June, 1878).
Other scientific papers of interest by Prof. Marsh will be found in the same journal, as well as in the Zeitschrift of the Geological Society of Germany; American Naturalist; “Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences;” “Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society; “Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science ;” and in other periodicals.
THE ENGLISH REPORT ON INTERNA- | to amend, and recommends Congress TIONAL COPYRIGHT.
to take no action in the matter. It JHE report of the English commis- treats the subject from the low and
sion on the general subject of selfish point of view of the American copyright is now complete and before political demagogue, enters with a relish the public. It shows that there has into the sordid squabbles of book-manbeen a searching investigation into the ufacturers, and pays not the slightest existing condition and working of copy- attention to the important principles right-laws in that country, with an hon- that should be recognized as at the basis est view to such amendments as are of a just and enlightened policy of innecessary to more thorough protection ternational copyright. The English reof the right to literary property. The port, on the contrary, treats the subject report is able and exhaustive, and with dignity and seriousness, bringing recommends parliamentary measures out clearly the great principles that which, if carried out, will be of great should control it, and taking high and advantage to authors, and will be an impregnable moral ground in regard to honor to England. The commissioners the duty of the English Parliament in found the subject encompassed with legislating with reference to it. It is serious and perplexing difficulties, but a question of international ethics, and they did not make these the occasion England has shot a long way forward of shrinking from the duty that had by adopting the Christian standard of been assigned to them. If any Ameri- conduct in this relation, and saying we can wishes to preserve a decent self- are prepared to do as we would be done respect, we advise him not to pass from by. The high-water mark of internathe reading of the English copyright tional morality hitherto reached has report to the report of the United been to do as you are done by, to reStates Senate upon the same subject, ciprocate, to concede benefits if benefits made in 1873, by Mr. Morrill, of Maine. are granted, and to deny them if they The contrast between the two docu- are denied. England takes the lead in ments is remarkable. The English re- affirming that the thing which is right, port is grave and formidable, and shows just, and equitable, must be done, that there has been long and earnest whether other nations reciprocate or work over a question that is felt to be of not. She took an important step in great national importance; the Ameri- this direction in entering upon the polican report is a miserable tract of half cy of free trade, and now proposes to a dozen pages, evincing by its meagre- carry it out in her international treatness the utter indifference of those who ment of literary property and the rights drew it up to the subject which they of authors. The commission recomhad been appointed to consider. The mends to Parliament to grant copyEnglish report recognizes extensive de- rights to American authors whether fects in the legislation of that country the United States will do the same upon the question, and recommends thing for English authors or not. They bold changes in it to secure a better say: “It has been suggested to us that state of things; the American report this country would be justified in taking sees nothing wrong that it is desirable steps of a retaliatory character, with
a view of enforcing, incidentally, that property they create by brain-labor, or protection from the United States which have only such a qualified right to it we accord to them. This might be that to appropriate it without consent done by withdrawing from the Ameri- is not stealing. What a man earns by cans the privilege of copyright on first | his hands, and by capital invested in publication in this country. We have, tools and machinery, they admit he has however, come to the conclusion that a right to against the world; but what it is advisable that our law should be he earns by laborious thinking, and by based on correct principles, irrespective capital invested in education, may be of the opinions or policy of other na- taken from him by anybody who wants tions. We admit the propriety of pro- it. Many funny reasons, as we have tecting copyright, and it appears to us said, have been offered for allowing that the principle of copyright, if ad- those who can make anything by it for mitted, is one of universal application. themselves to plunder authors of the We, therefore, recommend that this products of their toil, but Sir Louis country should pursue the policy of Mallet has the honor of contributing recognizing the author's rights, irre- the last curious pretext for this sort of spective of nationality.”
robbery. He says: “The right conOn a subject which presents so much ferred by a copyright-law derives its that is conflicting and unsettled, it is chief value from the discovery of the not to be supposed that there would be art of printing; and there appears no complete unanimity of opinion among reason for giving to authors any larger the fifteen members of this commission, share in the value of a mechanical inwho were chosen because they are men vention, to which they have contributed of intelligence, and capable of forming nothing, than to any other member of their own views. The subject, besides, the community.” But, if authors are was one of great extent and complica- not to be permitted to hold their proption of rival interests, involving the erty because the discovery of the art policy to be pursued regarding home of printing has contributed to its value, and foreign copyrights, abridgments of what right has anybody to hold any books, musical compositions, dramati- property that is the result of an invenzation of novels, lectures, newspapers, tion or discovery to which he has not paintings, photographs, translations, contributed? The doctrine would make registrations, forfeitures, infringements, sad havoc of the rights of capitalists and and scores of other matters hitherto laborers in all countries, whose earnings left to a chaotic system of legislation. and accumulations are due to the use of But, considering the task they had be- steam-engines, telegraphs, spinning-mafore them, the commissioners have come chinery, and a thousand other devices to substantial agreement as to the meas- to which they have never contributed. ures recommended. There were two Sir Louis Mallet coincides in the or three wrong-headed and crotchety practical recommendations of the remen, who made dissenting reports on port, although not agreeing with the various points, although concurring in grounds upon which they are made. the main practical results. Chief among Yet he exhibited a good deal of ingenthese eccentric dissentients was Sir Lou- ious perverseness in embarrassing the is Mallet; he could not agree with his inquiry. This was well illustrated by coadjutors, and with some of the lead- the case he undertook to make out ing gentlemen who testified before against the necessity of international them, as to the ground of rights in lit- copyright by the success of the “Intererary property. Many ingenious and national Scientific Series,” where forfanciful arguments have been made to eign authors are paid without the comprove that men have no right to the pulsion of an international copyright
law. His case, in a word, is this: By | ery and agriculture are arts of civilized a satisfactory arrangement contributors nations; savages understand neither of to the “International Scientific Series" them." are liberally paid by the English pub- There is a great deal of important lisher, and then fairly paid again by truth wrapped up in this passage, of the American publisher—what more is vital interest to society in general and wanted ? The answer, of course, is very to individual welfare, but which it has simple: There is wanted legal protec- taken a hundred years to appreciate so tion to the property. The American fully that any considerable number of publishers concede that there is a prop- people can begin to coöperate in reerty-value in the books they reissue, for ducing it to practice. But, if what which they are willing to pay under a Rumford said is true, if the scale of voluntary contract; but how does that population as well as the comfort and proceeding absolve the United States health of the people depends to such Government from the duty of protect- a degree upon the art of cookery, what ing that property as it protects other are all the issues of politics over which property? Reasonable men will see men are fighting with such desperation that the convention of publishers in in comparison with the systematic imdifferent countries, to carry out such a provement of the culinary art? How project, is but a weighty testimony to greatly the public weal is dependent the just claims of authors which it is upon the condition of agriculture bethe duty and office of government to gins now to be widely understood, and sustain and enforce by the proper legis- since the time of Rumford great proglation. It is the one great duty of gov- ress has been made in its scientific ernment to protect the rights of its citi- study through the establishment of zens, and prominent among these is the special schools and colleges for the purright of property. All civilized coun- pose. Agricultural education is now a tries recognize the right of property in recognized branch of popular culture books, and there have been attempts to which is destined to be greatly develmake this recognition international, that oped and extended in the future. The is, to induce nations to extend their next great step must be to do the same morality beyond their geographical bor- thing for the art of cookery; and the ders. In the absence of any such ar- friends of genuine social improvement rangement, a few parties agree that they may congratulate themselves that the will voluntarily recognize the rights of progress of education is beginning to intellectual property, and the very do- take effect upon this important departing of this is to be made a new excuse ment of domestic life. Cooking-schools for neglecting to enforce the funda- are springing up in many places in this mental obligations of justice.
country and in England, and the English are taking the lead in organizing them as a part of their national and
common school system. COOKERY AND EDUCATION.
Of the importance, the imperative It was a suggestive remark of Count necessity of this movement, there canRumford that “the number of inhabi- not be the slightest question. Our tants who may be supported in any kitchens, as is perfectly notorious, are country upon its internal produce de- the fortified intrenchments of ignopends about as much upon the state of rance, prejudice, irrational habits, rulethe art of cookery as upon that of agri-of-thumb, and mental vacuity, and the culture; but, if cookery be of so much consequence is that the Americans are importance, it ought certainly to be liable to the reproach of suffering bestudied with the greatest care. Cook- | yond any other people from wasteful, unpalatable, unhealthful and monoto- | be removed. American women have nous cookery. Considering our re- been driven out of the kitchen because sources, and the vaunted education and all its associations are degrading, and intelligence of American women, this they demand education as a preparation reproach is just. Our kitchens are, in for all those other activities to which fact, almost abandoned to the control educations leads. When the art of of low Irish, stupid negroes, and raw cookery becomes a matter of intelliservile menials that pour in upon us gent study, so that its practice will no from various foreign countries. And, longer be a badge of debasement and what is worse, there is a general acqui- humiliation, occupation will be sought escence in this state of things, as if it and honored in this field as elsewhere. were something fated, and relief from The establishment of cooking-schools it hopeless and impossible. We profess is, therefore, in the direct line of our to believe in the potency of education, domestic amelioration and emancipaand are applying it to all other inter- tion. They are already, as we have ests and industries excepting only that said, established, and, considering the fundamental art of the preparation embarrassments of an initial movement and use of food to sustain life which of this kind, are in most successful opinvolves more of economy, enjoyment, eration. Though at present narrow health, spirits, and the power of effec- in their scope, they will develop and tive labor, than any other subject that widen so as to afford a training in the is formally studied in the schools. We broader field of general household acabound in female seminaries and female tivity; but we are well content with colleges, and high-schools, and normal what has been already gained. The schools, supported by burdensome tax- South Kensington Cooking-School, in es, in which everything under heaven is London, is a normal school for training studied except that practical art which teachers to go out and take charge of is a daily and vital necessity in all the other schools in different parts of the households of the land.
country. How successful this instituAcquiescence in this state of things tion has been may be inferred from the as something permanent and irremedi- fact that it has already given us the able is no longer possible. If, as Rum- best practical cook-book that we now ford says, cookery is an art of civilized have. We call attention to the notice nations, it must improve with the ad- of this work in the following pages, vance of civilization. It is undoubtedly from which the reader will gather some the most backward of all the arts, and interesting information as to what has various causes conspire to its continued been accomplished on the other side of neglect. But, whatever the difficulties the Atlantic in relation to this importo be overcome, the time has arrived tant subject, and which will afford imwhen the advance of intelligence and portant hints for carrying out a similar the spirit of improvement must invade work in the United States. that last stronghold of traditional stupidity, the kitchen. Nor are the difficulties of doing this by any means so
SCIENCE IN RELATION TO TEACHING. great as is commonly supposed; they will vanish as soon as the task of alleviation Of all the applications of science to and amendment is earnestly undertaken. the practical arts, there is none that can As soon as thought and cultivation are for a moment bear comparison with its brought to bear upon the domestic op- application to the art of teaching. Scierations of the kitchen, they will be entific education, as currently underelevated in the common respect, and a stood, refers to something of greatly most formidable impediment will thus l inferior importance: it means instruc