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Accessions and Shelf Catalogue.

Numbers. In accordance with the vote in New York, The Van Everen number, which the committhis subject has been carefully reconsidered. tee recommends as the best and cheapest for All suggestions made, and all samples sent the backs of books, is made in various sizes. have been examined. We find no alteration The smallest seems large enough, unless some in the previous reports that seems an improve- may prefer to use the middle size for the class ment, and the standard accessions and shelf or shelf number and the smallest for the book sheets, binders, etc., will be supplied in accord and vol. number. For shelves and blocks and ance with the reports on p. 320, v. I. The sugges- other book supports the large size is better. tion (p. 25, v. 2) of making either twenty-five By special arrangement with the manufacturer or fifty lines to the page was found impracti- these numbers will be kept constantiy on hand, cable. One gives too long, the other too short so that orders may be filled promptly, and at a page for the book. Whenever more than full manufacturers' discount. The sizes, prices, one line was used for any book, or more than and discounts are given on another page, in one book or volume recorded on one line, this sheets of 100 of the same number or of the symmetry would be destroyed. The numbers, series from any hundred to the next. plainly written or printed, are found very

Number Cases. readily in the present plan. If a sufficient number of librarians express a desire to have

The serious objections to printed numbers the numbers printed in the margin, it will be has been the difficulty of keeping them within done in the next edition. Long titles could

reasonable space, so that any number wanted then be interlined and a line used for each could be found without too much delay. This volume or number, as recommended in v. 1, difficulty seems to be met by the case of envep. 317. By using one line more on each third lopes made for the special purpose. This is a page, the book can be divided into three leaves series of stout manila envelopes well gummed to each hundred, thus securing the advantage together, and of paper stiff enough for hard use. urged by Mr. Edmands. These insure against One envelope is assigned to each number, and the mistake often made of skipping or repeat

the series is glued together in tens. These ing numbers in writing, add to the beauty and packages are set into a pasteboard box, with convenience of the book, and are very desira- the flaps to the envelopes standing straight up, ble for all who assign a line to each volume. each having pasted on it the number which it To others they are worse than useless. Those contains. Any numbers desired can be selected preferring printed numbers can be supplied for from this case with the greatest rapidity, and $1.00 per volume extra. For full description without danger of mistake or confusion. As of accessions book, see p. 315, 383, and 454, fast as the numbers of any envelope are used The prices, about half former cost, are

up, other sheets can be ordered and filled in, for 360 p., 5400 lines, $4.50. Binding in Tur

or if less than a hundred of any kind be wanted, key morocco or American Russia, solid back, the series sheets can be ordered and the num$2. Book of double size, double price. The bers (perforated like postage stamps) can be larger book is not bound in morocco.

distributed through the case.

Several years, trial of this case has proved its practical charShelf Sheets.

acter, and it is recommended to the libraries. Three editions have been made and sold, and the envelopes ready for use cost per set of 10, a fourth is nearly ready. See p. 365, V. I, 5 cents ; per 100, 20 cents; per 1000, $1. for description. The very best paper has been If two sizes of numbers are used, two cases are used. These sheets, perforated so as to be tied needed, for the sizes mixed in each envelope together readily with tapes, are found of the would cause confusion. When 1000 envelopes greatest convenience for many different pur- filled with numbers are ordered, they are put up poses. Some libraries use more for other in a handsome library case without extra charge. purposes than for the shelf catalogue, and find All numbers come in sheets of 100, but these it economical. Perforated, ruling, etc., at 6oc. will be sold in halves when desired. No charge per 100 ; 10% discount by the 1000.

can be made less than the price for a half sheet.

Address, SUPPLY DEP'T, A. L. A., 32 Hawley STREET, Boston.

P. O. Box 260, BOSTON.

V. I.


Of Constant Use to Literary Workers.

Whoever has much to do with books, pam. etc., were grouped in one alphabet of several phlets, newspaper clippings, notes, or, indeed, thousand headings. This is printed on a triple with any form of information, printed or written, column page, and each word is followed by a has experienced difficulties, sometimes quite simple number of three figures; e.g., the word serious, in classification. Whatever the difficul- “Protection" by 337. Had we chosen Free ties may be, they must be faced, for any consid- Trade, Duties, Customs, Tariffs, or any other erable amount of matter unclassed is exactly word with similar meaning, we should have like so much "pi” in a printing office—the type found it in its alphabetical place followed by may be the best made, but while in confusion the same 337. This number means Class 3, it is almost worthless.

SOCIOLOGY. Division 3, POLITICAL ECONThe problem, over which many have puzzled, omy, Section 7, Protection and Free Trade. has been to find a plan by which it should be All knowledge is divided into nine great known just where to put each item (books, pam- classes, numbered by the digits. Each class is phlets, clippings, or notes, are understood to be separated into divisions numbered with a sectreated in the same way), with a certainty that ond figure ; each division has nine sections others on the same subject will be assigned bearing a third figure. When and where desired, to the same place. If this is possible, the the sections may be subdivided to any extent, other necessity of a satisfactory scheme must without confusion. follow.

The system of classification being largely Whenever a book is wanted on any subject, it mnemonic, is more easily remembered than any may be found at once.

other yet made public, and is said, by those who The plan must also be so simple that a child have tried it, to have great merits in itself. It can understand it, and so quickly applicable that was developed during two years of trial by the the busiest man may have time for it. Few peo- Faculty of Amherst College, where the system ple can afford time to master any classification was first devised by the acting librarian, Melof human knowledge, nor can those who most vil Dewey. Each professor had in charge his need such aid spend much time in assigning own special subject, and much outside aid was matter to its proper class, or in finding it again called in before final publication. Its author, when wanted.

however, makes his claims not for the scheme Until within a few years no system has been itself, but for the Subject Index, in which is its known that met these requirements. Such a special merits. system would be simply invaluable to all liter- The system of class numbers, e.g., 337 above, ary people, and pre-eminently so to every makes it possible to index minutely and rapidly librarian.

and with the greatest accuracy. Any subject Such a system has been devised, and after that is to be assigned its place, is found in an thorough trial for several years, is now pub. instant's reference, the single number marked lished and offered for sale. It is no longer an upon the book, pamphlet, or note, and the work experiment, as many libraries and individuals is done. At any time in the future any person have proved its value by actual use, and have desiring to find anything on that subject again, given the most flattering testimonials of its prac-opens the index and as quickly finds the same tical character. At the International Confer- number. Simple numerical reference to the ences of Librarians, in Philadelphia, in 1876, matter gives, almost instantly, all that has accuand in London, in 1877, the plan received hearty mulated on that subject during the past years. indorsement from those knowing most of it, and Thus the plan meets all the requirements of a the United States Bureau of Education printed satisfactory system. a full description, as Chapter XXVIII. of its The “ Classification and Subject Index," with Special Report on Libraries.

complete explanations, is offered as a thin large The plan is briefly this. All subjects that octavo, at $1, or in London at 45., post free. could be collated from catalogues, dictionaries,





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Library of the Faculty of Advocates,


This important National Work, which has been in progress for many years, is now nearly completed.

The Library of the Faculty of Advocates ranks next to the British Museum and the Bodleian, among the Libraries of Great Britain. It is estimated to contain about 260,000 printed volumes. It has had (under the copyright acts) since the reign of Queen Anne, the right of receiving a copy of every Book published in the British Empire. Last year there were added 10 the Library, from this source alone, 3909 volumes of books, besides periodicals, pamphlets, and music.

The Library has from the first been made accessible to those engaged in literary work ; and in order to make its treasures more available for literary purposes, the Faculty resolved to prepare and print a Catalogue of all the Books in the Library.

Five volumes of this great undertaking have already been printed and issued to the subscribers, and the sixth and concluding volume will be ready for delivery toward the end of 1878. In addition, a small supplemental volume of accessions will be issued, completing the Catalogue to 31st December, 1871. It is expected that the work will be completed in 1879, and the Advocates' Library will then be the only great Library in the world possessing a complete printed Catalogue.

The Catalogue has been prepared under the superintendence of persons peculiarly qualified for such work, and, when completed, will extend to upward of 5000 quarto pages, in double columns.

The privilege of obtaining copies of the Catalogue has hitherto been confined to members of the Faculty ; but as many literary men and others, who are not members of the Faculty, have expressed a wish to obtain copies, it has been resolved that a limited number shall be set apart for this object.


Copies may be had on application to the Keeper of the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh





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FANCY that among institutions there is bold enough to throw text-books to the

is scarce a stolider than the average col- dogs, and lead his class through the relege library, and I know no reason to ac- cesses of a library ? count for it but the old one of the laughing Professor Henry Adams opened a new shoes of the cobbler's children. A collec- mine at Harvard when he led his students tion of good books, with a soul to it in the among the sources of history, and directed shape of a good librarian, becomes a vitalized them to do their own culling, and to make power among the impulses by which the their own text-books. He implanted a new world goes on to improvement. A stag- interest in the work, and showed what a linant library, musty and dank, open at hours brary is for. At the average college it is which suit the convenience of an over thought that if anybody gets any good worked professor rather than inviting every- from the library, perhaps it is a few profesbody at all hours, is an anomaly. The sors; and if anybody gets any amusement, object of books is to be read—read much perhaps it is a few students, from the and read often. There is enough of folly smooth worn volumes of Sterne and Fieldin books no doubt; much of impertinence; ing. What it is to investigate, a student much of vacuity, since some evil is always rarely knows; what are the allurements of inseparable from every good; but its pro- research, a student is rarely taught. What portion is far less than in oral instruction, as would have been thought five-and-twenty the latter goes, whether in the desk or years ago of some such proposition as this : around the social circle. With all the crude PROFESSOR (loquitur). “Gentlemen, we writing in the world, it is in far smaller will take up in March the period of the Norproportion to good writing than poor talk man Conquest of England. Mr. Bright, you to good talk. What is concrete of knowl. must be prepared on Bulwer's “ Harold" edge, or better, of experience, is crammed to analyze the events and compare them into books, and what else there is in them with what you deem the best contemporary can be avoided, if we choose,--but in talk authorities. Mr. Somers, you take Kingsnot easily. And yet this library instruc- ley's “Hereward," and criticise his estition in colleges is not made to tell as it mates of the Saxons, and point out his should.

divergencies from historic truth. Mr. HamThe main thing to know is, what book mond, I leave for you Napier's novel of can accomplish what work, and how it “ William the Conqueror;" you may treat can be brought to bear. Who teach this? the book in any way you please as illustraWho knows it to fit them to teach it? Who tive of the time. Mr. Shortman, I want you to compare Tennyson's “ Harold” and Hume and Lingard, and Knight and the Leighton's “Sons of Godwin” as plots, Pictorial History-all of you must familiarwhere the movement is more or less regu- ize yourselves with these writers; and we lated by historical records, and give us a shall expect criticism and discussion; and picture of Saxon England at that time, as the results, if you do your work well, ought you read it in these respective dramas. The to engage us for several weeks. I shall be rest of you, gentlemen, I refer for study to happy to assist any one. You must live as the authorities. A to H will work up the much as you can in the college library. contemporary ones, which you will find re- Read general books, cyclopædias, consult ferred to in the notes of Turner and Pal- historical atlases, and get the period first grave. Mr. Allen, we shall expect from you mapped out clearly in your own minds; a list of notable desiderata in these early then fill in the details. Make all the use you sources where you may find the college li- can of the college librarian. It is his business brary to fail. We shall want to know all to advise you. The class is dismissed." about Wace's “Roman de Rou” from you, Is there any doubt now in these latter Mr. Fellows. From you, Mr. Davis, we days what a college library is for ? Can shall expect a presentation of the social in- any class leave a better memorial of existstitutions of the Anglo-Saxons, and Sharon ence and its work than to give itself in this Turner will start you in the investigations. earnest way to any one subject, sift all the I to Z will master the modern authorities. library has upon it, and note its deficiencies ? Mr. Loring will take Palgrave, and we shall Can any corporation do better with their then know how the political institutions of money than to buy the books to supply the time were developed. Messrs. Stone these deficiencies ? Thus can the library and Strong, you are to pit yourselves, one fill up subject after subject; and fortune against the other, in your judgments of the will go hard with these young men in the Conquerors. You will find Freeman suf- future if the department they worked to ficiently anti-Norman, and Thierry will found or develop is left without patrons show you the general opinion of them held among the graduates, who will look after its on the Continent. Of course, there are condition as a memorial of the class.



THE system about to be described for instance, uses the numerico-classed sys

devised by the writer early in 1871, and tem, with fixed or absolute numbers—a fawas applied in the rearrangement of the vorite type in American libraries. The New York Apprentices' Library in 1872, system of Mr. Poole, introduced in the and has been in successful operation since. Chicago Public Library, is of the same

There can be only three fundamental meth- variety, but with relative numbers. The ods of arranging books, namely, the numer- St. Louis Public School Library uses an ical, the alphabetical, and the systematic or alphabetico-classed system, and the New classified. Each of these plans has its pecu- York Mercantile uses the pure alphabetical liar advantages, and accordingly each has system. It does not seem to have occurred found its advocates and admirers, either as to any one heretofore to combine the alphaused alone or in combination with one of betical and the numerical schemes, althe other two. The Boston Public Library, though, as we shall see, this combination

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